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Leendert van der Torre [33]Leendert W. N. Van Der Torre [1]
  1. Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):383-408.
    In a range of contexts, one comes across processes resembling inference, but where input propositions are not in general included among outputs, and the operation is not in any way reversible. Examples arise in contexts of conditional obligations, goals, ideals, preferences, actions, and beliefs. Our purpose is to develop a theory of such input/output operations. Four are singled out: simple-minded, basic (making intelligent use of disjunctive inputs), simple-minded reusable (in which outputs may be recycled as inputs), and basic reusable. They (...)
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  2.  58
    Constraints for Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (2):155 - 185.
    In a previous paper we developed a general theory of input/output logics. These are operations resembling inference, but where inputs need not be included among outputs, and outputs need not be reusable as inputs. In the present paper we study what happens when they are constrained to render output consistent with input. This is of interest for deontic logic, where it provides a manner of handling contrary-to-duty obligations. Our procedure is to constrain the set of generators of the input/output system, (...)
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  3.  13
    Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert Van Der Torre - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):383 - 408.
    In a range of contexts, one comes across processes resembling inference, but where input propositions are not in general included among outputs, and the operation is not in any way reversible. Examples arise in contexts of conditional obligations, goals, ideals, preferences, actions, and beliefs. Our purpose is to develop a theory of such input/output operations. Four are singled out: simple-minded, basic (making intelligent use of disjunctive inputs), simple-minded reusable (in which outputs may be recycled as inputs), and basic reusable. They (...)
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  4.  53
    Permission From an Input/Output Perspective.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2003 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (4):391 - 416.
    Input/output logics are abstract structures designed to represent conditional obligations and goals. In this paper we use them to study conditional permission. This perspective provides a clear separation of the familiar notion of negative permission from the more elusive one of positive permission. Moreover, it reveals that there are at least two kinds of positive permission. Although indistinguishable in the unconditional case, they are quite different in conditional contexts. One of them, which we call static positive permission, guides the citizen (...)
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  5.  48
    Meta-Argumentation Modelling I: Methodology and Techniques.Guido Boella, Dov M. Gabbay, Leendert van der Torre & Serena Villata - 2009 - Studia Logica 93 (2-3):297 - 355.
    In this paper, we introduce the methodology and techniques of metaargumentation to model argumentation. The methodology of meta-argumentation instantiates Dung's abstract argumentation theory with an extended argumentation theory, and is thus based on a combination of the methodology of instantiating abstract arguments, and the methodology of extending Dung's basic argumentation frameworks with other relations among abstract arguments. The technique of meta-argumentation applies Dung's theory of abstract argumentation to itself, by instantiating Dung's abstract arguments with meta-arguments using a technique called flattening. (...)
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  6. The Ontological Properties of Social Roles in Multi-Agent Systems: Definitional Dependence, Powers and Roles Playing Roles. [REVIEW]Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (3):201-221.
    In this paper we address the problem of defining social roles in multi-agent systems. Social roles provide the basic structure of social institutions and organizations. We start from the properties attributed to roles both in the multi-agent systems and the Object Oriented community, and we use them in an ontological analysis of the notion of social role. We identify three main properties of social roles. First, they are definitionally dependent on the institution they belong to, i.e. the definition of a (...)
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  7.  44
    Institutions with a Hierarchy of Authorities in Distributed Dynamic Environments.Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):53-71.
    A single global authority is not sufficient to regulate heterogenous agents in multiagent systems based on distributed architectures, due to idiosyncratic local situations and to the need to regulate new issues as soon as they arise. On the one hand institutions should be structured as normative systems with a hierarchy of authorities able to cope with the dynamics of local situations, but on the other hand higher authorities should be able to delimit the autonomy of lower authorities to issue valid (...)
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  8.  23
    Roles, an Interdisciplinary Perspective.Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre & Harko Verhagen - 2007 - Applied Ontology 2 (2):81-88.
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  9.  36
    Fibred Security Language.Guido Boella, Dov M. Gabbay, Valerio Genovese & Leendert van der Torre - 2009 - Studia Logica 92 (3):395-436.
    We study access control policies based on the says operator by introducing a logical framework called Fibred Security Language (FSL) which is able to deal with features like joint responsibility between sets of principals and to identify them by means of first-order formulas. FSL is based on a multimodal logic methodology. We first discuss the main contributions from the expressiveness point of view, we give semantics for the language both for classical and intuitionistic fragment), we then prove that in order (...)
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  10.  41
    A Common Ontology of Agent Communication Languages: Modeling Mental Attitudes and Social Commitments Using Roles.Guido Boella, Rossana Damianoa, Joris Hulstijn & Leendert van der Torre - 2007 - Applied ontology 2 (3):217-265.
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  11.  48
    Diagnosis and Decision Making in Normative Reasoning.Leendert W. N. Van Der Torre & Yao-Hua Tan - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1):51-67.
    Diagnosis theory reasons about incomplete knowledge and only considers the past. It distinguishes between violations and non-violations. Qualitative decision theory reasons about decision variables and considers the future. It distinguishes between fulfilled goals and unfulfilled goals. In this paper we formalize normative diagnoses and decisions in the special purpose formalism DIO(DE)2 as well as in extensions of the preference-based deontic logic PDL. The DIagnostic and DEcision-theoretic framework for DEontic reasoning DIO(DE)2 formalizes reasoning about violations and fulfillments, and is used to (...)
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  12.  27
    Realistic Desires.Jan Broersen, Mehdi Dastani & Leendert van der Torre - 2002 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 12 (2):287-308.
    Realism for agents with unconditional beliefs, desires and intentions has been analyzed in modal logic. This paper provides a logical analysis of realism for agents with conditional beliefs and desires in a rule based approach analogous to Reiter's default logic. We distinguish two types of realism, which we call ‘a priori' and ‘a posteriori' realism. We analyze whether these two new properties are compatible with other properties discussed in the literature, such as existence of extensions. We show that Reiter's default (...)
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  13.  12
    The Role of Goals in Belief Selection.Guido Boella, Célia da Costa Pereira, Gabriella Pigozzi, Andrea Tettamanzi & Leendert van der Torre - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (4):559-578.
    In this paper we consider the relation between beliefs and goals in agent theory. Beliefs play three roles in reasoning about goals: they play a role in the generation of unconditional desires from conditional ones, they play a role in adoption of desires as goals, and they play a role in the selection of plans to achieve goals. In this paper we consider the role of goals in reasoning about beliefs. Though we assume that goals do not play a role (...)
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  14.  17
    Two-Phase Deontic Logic.Leendert Van der Torre & Yao-Hua Tan - 2000 - Logique Et Analyse 43 (171–172):411-456.
  15.  8
    Substantive and Procedural Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems.Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre - 2008 - Journal of Applied Logic 6 (2):152-171.
  16.  34
    John Horty, Agency and Deontic Logic.Jan Broersen & Leendert van der Torre - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (1):45-61.
  17.  9
    Norm Dynamics : Institutional Facts, Social Rules and Practice.Alessio Antonini, Cecilia Blengino, Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre - unknown
    SOCREAL 2013 : 3rd International Workshop on Philosophy and Ethics of Social Reality 2013. Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 25-27 October 2013. Session 2 : Imperatives and Norms.
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  18.  54
    A Dynamic Logic for Privacy Compliance.Guillaume Aucher, Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (2-3):187-231.
    Knowledge based privacy policies are more declarative than traditional action based ones, because they specify only what is permitted or forbidden to know, and leave the derivation of the permitted actions to a security monitor. This inference problem is already non trivial with a static privacy policy, and becomes challenging when privacy policies can change over time. We therefore introduce a dynamic modal logic that permits not only to reason about permitted and forbidden knowledge to derive the permitted actions, but (...)
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  19. Handbook of Formal Argumentation.Pietro Baroni, Dov Gabbay, Massimilino Giacomin & Leendert van der Torre (eds.) - 2018 - London, England: College Publications.
    The Handbook of Formal Argumentation is a community effort aimed at providing a comprehensive and up-to-date view of the state of the art and current trends in the lively research field of formal argumentation. The first volume of the Handbook is organised into five parts, containing nineteen chapters in all, each written by leading experts in the field. The first part provides a general and historical perspective on the field. The second part gives a comprehensive coverage of the argumentation formalisms (...)
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  20. On the Input/Output Behavior of Argumentation Frameworks.Pietro Baroni, Guido Boella, Federico Cerutti, Massimiliano Giacomin, Leendert van der Torre & Serena Villata - 2014 - Artificial Intelligence 217:144-197.
  21.  5
    Designing Normative Theories for Ethical and Legal Reasoning: LogiKEy Framework, Methodology, and Tool Support.Christoph Benzmüller, Xavier Parent & Leendert van der Torre - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence 287:103348.
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  22.  17
    Reasoning in Non-Probabilistic Uncertainty: Logic Programming and Neural-Symbolic Computing as Examples.Tarek R. Besold, Artur D’Avila Garcez, Keith Stenning, Leendert van der Torre & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):37-77.
    This article aims to achieve two goals: to show that probability is not the only way of dealing with uncertainty ; and to provide evidence that logic-based methods can well support reasoning with uncertainty. For the latter claim, two paradigmatic examples are presented: logic programming with Kleene semantics for modelling reasoning from information in a discourse, to an interpretation of the state of affairs of the intended model, and a neural-symbolic implementation of input/output logic for dealing with uncertainty in dynamic (...)
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  23.  6
    AGM Contraction and Revision of Rules.Guido Boella, Gabriella Pigozzi & Leendert van der Torre - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (3-4):273-297.
    In this paper we study AGM contraction and revision of rules using input/output logical theories. We replace propositional formulas in the AGM framework of theory change by pairs of propositional formulas, representing the rule based character of theories, and we replace the classical consequence operator Cn by an input/output logic. The results in this paper suggest that, in general, results from belief base dynamics can be transferred to rule base dynamics, but that a similar transfer of AGM theory change to (...)
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  24.  4
    Algorithms for Finding Coalitions Exploiting a New Reciprocity Condition.Guido Boella, Luigi Sauro & Leendert van der Torre - 2009 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 17 (3):273-297.
    We introduce a reciprocity criterion for coalition formation among goal-directed agents, which we call the indecomposable do-ut-des property. It refines an older reciprocity property, called the do-ut-des or give-to-get property by considering the fact that agents prefer to form coalitions whose components cannot be formed independently. A formal description of this property is provided as well as an analysis of algorithms and their complexity. We provide an algorithm to decide whether a coalition has the desired property, and we show that (...)
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  25.  10
    Time and Defeasibility in Fipa Acl Semantics.Guido Boella, Guido Governatori, Joris Hulstijn, Régis Riveret, Antonino Rotolo & Leendert van der Torre - 2011 - Journal of Applied Logic 9 (4):274-288.
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  26.  24
    Formalizing No Wishful Thinking.Jan Broersen, Mehdi Dastani & Leendert van der Torre - 2001 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (3-4).
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  27.  45
    What an Agent Ought To Do.Jan Broersen & Leendert van der Torre - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (1):45-61.
  28.  40
    Preface for Studia Logica Special Issue (2).Dov M. Gabbay & Leendert van der Torre - 2009 - Studia Logica 93 (2-3):105 - 108.
  29.  7
    Populating legal ontologies using semantic role labeling.Llio Humphreys, Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, Livio Robaldo, Luigi Di Caro, Sepideh Ghanavati & Robert Muthuri - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 29 (2):171-211.
    This article seeks to address the problem of the ‘resource consumption bottleneck’ of creating legal semantic technologies manually. It describes a semantic role labeling based information extraction system to extract definitions and norms from legislation and represent them as structured norms in legal ontologies. The output is intended to help make laws more accessible, understandable, and searchable in a legal document management system.
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  30. A Bimodal Simulation of Defeasibility in the Normative Domain.Tomer Libal, Matteo Pascucci, Leendert van der Torre & Dov Gabbay - 2020 - In Proceedings of FCR-2020. CEUR Workshop Proceedings. pp. 41-54.
    In the present work we illustrate how two sorts of defeasible reasoning that are fundamental in the normative domain, that is, reasoning about exceptions and reasoning about violations, can be simulated via monotonic propositional theories based on a bimodal language with primitive operators representing knowledge and obligation. The proposed theoretical framework paves the way to using native theorem provers for multimodal logic, such as MleanCoP, in order to automate normative reasoning.
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  31.  15
    Arguing About Constitutive and Regulative Norms.Gabriella Pigozzi & Leendert van der Torre - 2018 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 28 (2-3):189-217.
    Formal arguments are often represented by pairs, but in this paper we consider normative arguments represented by sequences of triples, where constitutive norms derive institutional facts from brute facts, and regulative norms derive deontic facts like obligations and permissions from institutional facts. The institutional facts may be seen as the reasons explaining or warranting the deontic obligations and permissions, and therefore they can be attacked by other normative arguments too. We represent different aspects of normative reasoning by different kinds of (...)
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  32.  5
    A Principle-Based Robustness Analysis of Admissibility-Based Argumentation Semantics.Tjitze Rienstra, Chiaki Sakama, Leendert van der Torre & Beishui Liao - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (3):305-339.
    The principle-based approach is a methodology to classify and analyse argumentation semantics. In this paper we classify seven of the main alternatives for argumentation semantics using a set of new robustness principles. These principles complement Baroni and Giacomin’s original classification and deal with the behaviour of a semantics when the argumentation framework changes due to the addition or removal of an attack between two arguments. We distinguish so-called persistence principles and monotonicity principles, where the former deal with the question of (...)
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  33.  16
    Intention as Commitment Toward Time.Marc van Zee, Dragan Doder, Leendert van der Torre, Mehdi Dastani, Thomas Icard & Eric Pacuit - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence 283:103270.
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  34.  12
    Violation Games: A New Foundation for Deontic Logic★.Leendert van der Torre - 2010 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 20 (4):457-477.
    In this paper I propose violation games as the basis of formal logics to represent and reason about norms, i.e. as the foundation of deontic logic. Deontic logic is an applied non-classical logic reflecting a way in which we conceptualize normative reasoning. By introducing violation games as a fundamental principle of deontic logic, I am introducing a new way of looking at familiar problems in normative reasoning, with the aim of introducing a new approach for handling norms in intelligent systems.
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