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Lawrence Blum [60]Lawrence A. Blum [12]
  1. Friendship, Altruism and Morality.Lawrence A. Blum - 1980 - Boston: Routledge.
    Friendship, Altruism, and Morality, originally published in 1980, gives an account of "altruistic emotions" and friendship that brings out their moral value. Blum argues that moral theories centered on rationality, universal principle, obligation, and impersonality cannot capture this moral importance. This was one of the first books in contemporary moral philosophy to emphasize the moral significance of emotions, to deal with friendship as a moral phenomenon, and to challenge the rationalism of standard interpretations of Kant, although Blum’s "sentimentalism" owes more (...)
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  2. Stereotypes And Stereotyping: A Moral Analysis.Lawrence Blum - 2004 - Philosophical Papers 33 (3):251-289.
    Stereotypes are false or misleading generalizations about groups, generally widely shared in a society, and held in a manner resistant, but not totally, to counterevidence. Stereotypes shape the stereotyper’s perception of stereotyped groups, seeing the stereotypic characteristics when they are not present, and generally homogenizing the group. The association between the group and the given characteristic involved in a stereotype often involves a cognitive investment weaker than that of belief. The cognitive distortions involved in stereotyping lead to various forms of (...)
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  3.  74
    Moral Perception and Particularity.Lawrence A. Blum - 1994 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this collection examine the moral import of emotion, motivation, judgment, perception, and group identifications, and explore how all these psychic capacities contribute to a morally good life. They examine moral exemplars and the "moral saints" debate, the morality of rescue during the Holocaust, role morality as lying between "personal" and "impersonal" perspectives, Carol Gilligan's theory of women and morality, Iris Murdoch's moral philosophy, and moral responsiveness in young children.
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  4. Moral perception and particularity.Lawrence Blum - 1991 - Ethics 101 (4):701-725.
    Most contemporary moral philosophy is concerned with issues of rationality, universality, impartiality, and principle. By contrast Laurence Blum is concerned with the psychology of moral agency. The essays in this collection examine the moral import of emotion, motivation, judgment, perception, and group identifications, and explore how all these psychic capacities contribute to a morally good life. Blum takes up the challenge of Iris Murdoch to articulate a vision of moral excellence that provides a worthy aspiration for human beings. Drawing on (...)
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  5. Race and Class Together.Lawrence Blum - 2023 - American Philosophical Quarterly 60 (4):381-395.
    The dispute about the role of class in understanding the life situations of people of color has tended to be overpolarized, between a class reductionism and an “it's only race” position. Class processes shape racial groups’ life situations. Race and class are also distinct axes of injustice; but class injustice informs racial injustice. Some aspects of racial injustice can be expressed only in concepts associated with class (e.g., material deprivation, inferior education). But other aspects of racial injustice or other harms, (...)
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  6. Gilligan and Kohlberg: Implications for moral theory.Lawrence A. Blum - 1988 - Ethics 98 (3):472-491.
  7. “Cultural Racism”: Biology and Culture in Racist Thought.Lawrence Blum - 2023 - Journal of Social Philosophy 54 (3):350-369.
    Observers have noted a decline (in the US) in attributions of genetically-based inferiority (e.g. in intelligence) to Blacks, and a rise in attributions of culturally-based inferiority. Is this "culturalism" merely warmed-over racism ("cultural racism") or a genuinely distinct way of thinking about racial groups? The question raises a larger one about the relative place of biology and culture in racist thought. I develop a typology of culturalisms as applied to race: (1) inherentist or essentialist culturalism (inferiorizing cultural characteristics wrongly but (...)
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  8. Racism: What It Is and What It Isn't.Lawrence Blum - 2002 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (3):203-218.
    The words ‘racist’ and ‘racism’ have become so overused that they nowconstitute obstacles to understanding and interracial dialogue about racial matters. Insteadof the current practice of referring to virtually anything that goes wrong or amiss withrespect to race as ‘racism,’ we should recognize a much broader moral vocabulary forcharacterizing racial ills – racial insensitivity, racial ignorance, racial injustice, racialdiscomfort, racial exclusion. At the same time, we should fix on a definition of ‘racism’ thatis continuous with its historical usage, and avoids (...)
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  9. Racialized Groups.Lawrence Blum - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):298-320.
    In the past decade, debates about the status and character of ‘race’ within philosophy have been dominated by philosophers of language, of biology, and of science, and metaphysicians. I here propose a viewpoint on the race debate arising from within social philosophy and the sociohistorical study of race.
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  10.  95
    Racialized Groups: The Sociohistorical Consensus.Lawrence Blum - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):298-320.
    Among race scholars, there is a general consensus that (1) groups thought to be races in the 19th/20th century do not possess the characteristics attributed to them in classic racial ideology, (2) such groups are nevertheless intergenerational collectivities with distinctive social and historical experiences, and (3) those experiences were and are deeply shaped by the false beliefs of classic racial ideology. The groups of whom this consensus is true are felicitously called “racialized groups,” terminology preferable to “social construction,” “classic racial (...)
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  11. Iris Murdoch and the domain of the moral.Lawrence A. Blum - 1986 - Philosophical Studies 50 (3):343 - 367.
    In The Sovereignty of Good Iris Murdoch suggests that the central task of the moral agent involves a true and loving perception of an- other individual, who is seen as a particular reality external to the agent. Writing in the 1960s she claimed that this dimension of morality had been "theorized away" in contemporary ethics. I will argue today that 20 years later, this charge still holds true of much contemporary ethical theory.
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  12. Moral Exemplars: Reflections on Schindler, the Trocmes, and Others.Lawrence A. Blum - 1988 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 13 (1):196-221.
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  13. Three kinds of race-related solidarity.Lawrence Blum - 2007 - Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1):53–72.
    Solidarity within a group facing adversity exemplifies certain human goods, some instrumental to the goal of mitigating the adversity, some non-instrumental, such as trust, loyalty, and mutual concern. Group identity, shared experience, and shared political commitments are three distinct but often-conflated bases of racial group solidarity. Solidarity groups built around political commitments include members of more than one identity group, even when the political focus is primarily on the justice-related interests of only one identity group (such as African Americans). A (...)
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  14. Neoliberalism and education.Lawrence Blum - 2023 - In Randall R. Curren (ed.), Handbook of philosophy of education. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 257-269.
    Neoliberalism is an approach to social policy, now globally influential, that applies market approaches to all aspects of social life, including education. Charter schools, privately operated but publicly funded, are its most prominent manifestation in the U.S. The neoliberal principles of competition, consumerism, and choice cannot serve as foundations of a sound and equitable public education system. Neoliberalism embraces socio-economic inequality overall and in doing so constricts any justice mission its adherents espouse in virtue of serving a relatively disadvantaged student (...)
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  15. Political identity and moral education: A response to Jonathan Haidt’s The Righteous Mind.Lawrence Blum - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):298-315.
    In The Righteous Mind, Jonathan Haidt claims that liberals have a narrower moral outlook than conservatives—they are concerned with fairness and relief of suffering, which Haidt sees as individualistic values, while conservatives care about authority and loyalty too, values concerned with holding society together. I question Haidt’s methodology, which does not permit liberals to express concerns with social bonds that do not fit within an ‘authority’ or ‘loyalty’ framework and discounts people who support liberal positions but do not self-ascribe as (...)
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  16. Against deriving particularity.Lawrence Blum - 2000 - In Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.), Moral particularism. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 205--226.
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  17.  41
    Three Kinds of Race‐Related Solidarity.Lawrence Blum - 2007 - Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1):53-72.
  18.  41
    Integrations: The Struggle for Racial Equality and Civic Renewal in Public Schools (2021).Lawrence Blum & Zoë Burkholder - 2021 - Chicago: University of Chicago.
    The promise of a free, high-quality public education is supposed to guarantee every child a shot at the American dream. But our widely segregated schools mean that many children of color do not have access to educational opportunities equal to those of their white peers. In Integrations, historian Zoë Burkholder and philosopher Lawrence Blum investigate what this country’s long history of school segregation means for achieving just and equitable educational opportunities in the United States. Integrations focuses on multiple marginalized groups (...)
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  19.  76
    Recognition, Value, and Equality: A Critique of Charles Taylor’s and Nancy Fraser’s Accounts of Multiculturalism.Lawrence Blum - 1998 - Constellations 5 (1):51-68.
    Rosemary Hennessy, Materialist Feminism and the Politics of DiscourseRichard J. Bernstein, Hannah Arendt and the Jewish QuestionDavid Ames Curtis, The Castoriadis ReaderDavid Ames Curtis, World in Fragments: Writings on Politics, Society, Psychoanalysis and the ImaginationMorris Kaplan, Sexual Justice: Democratic Citizenship and the Politics of Desire.
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  20. Kant's and Hegel's Moral Rationalism: A Feminist Perspective.Lawrence A. Blum - 1982 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):287 - 302.
  21.  44
    High Schools, Race, and America's Future: What Students Can Teach Us About Morality, Diversity, and Community.Lawrence Blum & Gloria Ladson-Billings - 2012 - Cambridge MA: Harvard Education Press.
    In High Schools, Race, and America’s Future, Lawrence Blum offers a lively account of a rigorous high school course on race and racism. Set in a racially, ethnically, and economically diverse high school, the book chronicles students’ engagement with one another, with a rich and challenging academic curriculum, and with questions that relate powerfully to their daily lives. Blum, an acclaimed moral philosopher whose work focuses on issues of race, reflects with candor, insight, and humor on the challenges and surprises (...)
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  22. Empathy and Moral Psychology: A Critique of Shaun Nichols's Neo-Sentimentalism.Lawrence Blum - 2011 - In Carla Bagnoli (ed.), Morality and the Emotions. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press. pp. 170-193.
    Nichols’s view of empathy (in Sentimental Rules) in light of experimental moral psychology suffers from several deficiencies: (1) It operates with an impoverished view of the altruistic emotions (empathy, sympathy, concern, compassion, etc.) as mere short-term, affective states of mind, lacking any essential connection to intentionality, perception, cognition, and expressiveness. (2) It fails to keep in focus the moral distinction between two very different kinds of emotional response to the distress and suffering of others—other-directed, altruistic, emotions that have moral value, (...)
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  23.  78
    Moral Development and Conceptions of Morality.Lawrence Blum - 1991 - In Moral perception and particularity. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  24.  96
    Race, National Ideals, and Civic Virtue.Lawrence Blum - 2007 - Social Theory and Practice 33 (4):533-556.
  25.  49
    Race, National Ideals, and Civic Virtue.Lawrence Blum - 2007 - Social Theory and Practice 33 (4):533-556.
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  26. Murdoch and Politics.Lawrence Blum - 2022 - In Silvia Caprioglio Panizza & Mark Hopwood (eds.), The Murdochian Mind. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Politics never became a central intellectual interest of Murdoch’s, but she produced one important and visionary political essay in the ‘50’s, several popular writings on political matters, and a significant chapter in Metaphysics as a Guide to Morals that echoes throughout that book. In the 1958 “House of Theory,” she sees the welfare state as having almost entirely failed to address the deeper problems of capitalist society, including a failure to create the conditions for values she saw as central to (...)
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  27. Integration, Equality, and the Backlash Against Racial Justice Education: Comments on Stitzlein, Glass, and Fraser-Burgess.Lawrence Blum - 2022 - Philosophy of Education 78 (4):127-136.
  28. One-to-One Fellow-Feeling, Universal Identification and Oneness, and Group Solidarities.Lawrence Blum - 2018 - In Philip J. Ivanhoe, Owen Flanagan, Victoria S. Harrison, Hagop Sarkissian & Eric Schwitzgebel (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. 106-119.
    Unusual among Western philosophers, Schopenhauer explicitly drew on Hindu and especially Buddhist traditions inhis moral philosophy. He saw plurality, especially the plurality of human persons, as a kind of illusion; in reality all is one, and compassionate acts express an implicit recognition of this oneness. Max Scheler retains the transcendence of self aspect of compassion but emphasizes that the subject must have a clear, lived sense of herself as a distinct individual in order for that transcendence to take place properly. (...)
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  29. Racial virtues.Lawrence Blum - 2007 - In Rebecca L. Walker & Philip J. Ivanhoe (eds.), Working virtue: virtue ethics and contemporary moral problems. New York: Oxford University Press.
  30. Latinos on race and ethnicity : Alcoff, Corlett, and Gracia.Lawrence Blum - 2009 - In Susana Nuccetelli, Ofelia Schutte & Otávio Bueno (eds.), A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 269-282.
    This article explicates the views on both race and ethnicity of these three prominent Latinx philosophers, compares them (somewhat), and offers some criticisms. Corlett jettisons race as a categorization of groups, but accepts a form of racialization somewhat at odds with this jettisoning. Gracia adopts as a general principle that an account of both ethnicity and race should help us see aspects of reality that would otherwise be obscured; but this is at odds with his regarding the Latin American view (...)
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  31. Empathy and Empirical Psychology: A Critique of Shaun Nichols's Neo-Sentimentalism.Lawrence Blum - 2011 - In Carla Bagnoli (ed.), Morality and the Emotions. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
     
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  32. Reflections on Brown vs. Board of Education and School Integration Today.Lawrence Blum - 2019 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 26:37-57.
    The Brown vs. Board of Education decision of 1954 mandated school integration. The decision also to recognize that inequalities outside the schools, of both a class- and race-based nature, prevent equality in education. Today, the most prominent argument for integration is that disadvantaged students benefit from the financial, social, and cultural “capital” of middle class families when the children attend the same schools. This argument fails to recognize that disadvantaged students contribute to advantaged students’ educational growth, and sends demeaning messages (...)
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  33. Community and Virtue.Lawrence Blum - 1996 - In Roger Crisp (ed.), How Should One Live?: Essays on the Virtues. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 231-250.
     
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  34.  27
    'Black Lives Matter': Moral Frames for Understanding the Police Killings of Black Males.Lawrence Blum - 2020 - In Amalia Amaya & Maksymilian Del Mar (eds.), Virtue, Emotion and Imagination in Law and Legal Reasoning. Chicago: Hart Publishing. pp. 121-138.
    The Black Lives Matter movement calls attention to the injustice involved in police killings of blacks and implicitly proposes that a particular emotional attitude--caring about the life of a human being not known personally to oneself--should have been, but was not, present in the police officers involves in these killings. I examine five prominent such killings, but especially Michael Brown, Eric Garner, and Tamir Rice [the article was written before the killing of George Floyd] for the character of the moral (...)
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  35.  26
    Race and K-12 Education.Lawrence Blum - 2017 - In Naomi Zack (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race. New York, USA: Oxford University Press USA.
    Different socioeconomic backgrounds and barriers to education have contributed to low­er educational achievement among blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans, compared to American whites and Asians. The failure of legal integration to close the racial achieve­ment gap is the result of prejudice on the part of teachers, as well as a scarcity of cultur­ally relevant curricula materials for nonwhite children. As a plausible solution to these problems, recent studies show that poor children do better in classes where middle-class children are also (...)
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  36.  24
    A Moral Account of Empathy and Fellow Feeling.Lawrence Blum - 2017 - In Neil Roughley & Thomas Schramme (eds.), Forms of Fellow Feeling: Empathy, Sympathy, Concern and Moral Agency. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 142-162.
  37.  23
    "Iris Murdoch".Lawrence Blum - 2022 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Covers Murdoch’s moral philosophy; trajectory and reception; critique of implicit view of self in Hare and Sartre; her Platonic moral realism; moral reality as other persons; essentiality of metaphysics; morality and the self/other framework; inescapability of metaphor; moral agency as inner activity; the fabric of the agent’s moral being; seeing replacing doing; influence of Simone Weil; attention (connected to care ethics, feminism, particularism); obstacles to loving attention; Freudian moral psychology; failure to recognize social sources of negative moral formation;virtue; “duties” and (...)
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  38. Prejudice.Lawrence Blum - 2009 - In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford handbook of philosophy of education. New York: Oxford University Press.
  39.  35
    Personal Relationships.Lawrence A. Blum - 2003 - In R. G. Frey & Christopher Heath Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 512–524.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Personal and Impersonal within “Personal Relationships” Personal Relationships and Morality Ideal Friendship and Morally Good Character Can Immoral People be Friends? Can a Friendless Person Lead a Satisfying and Moral Life? Friendship and the Demands of Impartiality Kierkegaard: Universal Love and Unconditional Love Challenging the Legitimacy of Personal Relationships The Real Moral Conflict between Impartiality and Personal Relationships Misunderstanding the Preferences in Personal Relationships Feminism and Personal Relationships Care Ethics and Personal Relationships The Limits of (...)
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  40.  95
    Michael J. Sandel, The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good?Lawrence Blum - 2021 - Ethics 132 (1):274-280.
  41.  37
    Affirmative Action, Diversity, and Racial Justice: Reflections from a Diverse, Non-elite University.Lawrence Blum - 2016 - Philosophy of Education 70:233-242.
    The “diversity” framework the Supreme Court has imposed on affirmative action weakens its justice import in theory and practice. The increasing alignment of wealth with attendance at selective institutions betokens a diminishing quality of student at those institutions. So some of the perceived advantages of affirmative action rely on an increasingly false sense of the quality differences between more and less highly-ranked institutions. Aligning those rankings with the quality of student (and quality of instruction at the different kinds of institution) (...)
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  42.  33
    Class Background, Current Class Position, and Race in Philosophy of Education: Comments on Liz Jackson’s “Becoming Classy”.Lawrence Blum - 2018 - Philosophy of Education 74:329-332.
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  43.  29
    "I'm Not a Racist, But...".Lawrence Blum - 2002 - Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    Media, politicians, and individuals often use the term "racism" casually and inaccurately, threatening to strip the concept of its meaning and moral force, argues Blum in "'I'm Not a Racist, But...': The Moral Quandary of Race". Not all racial incidents are racist incidents. Blum asserts that only "certain especially serious moral failings and violations" merit the designation "racism." Discussing various scholarly perspectives on the construction of racial categories, Blum calls for a balance between "ridding ourselves of the myth of race" (...)
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  44. White Privilege, Injustice, and the "Black Lives Matter" Movement.Lawrence Blum - 2016 - Radical Philosophy Review 19 (3):681-688.
  45. Recognition and multiculturalism in education.Lawrence Blum - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4):539–559.
    Charles Taylor’s ‘Politics of Recognition’ has given philosophical substance to the idea of ‘recognition’ and has solidified a link between recognition and multiculturalism. I argue that Taylor oversimplifies the valuational basis of recognition; fails to appreciate the difference between recognition of individuals and of groups; fails to articulate the value of individuality; fails to appreciate the difference between race and ethnoculture as dimensions of identity; and fails to appreciate equality as a recognitional value. The value of recognition in education goes (...)
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  46.  55
    Recognition and Multiculturalism in Education.Lawrence Blum - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4):539-559.
    Charles Taylor’s ‘Politics of Recognition’ has given philosophical substance to the idea of ‘recognition’ and has solidified a link between recognition and multiculturalism. I argue that Taylor oversimplifies the valuational basis of recognition; fails to appreciate the difference between recognition of individuals and of groups; fails to articulate the value of individuality; fails to appreciate the difference between race and ethnoculture as dimensions of identity; and fails to appreciate equality as a recognitional value. The value of recognition in education goes (...)
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  47.  13
    Reservations About White Privilege Analysis.Lawrence Blum - 2008 - Philosophy of Education 64:107-115.
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  48. Philosophy and the Values of a Multicultural Community.Lawrence Blum - 1991 - Teaching Philosophy 14 (2):127-134.
  49. Journal of Moral Education referees in 2011.Hanif Akar, Annice Barber, Jason J. Barr, Mickey Bebeau, Roger Bergman, Marvin W. Berkowitz, Angela Bermudez, Augusto Blasi, Lawrence A. Blum & Tonia Bock - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (2):273-277.
     
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  50.  63
    Journal of Moral Education referees in 2009.Hanife Akar, Wolfgang Althof, James Arthur, Annice Barber, Roger Bergman, Marvin Berkowitz, Thomas Bienengräber, Lawrence Blum, Tonia Bock & Sandra Bosacki - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):263-266.
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