Results for 'Lawrence A. Whitney'

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  1.  10
    Experience and the Ultimacy of God.Lawrence A. Whitney - 2012 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 26 (1):43-60.
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  2.  33
    The Logic of Recursive Equations.A. J. C. Hurkens, Monica McArthur, Yiannis N. Moschovakis, Lawrence S. Moss & Glen T. Whitney - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (2):451-478.
    We study logical systems for reasoning about equations involving recursive definitions. In particular, we are interested in "propositional" fragments of the functional language of recursion FLR [18, 17], i.e., without the value passing or abstraction allowed in FLR. The "pure," propositional fragment FLR 0 turns out to coincide with the iteration theories of [1]. Our main focus here concerns the sharp contrast between the simple class of valid identities and the very complex consequence relation over several natural classes of models.
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  3. 1. Front Matter Front Matter (Pp. I-Iii).Colin Koopman, Susan Dunston, Lawrence A. Whitney, John J. Stuhr, Michael Buckley & Royce P. Jones - 2012 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 26 (1).
     
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  4.  6
    The Logic of Recursive Equations.A. J. C. Hurkens, Monica Mcarthur, Yiannis Moschovakis, Lawrence Moss & Glen Whitney - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (2):451-478.
    We study logical systems for reasoning about equations involving recursive definitions. In particular, we are interested in "propositional" fragments of the functional language of recursion FLR [18, 17], i.e., without the value passing or abstraction allowed in FLR. The "pure," propositional fragment FLR$_0$ turns out to coincide with the iteration theories of [1]. Our main focus here concerns the sharp contrast between the simple class of valid identities and the very complex consequence relation over several natural classes of models.
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  5. Ecodoctrines : Spirit, Creation, Atonement, Eschaton. Sacred-Land Theology : Green Spirit, Deconstruction, and the Question of Idolatry in Contemporary Earthen Christianity / Mark I. Wallace ; Grounding the Spirit : An Ecofeminist Pneumatology / Sharon Betcher ; Hearing the Outcry of Mute Things : Toward a Jewish Creation Theology / Lawrence Troster ; Creatio Ex Nihilo, Terra Nullius, and the Erasure of Presence / Whitney A. Bauman ; Surrogate Suffering : Paradigms of Sin, Salvation, and Sacrifice Within the Vivisection Movement / Antonia Gorman ; the Hope of the Earth : A Process Ecoeschatology for South Korea. [REVIEW]Seung Gap Lee - 2007 - In Laurel Kearns & Catherine Keller (eds.), Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth. Fordham University Press.
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  6.  82
    Economics and Hermeneutics: Lawrence A. Bercer.Lawrence A. Berger - 1989 - Economics and Philosophy 5 (2):209-234.
    In a recent article in this journal, D. Wade Hands reviewed Charles Taylor's two-volume work, Philosophical Papers. Hands predicts that Taylor's work will have no impact on the philosophy of economics. This may indeed turn out to be the case; but if so, it will only be because the profession is not listening. Of course, it is typical of the profession to be more interested in exporting its product than in learning from other disciplines. This is exemplified in Hands's use (...)
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  7. The Mind Incarnate.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2004 - MIT Press.
    Shapiro tests these hypotheses against two rivals, the mental constraint thesis and the embodied mind thesis. Collecting evidence from a variety of sources (e.g., neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and embodied cognition) he concludes that the multiple realizability thesis, accepted by most philosophers as a virtual truism, is much less obvious than commonly assumed, and that there is even stronger reason to give up the separability thesis. In contrast to views of mind that tempt us to see the mind as simply being (...)
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  8.  66
    Embodied Cognition: Lessons From Linguistic Determinism.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2011 - Philosophical Topics 39 (1):121-140.
    A line of research within embodied cognition seeks to show that an organism’s body is a determinant of its conceptual capacities. Comparison of this claim of body determinism to linguistic determinism bears interesting results. Just as Slobin’s (1996) idea of thinking for speaking challenges the main thesis of linguistic determinism, so too the possibility of thinking for acting raises difficulties for the proponent of body determinism. However, recent studies suggest that the body may, after all, have a determining role in (...)
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  9. Multiple Realizations.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (12):635-654.
  10. Epiphenomenalism - the Do's and the Don 'Ts'.Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober - 2007 - In G. Wolters & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Thinking About Causes: From Greek Philosophy to Modern physics. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 235-264.
    When philosophers defend epiphenomenalist doctrines, they often do so by way of a priori arguments. Here we suggest an empirical approach that is modeled on August Weismann’s experimental arguments against the inheritance of acquired characters. This conception of how epiphenomenalism ought to be developed helps clarify some mistakes in two recent epiphenomenalist positions – Jaegwon Kim’s (1993) arguments against mental causation, and the arguments developed by Walsh (2000), Walsh, Lewens, and Ariew (2002), and Matthen and Ariew (2002) that natural selection (...)
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  11.  66
    A Clearer Vision.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (1):131-53.
    Frances Egan argues that the states of computational theories of vision are individuated individualistically and, as far as the theory is concerned, are not intentional. Her argument depends on equating the goals and explanatory strategies of computational psychology with those of its algorithmic level. However, closer inspection of computational psychology reveals that the computational level plays an essential role in explaining visual processes and that explanations at this level are nonindividualistic and intentional. In conclusion, I sketch an account of content (...)
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  12. The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition.Lawrence A. Shapiro (ed.) - 2014 - Routledge.
    Embodied cognition is one of the foremost areas of study and research in philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology and cognitive science. The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition is an outstanding guide and reference source to the key philosophers, topics and debates in this exciting subject and essential reading for any student and scholar of philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into six parts: Historical Underpinnings Perspectives (...)
     
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  13. Moral Perception and Particularity.Lawrence A. Blum - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Most contemporary moral philosophy is concerned with issues of rationality, universality, impartiality, and principle. By contrast Laurence Blum is concerned with the psychology of moral agency. The essays in this collection examine the moral import of emotion, motivation, judgment, perception, and group identifications, and explore how all these psychic capacities contribute to a morally good life. Blum takes up the challenge of Iris Murdoch to articulate a vision of moral excellence that provides a worthy aspiration for human beings. Drawing on (...)
     
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  14.  17
    Do Children Have a Theory of Race?Lawrence A. Hirschfeld - 1995 - Cognition 54 (2):209-252.
  15. Fleeing the Iron Cage: Culture, Politics, and Modernity in the Thought of Max Weber.Lawrence A. Scaff - 1989 - University of California Press.
  16.  56
    The Multiple Realization Book.Thomas W. Polger & Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Since Hilary Putnam offered multiple realization as an empirical hypothesis in the 1960s, philosophical consensus has turned against the idea that mental processes are identifiable with brain processes, and multiple realization has become the keystone of the 'antireductive consensus' across philosophy of science. Thomas W. Polger and Lawrence A. Shapiro offer the first book-length investigation of multiple realization, which serves as a starting point to a series of philosophically sophisticated and empirically informed arguments that cast doubt on the generality (...)
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  17.  97
    A Review of Frederick Adams and Kenneth Aizawa, the Bounds of Cognition. [REVIEW]Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (2):267-273.
    In The Bounds of Cognition, Fred Adams and Kenneth Aizawa treat the arguments for extended cognition to withering criticism. I summarize their main arguments and focus special attention on their distinction between the extended cognitive system hypothesis and the extended cognition hypothesis, as well as on their demand for a mark of the mental.
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  18. The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876-1957.Lawrence A. Cremin - 1961 - British Journal of Educational Studies 10 (1):106-106.
  19. Gilligan and Kohlberg: Implications for Moral Theory.Lawrence A. Blum - 1988 - Ethics 98 (3):472-491.
  20. Against Proportionality.Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober - 2012 - Analysis 72 (1):89-93.
    A statement of the form ‘C caused E’ obeys the requirement of proportionality precisely when C says no more than what is necessary to bring about E. The thesis that causal statements must obey this requirement might be given a semantic or a pragmatic justification. We use the idea that causal claims are contrastive to criticize both.
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  21.  45
    Almost Heaven, West Virginia: Food, Farming, and Utopian Dreams at New Vrindaban.A. Whitney Sanford - 2015 - Utopian Studies 26 (2):289-308.
    According to media specialist and resident of multiple intentional communities Jesse Drew, “Communes and collectives provide the critical mass, the people power, and the collective wisdom to test out ideas in practice, not just in theory.”1 To test the vision of an ideal Vedic society grounded in devotion to the Hindu deity Krishna, in 1968, four followers of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada set out for Moundsville, West Virginia, to establish New Vrindaban. These devotees were members of the Hare Krishna Movement, (...)
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  22.  35
    A Truer Liberty: Simone Weil and Marxism.Lawrence A. Blum & Victor J. Seidler - 2009 - Routledge.
    Simone Weil — philosopher, trade union militant, factory worker — developed a penetrating critique of Marxism and a powerful political philosophy which serves an alternative both to liberalism and to Marxism. In A Truer Liberty , originally published in 1989, Blum and Seidler show how Simone Weil’s philosophy sought to place political action on a firmly moral basis. The dignity of the manual worker became the standard for political institutions and movements. Weil criticized Marxism for its confidence in progress and (...)
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  23. Understanding the Dimensions of Realization.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (4):213-222.
    Carl Gillett has defended what he calls the “dimensioned” view of the realization relation, which he contrasts with the traditional “flat” view of realization (2003, 2007; see also Gillett 2002). Intuitively, the dimensioned approach characterizes realization in terms of composition whereas the flat approach views realization in terms of occupiers of functional roles. Elsewhere we have argued that the general view of realization and multiple realization that Gillett advances is not able to discharge the theoretical duties of those relations (Shapiro (...)
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  24. How to Test for Multiple Realization.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):514-525.
    When conceived as an empirical claim, it is natural to wonder how one might test the hypothesis of multiple realization. I consider general issues of testability, show how they apply specifically to the hypothesis of multiple realization, and propose an auxiliary assumption that, I argue, must be conjoined to the hypothesis of multiple realization to ensure its testability. I argue further that Bechtel and Mundale go astray because they fail to appreciate the need for this auxiliary assumption. †To contact the (...)
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  25.  48
    Lessons From Causal Exclusion.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2010 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (3):594-604.
    Jaegwon Kim's causal exclusion argument has rarely been evaluated from an empirical perspective. This is puzzling because its conclusion seems to be making a testable claim about the world: supervenient properties are causally inefficacious. An empirical perspective, however, reveals Kim's argument to rest on a mistaken conception about how to test whether a property is causally efficacious. Moreover, the empirical perspective makes visible a metaphysical bias that Kim brings to his argument that involves a principle of non-inclusion.
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  26.  92
    Kant's and Hegel's Moral Rationalism: A Feminist Perspective.Lawrence A. Blum - 1982 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):287 - 302.
  27. Radicalizing Enactivism: Basic Minds Without Content, by Daniel D. Hutto and Erik Myin.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):213-220.
  28.  87
    Mental Manipulations and the Problem of Causal Exclusion.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):507 - 524.
    Christian List and Peter Menzies 2009 have looked to interventionist theories of causation for an answer to Jaegwon Kim's causal exclusion problem. Important to their response is the idea of realization-insensitivity. However, this idea becomes mired in issues concerning multiple realization, leaving it unable to fulfil its promise to block exclusion. After explaining why realization-insensitivity fails as a solution to Kim's problem, I look to interventionism to describe a different kind of solution.
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  29. Mechanism or Bust? Explanation in Psychology.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (4):1037-1059.
    ABSTRACT Proponents of mechanistic explanation have recently suggested that all explanation in the cognitive sciences is mechanistic, even functional explanation. This last claim is surprising, for functional explanation has traditionally been conceived as autonomous from the structural details that mechanistic explanations emphasize. I argue that functional explanation remains autonomous from mechanistic explanation, but not for reasons commonly associated with the phenomenon of multiple realizability. 1Introduction 2Mechanistic Explanation: A Quick Primer 3Functional Explanation: An Example 4Autonomy as Lack of Constraint 5The Price (...)
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  30.  97
    Dynamics and Cognition.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (3):353-375.
    Many who advocate dynamical systems approaches to cognitive science believe themselves committed to the thesis of extended cognition and to the rejection of representation. I argue that this belief is false. In part, this misapprehension rests on a warrantless re-conception of cognition as intelligent behavior. In part also, it rests on thinking that conceptual issues can be resolved empirically. Once these issues are sorted out, the way is cleared for a dynamical systems approach to cognition that is free to retain (...)
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  31.  10
    Growing Stories From India: Religion and the Fate of Agriculture.A. Whitney Sanford - 2011 - University Press of Kentucky.
    The ecological imagination: from paradigm to practice -- Narratives of agriculture: how did we get here? -- Balaram and the Yamuna River: entitlement and presumptions of control -- Borrowing Balaram: alternative narratives -- The festival of Holi: celebrating agricultural and social health -- The land in between: constructing nature, wilderness, and agriculture -- Restoration, reciprocity, and repair: revising the ecological imagination.
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  32. Lawrence A. Blum, Friendship, Altruism and Morality[REVIEW]Paul Helm - 1983 - Mind 92 (366):312-313.
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  33.  62
    Flesh Matters: The Body in Cognition.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2019 - Mind and Language 34 (1):3-20.
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  34.  14
    International Ethics: A "Philosophy and Public Affairs" Reader.Lawrence A. Alexander - 1985 - Princeton University Press.
  35.  37
    Ethics, Narrative, and Agriculture: Transforming Agricultural Practice Through Ecological Imagination. [REVIEW]A. Whitney Sanford - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (3):283-303.
    The environmental degradation caused by industrial agriculture, as well as the resulting social and health consequences, creates an urgency to rethink food production by expanding the moral imagination to include agricultural practices. Agricultural practices presume human use of the earth and acknowledge human dependence on the biotic community, and these relations mean that agriculture presents a separate set of considerations in the broader field of environmental ethics. Many scholars and activists have argued persuasively that we need new stories to rethink (...)
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  36. Self-Defense and the Killing of Noncombatants: A Reply to Fullinwider.Lawrence A. Alexander - 1976 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 5 (4):408-415.
  37.  82
    Iris Murdoch and the Domain of the Moral.Lawrence A. Blum - 1986 - Philosophical Studies 50 (3):343 - 367.
    In The Sovereignty of Good Iris Murdoch suggests that the central task of the moral agent involves a true and loving perception of an- other individual, who is seen as a particular reality external to the agent. Writing in the 1960s she claimed that this dimension of morality had been "theorized away" in contemporary ethics. I will argue today that 20 years later, this charge still holds true of much contemporary ethical theory.
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  38.  87
    Can Psychology Be a Unified Science?Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):953-963.
    Jaegwon Kim has argued that if psychological kinds are multiply realizable then no single psychological theory can describe regularities ranging over psychological states. Instead, psychology must be fractured, with human psychology covering states realized in the human way, martian psychology covering states realized in the martian way, and so on. I show that even if one accepts the principles that motivate Kim.
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  39.  89
    Modernity and the Tasks of a Sociology of Culture.Lawrence A. Scaff - 1990 - History of the Human Sciences 3 (1):85-100.
  40.  75
    Identity, Variability, and Multiple Realization in the Special Sciences.Lawrence A. Shapiro & Thomas W. Polger - 2012 - In Hill Christopher & Gozzano Simone (eds.), New Perspectives on Type Identity: The Mental and the Physical. Cambridge University Press. pp. 264.
    Issues of identity and reduction have monopolized much of the philosopher of mind’s time over the past several decades. Interestingly, while investigations of these topics have proceeded at a steady rate, the motivations for doing so have shifted. When the early identity theorists, e.g. U. T. Place ( 1956 ), Herbert Feigl ( 1958 ), and J. J. C. Smart ( 1959 , 1961 ), fi rst gave voice to the idea that mental events might be identical to brain processes, (...)
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  41.  14
    Towards a Useful Methodology Discipline.Lawrence A. Boland - 2001 - Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (1):3-10.
  42. Content, Kinds, and Individualism in Marr’s Theory of Vision.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 1993 - Philosophical Review 102 (4):489-513.
  43.  30
    Darwin and Disjunction: Foraging Theory and Univocal Assignments of Content.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 1992 - Philosophy of Science Association 1992:469-480.
    Fodor (1990) argues that the theory of evolution by natural selection will not help to save naturalistic accounts of representation from the disjunction problem. This is because, he claims, the context 'was selected for representing things as F' is transparent to the substitution of predicates coextensive with F. But, I respond, from an evolutionary perspective representational contexts cannot be transparent: only under particular descriptions will a representational state appear as a "solution" to a selection "problem" and so be adaptive. Only (...)
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  44. American Education, The Colonial Experience 1607-1783.Lawrence A. Cremin - 1974 - British Journal of Educational Studies 22 (1):109-111.
  45.  9
    The Rutherford Atom of Culture.Lawrence A. Hirschfeld - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 18 (3-4):231-261.
    Increasingly, psychologists have shown a healthy interest in cultural variation and a skepticism about assuming that research with North American and Northern European undergraduates provides reliable insight into universal psychological processes. Unfortunately, this reappraisal has not been extended to questioning the notion of culture central to this project. Rather, there is wide acceptance that culture refers to a kind of social form that is entity-like, territorialized, marked by a high degree of shared beliefs and coalescing into patterns of key values (...)
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  46.  20
    Mechanism or Bust? Explanation in Psychology.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv062.
  47. Nature From Within: Gustav Theodor Fechner and His Psychophysical Worldview.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2005 - Mind 114 (455):739-743.
  48. What Makes Wrongful Discrimination Wrong? Biases, Preferences, Sterotypes [Sic], and Proxies.Lawrence A. Alexander - 1989 - Faculty of Law, University of Toronto.
     
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  49. Whitney Discussion.F. A. Matsen, Barry Whitney, Herb Vetter & Don Viney - 1998 - The Personalist Forum 14 (2):170-171.
  50.  19
    Methodology as an Exercise in Economic Analysis.Lawrence A. Boland - 1971 - Philosophy of Science 38 (1):105-117.
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