The article “Dealing with the changeable and blurry edges of living things: a modified version of property-cluster kinds”, written by María J. Ferreira Ruiz and Jon Umerez, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal on June 29, 2018 without open access.
The Right has a long history of questioning the importance of race analysis. Recently, the conceptual and political status of race has come under increased scrutiny from the Left. Bracketing the language of ‘race’ has meant that the discourse of skin groups remains at the level of abstraction and does not speak to real groups as such. As a descriptor, race essentializes identity as if skin color were a reliable way to perceive one's self and group as well as others, (...) and questions the viability of a social struggle based on race. In other words, race is not real and discourses that insist on its objective status are ensnared in reification. The response—equally from the Left—has been to reassert the centrality and changing dynamics of race in education and society. They argue that we need to develop more, rather than less, complex discourses on race. Orientations that attempt to discredit race analysis are therefore unable to dismantle the racial system because they refuse its significance as an autonomous system of interpellations. In other words, race is real. This essay appraises the debate within the Left about the status of race, their projections about the future of race, and the kind of struggle they promote in order to realize a society freed from the chains of racism. (shrink)
This paper continues a dialogue that began with an article by Jeffrey Koperski entitled “Two Bad Ways to Attack Intelligent Design and Two Good Ones,” published in the June 2008 issue of Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science. In a response article, Christopher Pynes argues that ad hominem arguments are sometimes legitimate, especially when critiquing Intelligent Design (2012). We show that Pynes’s examples only apply to matters of testimony, not the kinds of arguments found in the best defenses of ID.
Moral Seduction Theory suggests that auditors are morally compromised by the perceived consequences of their opinions. The root of the auditing problem appears to result in an unintentional bias rather than in dishonesty. Although important accounting reforms have been taken to deal with auditors' trustworthiness, their lack of independence has not been adequately addressed. The new regulation (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) is a consequence of an incorrect understanding of the main true source of auditor's biases. We have developed a cognitive approach by (...) connecting the Throughput Model (TM) to the Moral Seduction Theory. This approach allows a better understanding of how conflicts of interest lead auditors to avoid the issuance of warning signals to stakeholders. We have tested our model by conducting a hypothetical scenario with eighty experienced auditors from international accounting firms. Our results confirm auditors' unintentional reluctance to issue qualified audit opinions alerting investors due to their fear of precipitating clients' final bankruptcy. The main implication is that, more than a regulation, effort should be made in monitoring those conflicts of interest to reduce unintentional bias. (shrink)
Hermeneutics, or the science of interpretation,is well accepted in the humanities. In thefield of education, hermeneutics has played arelatively marginal role in research. It isthe task of this essay to introduce thegeneral methods and findings of Paul Ricoeur'shermeneutics. Specifically, the essayinterprets the usefulness of Ricoeur'sphilosophy in the study of domination. Theproblem of domination has been a target ofanalysis for critical pedagogy since itsinception. However, the role of interpretationas a constitutive part of ideology critique isrelatively understudied and it is here thatRicoeur's (...) ideas are instructive. Last, theessay radicalizes Ricoeur's insights in orderto realize their potential to disruptasymmetrical relations of power in education. To this extent, the author contributes to thebuilding of a critical brand of hermeneutics,or the interpretation of domination. (shrink)
This article is intended to appraise the insights gained from Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education. It is particularly interested in CRT's relationship with Marxist discourse, which falls under two questions. One, how does CRT understand Marxist concepts, such as capital, which show up in the way CRT appropriates them? The article argues that Marxist concepts, such as historical classes, class-for-itself, are useful for race analysis as it sets parameters around the conceptual use of historical races and a race-for-itself. Two, (...) how does CRT understand the role of capitalism, therefore shedding light on its position regarding the class problem? It is no doubt attentive to class power, but this is not the same as performing an immanent critique of capitalism. As a result, within CRT class achieves a color whereby class becomes a variant of race, better known as classism. Race becomes the theory with class vocabulary superimposed on it. Last, I suggest areas where CRT could combine with Marxism in order to forge a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education. (shrink)
We propose compassion as a new model for moral education. The insufficiency of Kohlberg's cognitive model for such education is shown, as is the absence of compassion in dialogical ethics. We review briefly some authors who have treated the theme of compassion and propose the development of empathy as a foundation for educating for compassion. Specifically, we propose emotional guidance and observation-based tasks. Socio-affective experiences, the acquisition of social skills and the awakening of moral awareness are resources which enable the (...) development of empathy. To put oneself in someone else's place, feel for them, sympathize with them, is not merely the result of an exclusive intellectual exercise; rather it is linked to a moral sensibility. A moral engagement, a moral stance in the face of tragedy, requires compassion for the commitment to be effective. To educate in compassion is to educate for a moral life. (shrink)
The ethic of care has often been opposed to the ethic of justice as offering a different and even a contradictory approach to moral problems. This article argues that, from the perspective of the discourse ethic, both approaches are complementary in a very fundamental sense, since each one applies to one of two stages of moral reasoning that are as different as they are interconnected. It argues, in particular, that while justice is concerned with the justification and elaboration of norms, (...) care is concerned with finding a solution for specific moral situations. The article then places considerations of care at the centre of ideal discourse and subordinates the importance of rational understanding and moral justification to intuitive communication. (shrink)
Este trabalho pretende realizar uma reflexão crítica sobre sentido moderno da justiça procedimental, desenvolvendo uma nova hermenêutica da justiça a partir da alteridade das vítimas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Justiça procedimental. Ética. Hermenêutica. Alteridade.
Background: The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards of behavioral psychologists. (...) Design: Research findings illustrating the short history of implicit testing within the experimental analysis of behavior are reviewed. Relevant parallel and overlapping research findings from the field of social cognition and on the Implicit Association Test are also outlined. Results: New preliminary data obtained with both normal and sex offender populations are described in order to illustrate how behavior-analytically conceived implicit tests may have potential as investigative tools for assessing histories of sexual arousal conditioning and derived stimulus associations. Conclusion: It is concluded that popular implicit tests are likely sensitive to conditioned and derived stimulus associations in the history of the test-taker rather than ‘unconscious cognitions’, per se. Keywords: implicit association test; function acquisition speed test; relational frame theory; stimulus equivalence; sex offenders; sexual interests (Published: 15 March 2012) Citation: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2012, 2 : 17335 - DOI: 10.3402/snp.v2i0.17335. (shrink)
Los procesos de movilización y protesta social realizados por los movimientos juveniles y estudiantiles en Chile en la actualidad deben ser entendidos en el marco de un cambio en los repertorios de movilización así como en el contexto de un ciclo de movilización más amplio. De allí que la caracteriz..
En este artículo abordo algunos de los aspectos más importantes de la concepción filosófica del joven Emmanuel Levinas, centrándome en los tres siguientes: la conciencia como ser absoluto, la irreductibilidad de la teoría y la concepción del método fenomenológico.
A ética é uma prática que coimplica subjetividade e da alteridade. Nas atuais sociedades de controle se procura fabricar subjetividades destemperadas numa ética do descuido de si. As éticas do cuidado de si visavam ajudar a constituir sujeitos livres pela prática ética da virtude. Os novos dispositivos de controle atualizaram o poder da ética como prática em que o sujeito pode dirimir seu estilo de vida entre a sujeição ou a liberdade. As éticas do cuidado de si desconsideraram a importância (...) da alteridade para pensar a prática ética. Embora existam divergências importantes entre ambas perspectivas éticas, elas coincidem em afirmar a ética como uma prática que incide na constituição dos sujeitos, uma prática de liberdade de si (Foucault) e uma prática de libertação do outro como justiça (Levinas). PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Alteridade. Cuidado de si. Modos de subjetivação. Liberdade. Desejo. (shrink)
Frente a Descartes, y de acuerdo con autores como Nietzsche, Darwin o Chomsky, Pinker sostiene que el lenguaje es un instinto más de la naturaleza humana. Pero se separa de Chomsky al afirmar que el lenguaje es también el resultado del mecanismo de la selección natural. Recientes descubrimientos parecen respaldar la tesis de Pinker, en la medida en que se ha podido establecer una vinculación entre el gen FOXP2 y el lenguaje. La filosofía debería tomar buena nota de estos esultados, (...) pues afectan de lleno al estatuto del lógos: en adelante, es posible, sin necesidad de recurrir a ninguna instancia... (Leer más) trascendente, considerar al lenguaje como constitutivo de la sigularidad humana con respecto a las demás especies y, al mismo tiempo, como un avatar más de la evolución del mundo natural. (shrink)
Dulce Chacón Gutiérrez ha sido una mujer que con su vida y obra ha dado testimonio de su valor como ser humano; vivió al servicio de la familia, los amigos y la creación literaria. Nació en Zafra, Badajoz, en 1954 y murió en su casa de Madrid, el 3 de diciembre de 2003, a los 49 años de edad, víctima de un cáncer fulminante que se la llevó en un mes. Estaba casada y tenía tres hijos.
Nietzsche utiliza gran parte de los argumentos empleados por él mismo contra la metafísica en general para criticar el cogito cartesiano. La afinidad señalada por el propio Descartes entre el cogito y la conciencia hace que el estudio se centre en el análisis nietzscheano del problema de la conciencia, prestando especial atención a sus implicaciones antropológicas. Frente al raciocentrismo cartesiano, Nietzsche sostiene que, dado que la conciencia no es una entidad ajena al mundo natural, es posible presentar una antropología estrictamente (...) naturalista, que no necesita recurrir a hipótesis dualistas tribu-tarias de la metafísica o de la teología. (shrink)
El artículo se propone demostrar que la concepción agustiniana del matrimonio está inspirada fuertemente por Aristóteles, a quien llegó a conocer mediante las obras de autores latinos, como Varrón y Cicerón. No se hace una exposición completa y detallada del pensamiento agustiniano sobre el matrimonio, sino que el artículo se limita a llamar la atención sobre algunos puntos en que se deja sentir con mayor claridad el eco de la enseñanza aristotélica, como es el tema del carácter social y amistoso (...) del matrimonio, entre otros. (shrink)
Sustainable development is a concern for countries, businesses and organizations sensitive to excess in terms of utilized resources. This is evident in international initiatives which aim to establish guiding principles for institutions to follow regarding what is considered to be socially responsible behavior, allowing for assessment and the identification of objectives. As higher education institutions, colleges and universities have a public responsibility to generate and transmit knowledge to society as a whole, as well as an economic and social responsibility regarding (...) resource management; hence the importance of specifically analyzing their socially responsible behavior. This paper introduces an initiative which has been implemented in the United States and Canada; one of its aims is to identify best practices in this field and obtain knowledge that allows for the creation and development of a guide to social responsibility adapted specifically to higher education institutions. The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System (STARS) is an innovative initiative developed by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE), in which all higher education institutions in the United States and Canada are welcome to participate. Their analysis will allow us to determine which measurable aspects will become a part of the sustainability culture that is developing in the higher education institutions that participate in this initiative. Furthermore, it will allow us to highlight the ethical values that are being promoted among its special interest groups. (shrink)
The paper examines a recent proposal of substitution of classic (normative) philosophy of science by a post-positivist and pluralistic axiology governed by aesthetic or formal values. The author of the paper proposes a different set of values that can enconpass not only “internal” values, but is also open to the examination of the ethical limits of tecnoscience and the principles that can govern scientific development in oru “risk societies”, which depends heavily on the general evolution of science.
This paper reviews te principal points of Okcham’s philosophy: representationism, voluntarism, contingentism, and also the critics that Polo makes to them. The three parts of the study are: theory of knowledge, ethics-psychology, and metaphysics.