Between 1221 and 1236, Jordan of Saxony, the general master of the Order of Friars Preachers, and Diana Andaló, nun of the monastery of St. Agnes in Bologna, were frequent correspondents. From the exchange of epistles that characterized their friendship, only a few dozen letters written by the friar reached us. In them we can see the growth of the Order in those early years of its institution, its gradual organization as well as the policy of the master in relation (...) to women's religious life, among allusions to the details of everyday life of a religious in the thirteenth century. It is in this documentary corpus that we support ourselves to comprehend the power relations which guided the process of institutionalization of the newly created Order of Friars Preachers, specially the affiliation of women's houses to the Order, a subject on which the friars oscillated between resistance and acceptance, because of the material and administrative implications that such an association meant. We will focus, in the discursive analysis, in three cards - two sent to Diana, and one sent to the provincial of Lombardy, Stephen of Spain - to understand the issues involved in the formation of a women's branch of the Order. We can conclude that this specific discussion comprehended a much bigger cenary of internal disputes for the control of the Order. (shrink)
As descrições da flora brasílica efectuadas desde a chegada de Pedro Álvares Cabral traduzem não só as perplexidades do passado no reconhecimento de exemplares botânicos desconhecidos na Europa, mas essencialmente formas de intelegibilidade distintas sobre um mesmo objecto, cuja exploração ao longo dos últimos quatro séculos tem vindo a acompanhar o desenvolvimento da ciência.Os primeiros registos de plantas de Terras de Vera Cruz, efectuados no século XVI, apresentam-se como limitados tanto pela forma narrativa e descritiva então corrente como pela subjectividade (...) do seu redactor. Algumas das lacunas destas formas descritivas foram preenchidas pelo recurso a elementos gráficos que procuravam veicular informação mais precisa quantoàs espécies botânicas identificadas.No século XVIII a Botânica assumiu-se como disciplina autónoma, adoptando-se desde então uma nomenclatura que se viria a considerar como internacional e um sistema de “catalogação” dos mais diversos tipos botânicos conhecidos, ainda extensível a outros por descobrir nomeadamente em terras do Brasil. Este processo objectivo não se sobrepôs às restantes abordagens subjectivas, coexistindo na actualidade. The descriptions of Brazilian flora made since the arrival of Pedro Álvares Cabral express not only the perplexities of those times in recognising botanical species unknown in Europe, but manly distinct forms of intelligibility concerning a same object, whose exploration all long last four centuries follow closely the science rise.The first registers of the plants of Vera Cruz, dated from sixteen century, they were limited as much for the narrative and descriptive form current in those times, as for the subjectivity of its redactor. Some of the gaps of these descriptive forms had been filled by the resource of graphical elements, which tried to propagate precise information of the botanical species identified. In century XVIII Botanic assumed it self as a autonomous subject, adapting since then a terminology that it would come to consider as international and a system of cataloguing of the different botanical types, still extensible to others for discovering, namely in lands of Brazil. This objective process was not overlapped to the remaining subjective approaches, coexisting in the present time. (shrink)
Um dos vários esforços de Rousseau em relação à música foi a criação de um novo sistema de escrita musical. Seus objetivos foram sobretudo simplificar a representação das obras musicais em relação à notação musical tradicional sem perder o poder expressivo, tornando assim a música mais fácil de ser escrita, lida, ensinada e aprendida. Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma análise desse sistema, e buscamos avaliar seu sucesso em relação a tais objetivos. Para tanto, partimos de uma descrição da notação tradicional para, (...) em seguida apresentar o sistema de Rousseau e, por fim, avaliar o êxito desse sistema em relação a seus objetivos. (shrink)
The notion of linguistic correction with which Augustine of Hippo introduced his _Ars pro fratrum mediocritate breuiata_ seems central to the philosopher's grammatical discussion, not only because of the various examples that Augustine offers about the definitions of barbarism and soloecism at the end of this treatise, but also because the subject of correction and, consequently, of the deviations of language, are also presented in other non-grammatical works: _The confessions_, _De ordine_ and _De doctrina Christiana_. In this article, we propose (...) to evaluate the conceptual outlines of the notions of barbarism and solecism in the work of Augustine, considering, on the one hand, the definitions present in the _Ars breuiata_, and, on the other, the way in which Augustine also presents them in his philosophical work. We propose that the normative orientation contained in the text of _ars_ must be relativised by ethical questions that arise from the comments present in the _Confessions_, the _De ordine_ and the _De doctrina Christiana_. (shrink)
En el artículo se exponen las ideas principales de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, extrapoladas de sus libros más representativos. Una breve introducción a su reflexión política y a su crítica sociológica; vale decir, se interpreta la razón estratégica y globlal del telos de la Modernidad; a la vez que,..
Resumen: Este trabajo se propone revisar la tesis de la proliferación de alternativas, expuesta por Boaventura de Sousa Santos, a la luz de algunas críticas a la tesis de la proliferación de teorías, expuesta por Paul Feyerabend. Se defiende que, aunque no de modo explícito, hay una afinidad entre ambas tesis y, en consecuencia, las debilidades de la segunda afectan a la primera. No obstante, el objetivo básico consiste en mostrar cómo propuestas emergentes, como la ecología de los saberes, (...) antes que insistir en su carácter contraepistemológico, podrían beneficiarse de una discusión epistemológica amplia.: In this paper I review the thesis about the proliferation of alternatives by Boaventura de Sousa Santos, from some criticisms to the thesis of the proliferation of theories by Paul Feyerabend. I claim that, though not in explicit way, there is an affinity between them, therefore the weakness from the second one affects the first one. However, the point is to show how some emergent proposals, as the ecology of knowledges, could benefit from a full epistemological discussion, instead of insisting on its counter-epistemological nature. (shrink)
This article discusses the issue of Christianity in a pluralistic society on the basis of the book "If God Were a Human Rights Activist", by Boaventura de Sousa Santos. In this book the author confronts the challenges that the "movements that demand the presence of religion in the public sphere" place for human rights in the context of ”ecology of conceptions of human dignity." This article begins by presenting the problem of Christianity in a pluralistic society and indicating two (...) fundamental forms of dialogue and interaction between religious traditions and society as a whole. The text goes on to show, from the aforementioned book, how traditions and religious movements are a privileged place of affirmation and defense of human dignity and how theologies that sustain them constitute a 'defense grammar of human dignity. The article concludes by showing how the affirmation and defense of human dignity, understood and lived in the context of social struggles for justice, constitute the core of the Christian experience of God or, in any case, one of its fundamental features or marks. (shrink)
The question about the thing is one of the main topics in the work of Vilém Flusser. It seeks to reconsider not only the phenomenology of the things and the problem between the natural and the cultural objects but, importantly, a focus on the “thing” forefronts his theory about human evolution from the manipulation of things towards the digitization of the so called non-things. The connection between Eudoro de Sousa and Vilém Flusser, both friends of the Brazilian Philosopher Vicente (...) Ferreira da Silva in the 1950s in São Paulo, goes also back to the History of the Devil, in which Flusser reinterpreted the Devil as a) the lord of the things and b) the time and the seven sins as the inner mechanism of western civilization. In the 1980s, Eudoro de Sousa, wrote his Mythology, in which he also considers the diabolic force of instrumental reason and the necessity of recovering the symbolic possibility and the reintegration of all things in some kind of final harmony. Both philosophers where influenced by the work of Martin Heidegger, and the present essay tries to show their adaptation of Heidegger’s thinking as well as the parallels between Eudoro de Sousa’s and Vilém Flusser’s vision of overcoming the “diabolic” crisis of Western industrialized civilization. (shrink)
This review examines two works that address the theoretical importance of Latin American political movements over the last two decades. I argue that while Boaventura de Sousa Santos raises the important issue of the political relationship between difference and unity, his work lends itself to ambiguous conclusions regarding this relationship. In particular, de Sousa Santos underestimates Marxism’s potential role as a theory and practice of political union. Nonetheless, his work provides certain insights on epistemology and political temporality that (...) may help Marxism amplify its political relevance today. Álvaro García Linera’s text represents a particular mode by which Marxism may engage with a politics of difference; however, I argue that García Linera’s work contains a tension between difference construed in autonomist, material terms and difference construed as identity. The latter, I suggest, has come to serve in Bolivia as the basis for an ultimately limited political project. (shrink)
De Sousa's comprehensive two-part review of a diversity of contemporary approaches to the study of consciousness is highly welcome. He makes us aware of a proliferation of theoretical and empirical approaches targeting a common theme, but diverging in many ways. He skilfully accomplishes a classification of kinds of approach, identification of the main representatives, their contributions, and respective limitations. However, he does not show how the desired integration could be accomplished. Besides summarising De Sousa's efficient analytical work, I (...) make critical comments and briefly report my contribution for the integration project. (shrink)
The papers by Ronald de Sousa and Steve Davis raise very interesting issues. I think that they have the issue almost right between us, but I want to make some small amendments, which will make a big difference.First, de Sousa: with all the talk about the ‘significance feature,’ I’m not trying to make an in principle argument against the reduction of purpose/action to physical movement/change. Perhaps such an argument is possible, perhaps not. For the moment, all we have (...) is the a posteriori. But that involves our making the most dear-headed possible judgments about our actual intellectual predicament, using this term as a shorthand for a whole set of issues to do with the nature of the phenomena we face, and how they relate or don't relate to the theories on offer. Philosophy can help in this, not because philosophers wheel in bright, shiny a priori possibility arguments, but rather by clarifying what is at stake, and what is going on. (shrink)
RESUMO: Os intérpretes dos manuscritos de Leonardo da Vinci partilham dos mesmos sentimentos de espanto e de fascínio quando examinam sua contribuição para a ciência moderna. Podemos, contudo, perceber uma constante tentativa em prol de uma revisão histórica acerca do papel desempenhado por Leonardo. Observando a história dessas revisões, é possível detectar aspectos significativos das perspectivas históricas e historiográficas dos envolvidos nessa discussão. É o que pretendemos fazer neste trabalho, focando a controvérsia entre Duhem, por um lado, e (...) Sarton, Koyré e Rossi, por outro. Ao fazer isso, buscamos discutir alguns traços que marcam a distinção entre uma historiografia mais antiga e a nova historiografia da ciência, tal como exposta por Thomas Kuhn. ABSTRACT: Interpreters of Leonardo da Vinci's manuscripts share the same feelings of astonishment and fascination when they examine his contribution to modern science. However, it is possible to perceive an ongoing attempt towards a historical revision of the role played by Leonardo. Observing the history of this ongoing revision, it is possible to detect significant aspects of the historical and historiographical perspectives of those involved in this discussion. This article deals with the controversy between Duhem's point of view, on the one hand, and the views of Sarton, Koyré, and Rossi on the other. It aims to show some features that distinguish an older historiography from the new historiography of science as presented by Thomas Kuhn. (shrink)
A partir de la definición de la globalización neoliberal como un localismo occidental globalizado, expresión de un nuevo tipo de imperialismo cultural, el objetivo principal de este artículo es el de llevar a cabo una exposición analítica de la propuesta de traducción intercultural e interpolítica d..
Em resposta a críticas dirigidas contra a postura neopirrônica defendida pelo autor em artigo anterior (Porchat 3), mostra-se que elas provêm de uma incompreensão básica da noção de fenômeno no ceticismo grego.
Ao contrário do enigma que pode ser nomeado, representado e decifrado, o mistério é indizível e inefável. O Mistério não é uma obscuridade que pode ser dissipada pela luz meridiana da razão, mas é o próprio fundamento da racionalidade. O mistério refere-se ao excesso essencial de uma divina e incomensurável Ação criadora.
En este nuevo libro, del reconocido sociólogo portugués y perspicaz pensador de las grandes transformaciones socio-económicas y culturales de la globalización, se nos presenta -bajo un título provocativo- una relevante teoría de las ciencias sociales críticas. Esta elaboración teorética quiere dar efectivamente cuenta de la enorme complejidad de los procesos inherentes a la globalización hegemónica, y al mismo tiempo, a la rica dinámica de alternativas y resistencias plurales presentes en lo..