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Leonid Zhmud [29]Leonid J. Zhmud [1]
  1.  81
    Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - Oxford: Oxford University Press. Edited by Kevin Windle & Rosh Ireland.
    In ancient tradition, Pythagoras emerges as a wise teacher, an outstanding mathematician, an influential politician, and as a religious and ethical reformer. This volume offers a comprehensive study of Pythagoras, Pythagoreanism, and the early Pythagoreans through an analysis of the many representations of the individual and his followers.
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  2. What is Pythagorean in the Pseudo-Pythagorean Literature?Leonid Zhmud - 2019 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 163 (1):72-94.
    This paper discusses continuity between ancient Pythagoreanism and the pseudo-Pythagorean writings, which began to appear after the end of the Pythagorean school ca. 350 BC. Relying on a combination of temporal, formal and substantial criteria, I divide Pseudopythagorica into three categories: 1) early Hellenistic writings ascribed to Pythagoras and his family members; 2) philosophical treatises written mostly, yet not exclusively, in pseudo-Doric from the turn of the first century BC under the names of real or fictional Pythagoreans; 3) writings attributed (...)
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  3. Heraclitus on Pythagoras.Leonid Zhmud - 2017 - In Enrica Fantino, Ulrike Muss, Charlotte Schubert & Kurt Sier (eds.), Heraklit Im Kontext. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 171-186.
  4. Греческая арифмология: Пифагор или платон?Leonid Zhmud - 2017 - Schole 11 (2):428-459.
    This essay considers the origins of the arithmological genre, the first specimen of which was an anonymous Neopythagorean treatise of the first century BCE. Arithmology as a special genre of philosophical writings dealing with the properties of the first ten numbers should be distinguished from number symbolism, which is a universal cultural phenomenon related to individual significant numbers. As our analysis shows, the philosophical foundations of arithmology were laid down in the treatise of Plato’s successor Speusippus On Pythagorean Numbers, who (...)
     
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  5. Plato as "Architect of Science".Leonid Zhmud - 1998 - Phronesis 43 (3):211-244.
    The figure of the cordial host of the Academy, who invited the most gifted mathematicians and cultivated pure research, whose keen intellect was able if not to solve the particular problem then at least to show the method for its solution: this figure is quite familiar to students of Greek science. But was the Academy as such a center of scientific research, and did Plato really set for mathematicians and astronomers the problems they should study and methods they should use? (...)
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  6. The Papyrological Tradition on Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans.Leonid Zhmud - 2019 - In Christian Vassallo (ed.), Presocratics and Papyrological Tradition: A Philosophical Reappraisal of the Sources. Proceedings of the International Workshop Held at the University of Trier. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 111-146.
  7. Ancient Greek Mathēmata from a Sociological Perspective: A Quantitative Analysis.Leonid Zhmud & Alexei Kouprianov - 2018 - Isis 109 (3):445-472.
    This essay examines the quantitative aspects of Greco-Roman science, represented by a group of established disci¬plines, which since the fourth century BC were called mathēmata or mathē¬ma¬tikai epistē¬mai. In the group of mathēmata that in Antiquity normally comprised mathematics, mathematical astronomy, harmonics, mechanics and optics, we have also included geography. Using a dataset based on The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Natural Scientists, our essay considers a community of mathēmatikoi (as they called themselves), or ancient scientists (as they are defined for the (...)
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  8. Who Were the Pythagoreans?Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a description of the history of Pythagorean societies after the death of Pythagoras. It then considers the criteria used by Aristoxenus in compiling his list of Pythagoreans. Compared with those applied in modern works, it is argued that, beyond a critical approach to the sources, we enjoy no special advantages over the first historian of Pythagoreanism. This is followed by a discussion of the prosopography and chronology of the Pythagoreans.
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  9.  4
    Pythagorean Number Doctrine in the Academy.Leonid Zhmud - 2013 - In Gabriele Cornelli, Richard D. McKirahan & Constantinos Macris (eds.), On Pythagoreanism. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 323-344.
  10. Pythagoras’ northern connections: Zalmoxis, abaris, aristeas.Leonid Zhmud - 2016 - Classical Quarterly 66 (2):446-462.
    Apart from his teachings, wonders and scientific discoveries, Pythagoras was also known for his wide-ranging journeys. Ancient authors alleged that he visited many countries and nations from Egypt to India, stayed with the Phoenicians and the Ethiopians and talked to the Persian Magi and Gallic Druids. However, he never went to the North. If, nevertheless, he was eventually associated with the northern inhabitants, it is only because they themselves came into close contact with him. The first of them was Zalmoxis, (...)
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  11. Orphism and Grafitti from Olbia.Leonid Zhmud - 1992 - Hermes 120 (2):159-168.
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  12.  6
    Revising doxography: Hermann diels and his critics.Leonid Zhmud - 2001 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 145 (2):219-243.
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  13.  12
    The Menaechmi.Leonid Zhmud - 2023 - Apeiron 56 (3):577-586.
    In the mid-first century BC Geminus of Rhodes, a scientist and philosopher close to Posidonius, composed a comprehensive Theory of Mathematical Sciences, in the surviving fragments of which the numerous characters are referred to plainly by name, with some of them being namesakes of other, more well-known mathematicians and philosophers. This paper tries to set apart the namesakes of Geminus, of which there are four in his fragments: Theodorus, Hippias, Oenopides, and Menaechmus.
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  14. The Pythagorean Communities.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter explores the kind of community founded by Pythagoras. It considers those types of association which actually existed in Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. If the Pythagorean community was really a religious association, it should conform to the type of religious association of its time, and not to that of the Qumran community or a Christian monastery. To describe the nature of the society founded by Pythagoras, we may choose from a very small number of variants available (...)
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  15. Astronomy.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a discussion of Egyptian and Babylonian influences in Greek astronomy. It considers the development of Pythagorean astronomy before Philolaus. It then focuses on the difficulty of identifying an individual contribution to astronomy by Pythagoras or specific early Pythagoreans. It shows that Alexander relied on Aristotle, who connected with Philolaus neither the harmony of the spheres nor the geocentric model on which it is based. The surviving works of Aristotle actually contain no indication that he associated the (...)
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  16. Brill Online Books and Journals.Leonid Zhmud - 1998 - Phronesis 43 (3).
  17. Biography: Sources, Facts, and Legends.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    One of the epithets most frequently applied to Pythagoras in the majority of popular books, as well as many scholarly works, is ‘legendary’ or ‘semi-legendary’. In the tradition on Pythagoras it is true that from the very beginning facts have been interwoven with fantastic invention, but it is not too difficult to separate the two. Extracting the real events in his life from information which appears to be quite plausible is much more difficult. This is where we encounter the greatest (...)
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  18. Harmonics and Acoustics.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a discussion of Pythagoras and the science of music. The fundamental principles of Greek musical theory were taken up and developed by European musicologists. Three basic elements of that theory which the ancient tradition linked with Pythagoras continue to be associated with his name: the mathematical treatment of music; the doctrine of a musical ethos, or the psychagogic and educative effects of music; and the famous ‘harmony of the spheres’ generated by the movement of the heavenly (...)
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  19. Introduction: The Pythagorean Question: Problems, Methods, and Sources.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This introductory chapter focuses on the Pythagorean question, which remains one of the most intricate in the history of early Greek science, philosophy, and religion, and has every chance of being consigned to the category of insoluble problems. It suggests that like any other complex scientific problem, it can be broken down into a number of smaller, particular ones, which may prove amenable to solution. There are many facts on which agreement may be reached; there is also an undoubted hierarchy (...)
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  20. Mathematics.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter turns from Pythagorean religion to Pythagorean science, primarily to mathematics. It shows that the similarities between Oriental calculations and Greek geometry are delusory, while others are perceived only by someone raised on the analytical geometry of Descartes and capable of translating Babylonian problems into the language of geometrical theorems. It then considers the systematic application of deductive proof, which was the most important factor in the formation in ancient Greece of theoretical mathematics on an axiomatic basis. This is (...)
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  21. Mathematici and Acusmatici. The Pythagorean ‘Symbols’.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter discusses the Pythagorean ‘symbols’ and their custodians, the mathematici and the acusmatici. The ‘symbols’ are short sayings divided into three kinds according to the question they answer. The first kind answer the question, ‘What is...?’ The second kind answers the question, ‘What is most...?’ The third and most important kind contains precepts and prohibitions. In its application of the ‘symbols’, the following question is addressed: was there in the history of ancient Pythagoreanism a period in which the precepts (...)
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  22. Medicine and Life Sciences.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a discussion of Greek medicine. In the lifetime of Pythagoras the physicians of Croton enjoyed the greatest renown. The volume of evidence on medicine in Croton allows us to judge its nature and its role in the development of Greek medicine. The discussion then turns to physiology and anatomy, embryology, and botany.
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  23. Pythagorean Number Doctrine in the Academy and Lyceum.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter first considers the estimates of how great the contribution of the Pythagoreans was to Plato's philosophy and how these views diverge substantially, and which vary across the range from ‘decisive’ to ‘insignificant’. It shows that Platonists were characterized by a benevolent attitude to Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans and an interest in their scientific, philosophical, and religious theories. Number doctrine is found in the testimonies of all three Platonists, but there is in them no picture of a Pythagorean philosophy (...)
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  24. Pythagorean Philosophies.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter discusses how all the Pythagorean theories of the soul known to us are different. Only Simmias and Echecrates, the pupils of Philolaus, held identical views. The similarity among some of these theories can sometimes be explained by direct influence, but most often by the fact that many Pythagoreans shared the interpretation of the soul as the source of motion, which was the most widespread view amongst the Presocratics. It is also shown that there is neither a clear formulation (...)
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  25. Shamanism and Metempsychosis.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins by exploring notions of Shamanism in ancient Greece. It argues that there are no traces of shamanism or its most important component, ecstatic cult practice, either in Pythagoreanism or among the Scythians who supposedly influenced it, even if we assume that shamanism existed at that time. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that the Pythagoreans had any special cult at all. The chapter then considers the historical and religious context of metempsychosis. It addresses the following questions: Was metempsychosis borrowed (...)
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  26. The Early Tradition on Pythagoras and Its Development.Leonid Zhmud - 2012 - In Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter reviews references to Pythagoras by the authors of the pre-Platonic period. It shows that in the course of the fourth century, studies in mathematics, particularly geometry and arithmetic, became a constant element of the tradition of Pythagoras; astronomy and harmonics are less frequently mentioned. Mathematics did not displace metempsychosis and wonders, nor did the tradition of Pythagoras the politician which emerged concurrently with it, yet they did edge them aside, completing the ambivalent, contradictory image of Pythagoras, which was (...)
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  27. Wissenschaft, Philosophie Und Religion Im Frühen Pythagoreismus/ Dc Leonid Zhmud.Leonid J. Zhmud - 1997
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  28. Pseudo-Plutarch und Stobaios: Eine synoptische Untersuchung by Heike Bottler. [REVIEW]Leonid Zhmud - 2017 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 110 (3):424-426.
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  29. Pythagoras. Leben, Lehre, Nachwirkung. [REVIEW]Leonid Zhmud - 2003 - Ancient Philosophy 23 (2):416-420.
  30.  25
    Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease[REVIEW]Leonid Zhmud - 2008 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 102 (1):90-91.