This paper analyses the connection between knowing Dao and ethical transformation in Xunzi’s thought. While there have been many discussions concerning what Dao is and how one may come to Dao, there has not been sufficient attention on how knowing Dao leads to ethical transformation. In Section 2, I explicate Xunzi’s concept of bi 蔽 and suggests that one’s not knowing Dao has to do with a certain problematic state of the heart/mind. In Section 3, I analyse xu虛, yi 一, (...) and jing 靜, which are remedial practices for knowing Dao, and bring out the importance of discerning li 理 for Xunzi. In Sections 4 and 5, I propose an interpretation of the relation between li 理 and qing 情 in the process of ethical transformation. In Section 6, I highlight some remaining ambiguities that can be further investigated to deepen our understanding of Xunzi’s thought. (shrink)
Resource support between individuals is of particular importance in controlling or mitigating epidemic spreading, especially during pandemics. However, there remains the question of how we can protect ourselves from being infected while helping others by donating resources in fighting against the epidemic. To answer the question, we propose a novel resource allocation model by considering the awareness of self-protection of individuals. In the model, a tuning parameter is introduced to quantify the reaction strength of individuals when they are aware of (...) the disease. And then, a coupled model of resource allocation and disease spreading is proposed to study the impact of self-awareness on resource allocation and its impact on the dynamics of epidemic spreading. Through theoretical analysis and extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that in the stationary state, the system converges to two states: the whole healthy or the completely infected, which indicates an abrupt increase in the prevalence when there is a shortage of resources. More importantly, we find that too cautious and too selfless for the people during the outbreak of an epidemic are both not suitable for disease control. Through extensive simulations, we locate the optimal point, at which there is a maximum value of the epidemic threshold, and an outbreak can be delayed to the greatest extent. At last, we study further the effects of the network structure on the coupled dynamics. We find that the degree heterogeneity promotes the outbreak of disease, and the network structure does not alter the optimal phenomenon in behavior response. Based on the results of this study, a constructive suggestion is that in the face of a global pandemic, individuals or countries should strengthen mutual support and cooperation while doing their own prevention to suppress the epidemic optimally. (shrink)
The double-fed induction wind generator- based wind generation system contains power electronic converters and filter capacitor and inductor, which will bring about high-frequency harmonics under the influence of controllers. Aiming at this problem, this paper studies the relation between the output current and the harmonic source at grid-side and rotor-side converters based on their control features in the DFIG system. Furthermore, the harmonic equivalent models of these two converters are built, and the influence of different factors on harmonic features is (...) explored from four perspectives, i.e., modulation method, altering controller parameters, altering output power, and the unbalance of three-phase voltage. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through the 2 MW DFIG real-time hardware-in-the-loop test platform by StarSim software and real test data, respectively. (shrink)
This paper focuses on performance assessment of a freight network with stochastic capacities by using reliability analysis, in which a node denotes a supplier, a transfer center, a distribution center, or a market, while an arc denotes a logistics service provider offering the freight traffic service for a pair of nodes. Due to some uncertainties in real environment, the available capacity of the provider along each arc is stochastic. Thus, network reliability that at least d units of commodity demand can (...) be successfully delivered from the source to the destination denotes the operational performance of such a freight network. A d-minimal path–based method is developed to evaluate the freight network reliability. To advance the efficiency of solving d-minimal paths, an improved model is established by redefining capacity bounds of arcs and minimal paths. Furthermore, a new concept of expected capacity grounded on network reliability is presented to measure the service performance of the freight network. A practical case related to the coal delivery network is studied to demonstrate the implications of both network reliability and expected capacity. (shrink)
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient–physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust – a crucial matter (...) in healthcare especially because there are numerous ethical implications – has largely been marginalized in bioethics as a global discourse. Drawing lessons as well as inspirations from China, this paper demonstrates the necessity of a trust-oriented bioethics and presents some key theoretical, methodological and philosophical elements of such a bioethics. A trust-oriented bioethics moves beyond the current dominant bioethical paradigms through putting the subject of trust and mistrust in the central agenda of the field, learning from the social sciences, and reviving indigenous moral resources. In order for global bioethics to claim its relevance to the things that truly matter in social life and healthcare, trust should be as vital as such central norms like autonomy and justice and can serve as a potent theoretical framework. (shrink)
The intellectual debates on wise entrepreneurship behavior such as decision making tend to focus on the relationship between economic rationality and morality, while overlooking the important role affect plays. To fill in this gap, this paper proposes a theoretical framework based on the Confucian concepts of ren and yi and studies their practical manifestation in qing and li 1 for decision making. Drawing from 32 in-depth interviews and 52 vignettes with Chinese SME entrepreneurs, this study has found that (...) class='Hi'>qing plays an essential role in decision making. Chinese entrepreneurs had to deal with the dilemma relating to qing and li 1 holistically to reach a balanced outcome in their everyday business practices. As a major contribution, this study extends the study of Confucian ethics by highlighting ren-yi as an important perspective for understanding Chinese entrepreneurial decision making and also for promoting the affective dimensions for entrepreneurial ethical decision making in general. (shrink)
Case-cohort design is a biased sampling method. Due to its cost-effective and theoretical significance, this design has extensive application value in many large cohort studies. The case-cohort data includes a subcohort sampled randomly from the entire cohort and all the failed subjects outside the subcohort. In this paper, the adjustment for the distorted covariates is considered to case-cohort data in Cox’s model. According to the existing adjustable methods of distorted covariates for linear and nonlinear models, we propose estimating the distorting (...) functions by nonparametrically regressing the distorted covariates on the distorting factors; then, the estimators for the parameters are obtained using the estimated covariates. The proof of consistency and being asymptotically normal is completed. For calculating the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression coefficients subject in Cox’s model, a minorization-maximization algorithm is developed. Simulation studies are performed to compare the estimations with the covariates undistorted, distorted, and adjusted to illustrate the proposed methods. (shrink)
The Gaussian mixture filter can solve the non-Gaussian problem of target tracking in complex environment by the multimode approximation method, but the weights of the Gaussian component of the conventional Gaussian mixture filter are only updated with the arrival of the measurement value in the measurement update stage. When the nonlinear degree of the system is high or the measurement value is missing, the weight of the Gauss component remains unchanged, and the probability density function of the system state cannot (...) be accurately approximated. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an algorithm to update adaptive weights for the Gaussian components of a Gaussian mixture cubature Kalman filter in the time update stage. The proposed method approximates the non-Gaussian noise by splitting the system state, process noise, and observation noise into several Gaussian components and updates the weight of the Gaussian components in the time update stage. The method contributes to obtaining a better approximation of the posterior probability density function, which is constrained by the substantial uncertainty associated with the measurements or ambiguity in the model. The estimation accuracy of the proposed algorithm was analyzed using a Taylor expansion. A series of extensive trials was performed to assess the estimation precision corresponding to various algorithms. The results based on the data pertaining to the lake trial of an unmanned underwater vehicle demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm in terms of its better accuracy and stability compared to those of conventional tracking algorithms, along with the associated reasonable computational time that could satisfy real-time tracking requirements. (shrink)
We investigate the effects of self-protection awareness on the spread of disease from the aspect of resource allocation behavior in populations. To this end, a resource-based epidemiological model and a self-awareness-based resource allocation model in complex networks are proposed, respectively. First of all, we study the coupled disease-awareness dynamics in complex networks with fixed degree heterogeneity. Through extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that overall the self-awareness inhibits the spread of disease. More importantly, the influence of the self-awareness on the (...) spreading dynamics can be divided into three phases. In phase I, the self-awareness is relatively small and the outbreak of the epidemic can not be suppressed effectively. While, in phase II, the epidemic size is significantly reduced. Finally, in phase III, there is a sufficiently large value of self-awareness, the disease cannot outbreak anymore. Further, we study the impact of degree heterogeneity on the coupled disease-awareness dynamics and find that the network heterogeneity plays the role of “double-edged sword” in that it can either suppress or promote the epidemic spreading. Specifically, when the basic infection rate is relatively small, it promotes the spread of disease under the condition that there is a relatively small self-awareness. While, when the basic infection rate is relatively large, it inhibits the outbreak of epidemic at a relatively small self-awareness; in turn, it promotes the outbreak of epidemic at a relatively large self-awareness. (shrink)
Many real infrastructure systems such as power grids and communication networks across cities not only depend on each other but also have community structures. This observation derives a new research subject of the interdependent community networks. Recent works showed that the ICNs are extremely vulnerable to the failure of interconnected nodes between communities. Such vulnerability is prone to cause avalanche breakdown of the ICNs. How to improve the robustness of ICNs remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a new (...) target recovery strategy in the self-awareness recovery model, called recovery strategy based on community structures. The self-awareness recovery model repairs and reactivates the original pair of failed nodes that belong to mutual boundary of networks during cascading failures. The key insight is that the RCS explicitly considers both intercommunity links and intracommunity links. In this paper, we compare RCS with the state-of-the-art approaches based on randomness, degree centrality, and local centrality. We find that the RCS outperforms the other three strategies on the size of giant component, the existence probability of giant component, the number of iterative cascade steps, and the average degree of the remaining network. Moreover, RCS is robust against a given noise, and the optimal parameter of RCS remains stable even if the recovery ratio varies. (shrink)
BackgroundThe brain death standard allowing a declaration of death based on neurological criteria is legally endorsed and routinely practiced in the West but not in Asia. In China, attempts to legalize the brain death standard have occurred several times without success. Cultural, religious, and philosophical factors have been proposed to explain this difference, but there is a lack of empirical studies to support this hypothesis.Methods476 medical providers from three academic hospitals in Hunan, China, completed a selfadministered survey including a 12-question (...) brain death clinical knowledge assessment and hypothetical vignettes describing brain dead patients.ResultsThe response rate was 95.2 %. Almost all of the providers had heard of the term “brain death.” More than half have encountered presumed brain dead patients. Two-thirds accepted brain death as an ethical standard to determine human death. The mean knowledge score was 8.50 ± 1.83 out of 12. When given the description of a brain dead patient, 50.7 % considered the patient dead, 51.9 % would withdraw life support, and 40.6 % would allow organ procurement. Both provider and patient characteristics contributed to the providers’ decisions. Ethical acceptance was the most important independent predictor for brain death acknowledgement, followed by high knowledge scores, and the belief that the soul lives in the brain. Religious faith and associated beliefs did not have a significant effect.ConclusionsNotwithstanding scarce official accounts, recognition of the brain death standard is not uncommon in China. Chinese medical providers can adequately define the medical characteristics of brain death and accept it in theory, but hesitate to apply it to practice in the vignettes. Legalization is paramount in providing the protection providers need to comfortably declare brain death. However the medical decision-making surrounding brain death is complex and the provider's past experiences and emotions may also influence the process. (shrink)
ArgumentRecent studies in Sinology have shown that Qing dynasty editors acted as philologists. This paper argues that the identification of their philological methods and editorial choices suggests that their choices were not totally neutral and may have significantly shaped the way modern historians interpreted specific works edited by mathematicians of that dynasty. A case study of the re-edition in 1798 of a Song dynasty treatise, theYigu yanduan, by a Qing dynasty mathematician will illustrate this point. At the end (...) of the eighteenth century, Li Rui was asked to prepare an edition of the mathematical works written by Li Ye for a private collection. Li Rui was a talented mathematician, but he was also a meticulous editor and trained philologist. He adopted his editorial model from the preparation of the imperial encyclopaedia, theSiku quanshu, but Li Rui also made some corrections to the text in an effort to restore an older version of Li Ye's treatises that had been lost. Convinced of the Chinese origin of algebra, Li Rui used philological techniques to recover the lost materials and to restore the roots of “Chinese mathematics.” TheYigu yanduancontains two algebraic procedures to set up quadratic equations, one from the procedure ofCelestial Source and the other from theSection of Pieces[of Areas]. Curiously, the second procedure has not yet attracted the attention of scholars so far, although Li Rui's edition is the one typically used by twentieth-century historians of mathematics. Today, theCelestial Sourcecharacterizes “Chinese algebra.” However, the specific concerns of Li Rui about the procedure ofCelestial Source, combined with his editorial methods, contributed to this perspective. (shrink)
EDITOR’S ABSTRACTSeeing New Qing History as a “malicious attack on a sovereign country” by “Western imperialists,” Li explicitly differentiates between a “wrong” and a “right” perspective on Qing history. In his view, the only legitimate standpoint is one that takes the People’s Republic of China’s territorial reach and “ethnic unity” as a necessary and natural result of history.
EDITOR’ ABSTRACTLi Aiyong starts from a thorough analysis of the academic background, theories, and approaches of New Qing History. This suggests that its emergence in North America and the controversy it continues to cause in China have to be understood within the respective academic traditions and cultural environments and calls on Chinese academia to actively impact the writing of Qing history overseas.
With the development of cloud computing, high-capacity reversible data hiding in an encrypted image has attracted increasing attention. The main idea of RDHEI is that an image owner encrypts a cover image, and then a data hider embeds secret information in the encrypted image. With the information hiding key, a receiver can extract the embedded data from the hidden image; with the encryption key, the receiver reconstructs the original image. In this paper, we can embed data in the form of (...) random bits or scanned documents. The proposed method takes full advantage of the spatial correlation in the original images to vacate the room for embedding information before image encryption. By jointly using Sudoku and Arnold chaos encryption, the encrypted images retain the vacated room. Before the data hiding phase, the secret information is preprocessed by a halftone, quadtree, and S-BOX transformation. The experimental results prove that the proposed method not only realizes high-capacity reversible data hiding in encrypted images but also reconstructs the original image completely. (shrink)
Shale oil is an unconventional oil resource with great potential. Oil saturation is an essential parameter for formation evaluation. However, due to the complexity of matrix mineral components and pore structure, Archie’s law cannot be used directly to calculate [Formula: see text] in shale oil reservoirs. We have developed a new saturation model for shale oil reservoirs. This model allows us to separate the organic from the inorganic pores, eliminate the background conductivity mainly caused by the borehole fluid or conductive (...) minerals and determine the effective conductive porosity, which rules out nonconductive porosity, including isolated pores and the pore space affected by the fluid distribution. By analyzing the logging and core experimental data from the Qianjiang Sag, Jianghan Oilfield, we found that the T2 cutoff porosities of nuclear magnetic resonance logging are strongly related to the nonconductive porosities. After we determine the T2 cutoff value using the core experimental data, we can use it to obtain nonconductive porosity fraction in each depth point, which allows us to efficiently calculate [Formula: see text]. We calculate oil saturation values and use them to estimate the oil content. The results are coherent with the core experimental data, which indicates the efficiency of this model. (shrink)