In this study, an accurate convergence time of the supertwisting algorithm is proposed to build up a framework for nonaffine nonlinear systems’ finite-time control. The convergence time of the STA is provided by calculating the solution of a differential equation instead of constructing Lyapunov function. Therefore, precise convergence time is presented instead of estimation of the upper bound of the algorithm’s reaching time. Regardless of affine or nonaffine nonlinear systems, supertwisting control provides a general solution based on virtual control law (...) skill ensuring the output of the systems converges to the origin point at exact time. Benchmark tests are simulated to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm. (shrink)
Previous research has shown that people can implicitly acquire mappings between word forms and literal meanings . We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms and not only literal but also metaphorical meanings. Using Williams’ paradigm, we found that transfer of form-meaning connections from a concrete domain to an abstract domain was achieved in a metaphor-consistent way without awareness. Our results support the view that unconscious knowledge can be flexibly deployed in (...) an abstract way not previously explored in the implicit learning literature. (shrink)
Based on the core observation, well logs and seismic reflection characteristics, fluvial types and sediments dispersal patterns are reconstructed in the Wen’an Slope, Bohai Bay Basin during the deposition of the Dongying Formation. The results show that periodically develops four meandering-braided rivers in NE-SW directions, consisting of channel, channel bar, and flood plain subfacies are periodically developed in Wen’an slope during the deposition of the Dongying Formation, which can be further subdivided into six microfacies including braided channel, meandering channel, sandy (...) channel bar, muddy channel bar, crevasse fan and floodplain mud. The paleoflow direction is 40°- 65°. The river belt width is 1.47 km - 2.64 km, the main channel width is 0.02 km - 0.29 km, and the thickness of the main channel is 1.2 m-6.4 m. The differential subsidence of rift basin during fault-depression transition period is suggested to exert the main control on fluvial evolution and sand body distribution. Regulatory flow with periodic climate change and modify early sediments or sand body, narrow and deep meandering river deposits in dry season, wide and shallow braided river deposits in wet season. The development of thick mudstone in the upslope limits the migration and charging of oil and gas. Thick channel and channel bar deposits cut by oil source-connected faults in the middle and downslope are the most potential reservoirs in rift basin for future hydrocarbon exploration. (shrink)
In this paper, we have developed a model of limit order book with learning mechanism and investigated its price dynamics. In this model, continuous Bayesian learning is introduced to describe the dynamics of self-adjusting learning mechanism of agents, which can result in some important stylized facts of limit order markets. This study also provides some behavioral explanations for these well-known stylized facts that are commonly observed in the financial markets.