Les parlers poitevins nord-occidentaux (Noirmoutier, Marais nord vendéen) présentent une variation allophonique complexe du vocalisme. On peut distinguer plusieurs niveaux de diphtongaison qui rendent ces variétés particulièrement intéressantes pour l’analyse phonologique. L’étonnante diversité des formes phonétiques en surface peut cependant se réduire à deux grandes catégories de noyaux vocaliques, simples (monophtongues) et complexes (monophtongues longues et diphtongues sous-jacentes). Les premières sont sujettes à des contraintes d’expression liées à l’atérité, ou laxité, tandis que les deuxièmes alternent des voyelles tendues avec des (...) diphtongues décroissantes ou fermantes dans l’oral spontané. Cette contribution traite principalement de comment une enquête sur la structure phonologique d’une variété dialectale peut durer vingt ans, en faisant alterner diverses approches et divers angles de vue sur les données : transcription phonétique, spectrographie acoustique, analyse phonologique tendant à devenir une enquête phonologique amenée à remettre en cause ses prémisses et ses instruments d’observation des faits de parole pour aboutir à une description de la langue. (shrink)
In this sweeping revision of avant-garde history, John Cage takes his rightful place as Wordsworth's great and final heir. George Leonard traces a direct line back from Cage, Pop, and Conceptual Art through the Futurists to Whitman, Emerson, Ruskin, Carlyle, and Wordsworth, showing how the art of everyday objects, often thought an exclusively contemporary phenomenon, actually began as far back as 1800. In recovering the links between such seemingly disparate figures, Leonard transforms our understanding of modern culture. Selected (...) by the American Library Association's journal, _Choice_, as "one of the Outstanding Academic Books of the Year" "Leonard's book is a fine example of interdisciplinary studies. He shifts focus persuasively from art theory to literature to religious thought and biography, making his method seem the natural mode of inquiry into culture."—Kenneth Baker, _San Francisco Chronicle Book Review_ "Provocative and illuminating."—_Library Journal_ "Highly stimulating, impassioned."—_Publisher's Weekly_ "A rich and rewarding study written in a clear and accessible style with excellent references and a very useful index. Highly recommended."—_Choice_. (shrink)
This study investigates the ability of individuals with psychopathy to perform passive avoidance learning and whether this ability is modulated by level of reinforcement/punishment. Nineteen psychopathic and 21 comparison individuals, as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (Hare, 1991), were given a passive avoidance task with a graded reinforcement schedule. Response to each rewarding number gained a point reward specific to that number (i.e., 1, 700, 1400 or 2000 points). Response to each punishing number lost a point punishment specific (...) to that number (i.e., the loss of 1, 700, 1400 or 2000 points). In line with predictions, individuals with psychopathy made more passive avoidance errors than the comparison individuals. In addition, while the performance of both groups was modulated by level of reward, only the performance of the comparison population was modulated by level of punishment. The results are interpreted with reference to a computational account of the emotional learning impairment in individuals with psychopathy. (shrink)
Sortal terms, such as table or horse, are count nouns (akin to a basic-level terms). According to some theories, the meaning of sortals provides conditions for telling objects apart (individuating objects, e.g., telling one table from a second) and for identifying objects over time (e.g., determining that a particular horse at one time is the same horse at another). A number of psychologists have proposed that sortal concepts likewise provide psychologically real conditions for individuating and identifying things. However, this paper (...) reports five experiments that cast doubt on these psychological claims. Experiments 1-3 suggest that sortal concepts do not determine when an object ceases to exist and therefore do not decide when the object can no longer be identical to a later one. Experiments 4-5 similarly suggest that sortal concepts do not provide determinate conditions for individuating objects. For example, they do not always decide whether a room contains one table or two. All five experiments feature ordinary objects undergoing ordinary changes. (shrink)
This book presents a collection of contemporary discourses that reconsider the relationship of democracy as a political ideology and American ideal and education as the foundation of preparing democratic citizens in America.