Results for 'Liad Tal'

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  1. On the Strength of No Normal Precipitous Filter.Moti Gitik & Liad Tal - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (1-2):223-243.
    We consider a question of T. Jech and K. Prikry that asks if the existence of a precipitous filter implies the existence of a normal precipitous filter. The aim of this paper is to improve a result of Gitik (Israel J Math, 175:191–219, 2010) and to show that measurable cardinals of a higher order rather than just measurable cardinals are necessary in order to have a model with a precipitous filter but without a normal one.
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  2.  39
    Information Integration Without Awareness.Liad Mudrik, Nathan Faivre & Christof Koch - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (9):488-496.
  3.  20
    Information Integration Without Awareness.Liad Mudrik, Nathan Faivre & Christof Koch - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (7):559.
  4. Old and New Problems in Philosophy of Measurement.Eran Tal - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1159-1173.
    The philosophy of measurement studies the conceptual, ontological, epistemic, and technological conditions that make measurement possible and reliable. A new wave of philosophical scholarship has emerged in the last decade that emphasizes the material and historical dimensions of measurement and the relationships between measurement and theoretical modeling. This essay surveys these developments and contrasts them with earlier work on the semantics of quantity terms and the representational character of measurement. The conclusions highlight four characteristics of the emerging research program in (...)
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  5.  20
    Scene Congruency Biases Binocular Rivalry.Liad Mudrik, Leon Y. Deouell & Dominique Lamy - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):756-767.
    Contextual regularities, that is, objects’ tendency to appear with certain other objects, facilitate the processing of visual scenes and confer contextually incongruent objects with a special attentional status. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanisms underlying this attentional advantage using Binocular Rivalry . In two experiments, congruent and incongruent images were pitted against each other, yielding a version of BR in which two objects rival within a given scene. Incongruent objects predominated in awareness longer than congruent ones. This effect (...)
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  6. Is Evidence of Evidence Evidence?Eyal Tal & Juan Comesaña - 2017 - Noûs 51 (1):95-112.
    We examine whether the "evidence of evidence is evidence" principle is true. We distinguish several different versions of the principle and evaluate recent attacks on some of those versions. We argue that, whatever the merits of those attacks, they leave the more important rendition of the principle untouched. That version is, however, also subject to new kinds of counterexamples. We end by suggesting how to formulate a better version of the principle that takes into account those new counterexamples.
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  7.  27
    Unconscious Auditory Information Can Prime Visual Word Processing: A Process-Dissociation Procedure Study☆.Dominique Lamy, Liad Mudrik & Leon Y. Deouell - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):688-698.
  8. Is higher-order evidence evidence?Eyal Tal - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 178 (10):3157-3175.
    Suppose we learn that we have a poor track record in forming beliefs rationally, or that a brilliant colleague thinks that we believe P irrationally. Does such input require us to revise those beliefs whose rationality is in question? When we gain information suggesting that our beliefs are irrational, we are in one of two general cases. In the first case we made no error, and our beliefs are rational. In that case the input to the contrary is misleading. In (...)
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  9.  9
    The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions: An Analytic Road Map to Examine Efficiency and Fairness in Automated and Opaque Decision Making.Tal Zarsky - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (1):118-132.
    We are currently witnessing a sharp rise in the use of algorithmic decision-making tools. In these instances, a new wave of policy concerns is set forth. This article strives to map out these issues, separating the wheat from the chaff. It aims to provide policy makers and scholars with a comprehensive framework for approaching these thorny issues in their various capacities. To achieve this objective, this article focuses its attention on a general analytical framework, which will be applied to a (...)
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  10.  97
    Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement.E. Tal - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1):axu037.
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case-study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity-concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The model-based account clarifies (...)
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  11.  85
    How Accurate Is the Standard Second?Eran Tal - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1082-1096.
    Contrary to the claim that measurement standards are absolutely accurate by definition, I argue that unit definitions do not completely fix the referents of unit terms. Instead, idealized models play a crucial semantic role in coordinating the theoretical definition of a unit with its multiple concrete realizations. The accuracy of realizations is evaluated by comparing them to each other in light of their respective models. The epistemic credentials of this method are examined and illustrated through an analysis of the contemporary (...)
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  12.  67
    Self-Intimation, Infallibility, and Higher-Order Evidence.Eyal Tal - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (3):665-672.
    The Self-Intimation thesis has it that whatever justificatory status a proposition has, i.e., whether or not we are justified in believing it, we are justified in believing that it has that status. The Infallibility thesis has it that whatever justificatory status we are justified in believing that a proposition has, the proposition in fact has that status. Jointly, Self-Intimation and Infallibility imply that the justificatory status of a proposition closely aligns with the justification we have about that justificatory status. Self-Intimation (...)
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  13.  83
    Measurement in Science.Eran Tal - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14.  54
    Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement.Eran Tal - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):297-335.
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The model-based (...)
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  15. The Epistemology of Measurement: A Model-Based Account.Eran Tal - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Toronto
    This work develops an epistemology of measurement, that is, an account of the conditions under which measurement and standardization methods produce knowledge as well as the nature, scope, and limits of this knowledge. I focus on three questions: (i) how is it possible to tell whether an instrument measures the quantity it is intended to? (ii) what do claims to measurement accuracy amount to, and how might such claims be justified? (iii) when is disagreement among instruments a sign of error, (...)
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  16. Tal and Comesaña on Evidence of Evidence.Luca Moretti - 2016 - The Reasoner 10 (5):38-39.
    R. Feldman defends a general principle about evidence the slogan form of which says that ‘evidence of evidence is evidence’. B. Fitelson considers three renditions of this principle and contends they are all falsified by counterexamples. Against both Feldman and Fitelson, J. Comesaña and E. Tal show that the third rendition––the one actually endorsed by Feldman––isn’t affected by Fitelson’s counterexamples, but only because it is trivially true and thus uninteresting. Tal and Comesaña defend a fourth version of Feldman’s principle, which––they (...)
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  17.  44
    Calibration: Modelling the Measurement Process.Eran Tal - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 65:33-45.
  18.  19
    Uncertainty and Expectation in Sentence Processing: Evidence From Subcategorization Distributions.Tal Linzen & T. Florian Jaeger - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1382-1411.
    There is now considerable evidence that human sentence processing is expectation based: As people read a sentence, they use their statistical experience with their language to generate predictions about upcoming syntactic structure. This study examines how sentence processing is affected by readers' uncertainty about those expectations. In a self-paced reading study, we use lexical subcategorization distributions to factorially manipulate both the strength of expectations and the uncertainty about them. We compare two types of uncertainty: uncertainty about the verb's complement, reflecting (...)
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  19.  38
    Individuating Quantities.Eran Tal - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (4):853-878.
    When discrepancies are discovered between the outcomes of different measurement procedures, two sorts of explanation are open to scientists. Either some of the outcomes are inaccurate or the procedures are not measuring the same quantity. I argue that, due to the possibility of systematic error, the choice between and is underdetermined in principle by any possible evidence. Consequently, foundationalist criteria of quantity individuation are either empty or circular. I propose a coherentist, model-based account of measurement that avoids the underdetermination problem, (...)
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  20. From Heritability to Probability.Omri Tal - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):81-105.
    Can a heritability value tell us something about the weight of genetic versus environmental causes that have acted in the development of a particular individual? Two possible questions arise. Q1: what portion of the phenotype of X is due to its genes and what portion to its environment? Q2: what portion of X’s phenotypic deviation from the mean is a result of its genetic deviation and what portion a result of its environmental deviation? An answer to Q1 provides the full (...)
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  21.  5
    The Generalizability Crisis.Tal Yarkoni - forthcoming - Behavioral and Brain Sciences:1-37.
    Most theories and hypotheses in psychology are verbal in nature, yet their evaluation overwhelmingly relies on inferential statistical procedures. The validity of the move from qualitative to quantitative analysis depends on the verbal and statistical expressions of a hypothesis being closely aligned—that is, that the two must refer to roughly the same set of hypothetical observations. Here I argue that many applications of statistical inference in psychology fail to meet this basic condition. Focusing on the most widely used class of (...)
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  22.  37
    Cognitive Neuroscience 2.0: Building a Cumulative Science of Human Brain Function.Tal Yarkoni, Russell A. Poldrack, David C. Van Essen & Tor D. Wager - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (11):489-496.
  23.  8
    Emotion Regulation Through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics Are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions.Tal Shafir, Rachelle P. Tsachor & Kathleen B. Welch - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  24.  9
    A Joint Deep Recommendation Framework for Location-Based Social Networks.Omer Tal & Yang Liu - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-11.
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  25. From Data to Phenomena and Back Again: Computer-Simulated Signatures.Eran Tal - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):117-129.
    This paper draws attention to an increasingly common method of using computer simulations to establish evidential standards in physics. By simulating an actual detection procedure on a computer, physicists produce patterns of data (‘signatures’) that are expected to be observed if a sought-after phenomenon is present. Claims to detect the phenomenon are evaluated by comparing such simulated signatures with actual data. Here I provide a justification for this practice by showing how computer simulations establish the reliability of detection procedures. I (...)
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  26.  1
    Privacy Preserving Region Optimal Algorithms for Symmetric and Asymmetric DCOPs.Tal Grinshpoun, Tamir Tassa, Vadim Levit & Roie Zivan - 2019 - Artificial Intelligence 266:27-50.
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  27.  25
    Cognitive Neuroscience 2.0: Building a Cumulative Science of Human Brain Function.Tor D. Wager Tal Yarkoni, Russell A. Poldrack, David C. Van Essen - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (11):489.
  28.  11
    Privacy and Manipulation in the Digital Age.Tal Z. Zarsky - 2019 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 20 (1):157-188.
    The digital age brings with it novel forms of data flow. As a result, individuals are constantly being monitored while consuming products, services and content. These abilities have given rise to a variety of concerns, which are most often framed using “privacy” and “data protection”-related paradigms. An important, oft-noted yet undertheorized concern is that these dynamics might facilitate the manipulation of subjects; a process in which firms strive to motivate and influence individuals to take specific steps and make particular decisions (...)
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  29.  16
    The Effect of Object–Valence Relations on Automatic Evaluation.Tal Moran & Yoav Bar-Anan - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (4):743-752.
  30.  13
    When a Push Becomes a Shove: Nudging in Elderly Care.Tal Shachar & Dov Greenbaum - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):78-80.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 78-80.
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  31. Attitudes Towards Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: A Comparison Between Psychiatrists and Other Physicians.Tal Bergman Levy, Shlomi Azar, Ronen Huberfeld, Andrew M. Siegel & Rael D. Strous - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (7):402-408.
    Euthanasia and physician assisted-suicide are terms used to describe the process in which a doctor of a sick or disabled individual engages in an activity which directly or indirectly leads to their death. This behavior is engaged by the healthcare provider based on their humanistic desire to end suffering and pain. The psychiatrist's involvement may be requested in several distinct situations including evaluation of patient capacity when an appeal for euthanasia is requested on grounds of terminal somatic illness or when (...)
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  32.  43
    The Impact of Gene–Environment Interaction and Correlation on the Interpretation of Heritability.Omri Tal - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (3):225-237.
    The presence of gene–environment statistical interaction and correlation in biological development has led both practitioners and philosophers of science to question the legitimacy of heritability estimates. The paper offers a novel approach to assess the impact of GxE and rGE on the way genetic and environmental causation can be partitioned. A probabilistic framework is developed, based on a quantitative genetic model that incorporates GxE and rGE, offering a rigorous way of interpreting heritability estimates. Specifically, given an estimate of heritability and (...)
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  33.  16
    Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Can Induce Angiogenesis and Regeneration of Nerve Fibers in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin & Shai Efrati - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  34.  1
    Kant on Reality, Cause, and Force: From the Early Modern Tradition to the Critical Philosophy.Tal Glezer - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's category of reality is an often overlooked element of his Critique of Pure Reason. Tal Glezer shows that it nevertheless belongs at the core of Kant's mature critical philosophy: it captures an issue that motivated his critical turn, shaped his theory of causation, and established the role of his philosophy of science. Glezer's study traces the roots of Kant's category of reality to early modern debates over the intelligibility of substantial forms, fueled by the tension between the idea of (...)
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  35.  4
    Rational Adaptation in Lexical Prediction: The Influence of Prediction Strength.Tal Ness & Aya Meltzer-Asscher - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Recent studies indicate that the processing of an unexpected word is costly when the initial, disconfirmed prediction was strong. This penalty was suggested to stem from commitment to the strongly predicted word, requiring its inhibition when disconfirmed. Additional studies show that comprehenders rationally adapt their predictions in different situations. In the current study, we hypothesized that since the disconfirmation of strong predictions incurs costs, it would also trigger adaptation mechanisms influencing the processing of subsequent strong predictions. In two experiments, participants (...)
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  36.  14
    The Effect of Co-Occurrence and Relational Information on Speeded Evaluation.Tal Moran & Yoav Bar-Anan - 2020 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (1):144-155.
    ABSTRACTAfter co-occurrence of a neutral conditioned stimulus with an affective unconditioned stimulus, the evaluation of the CS acquires the US valence. This effect disappears when infor...
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  37.  33
    The Social Psychology of Knowledge.Daniel Bar-Tal & Arie W. Kruglanski (eds.) - 1988 - Editions De La Maison des Sciences De L'Homme.
    This collection, published in 1988, brings an innovative perspective to research in social cognition.
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  38.  22
    Neurocognitive Biases and the Patterns of Spontaneous Correlations in the Human Cortex.Tal Harmelech & Rafael Malach - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (12):606-615.
  39.  39
    Michael Weisberg * Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World. [REVIEW]Eran Tal - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):469-473.
  40.  1
    Joint Rhythmic Movement Increases 4-Year-Old Children’s Prosocial Sharing and Fairness Toward Peers.Tal-Chen Rabinowitch & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  41.  24
    Caffeine-Induced Global Reductions in Resting-State BOLD Connectivity Reflect Widespread Decreases in MEG Connectivity.Omer Tal, Mithun Diwakar, Chi-Wah Wong, Valur Olafsson, Roland Lee, Ming-Xiong Huang & Thomas T. Liu - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  42.  13
    Promoting Distributive Justice in Education and the Challenge of Unpredictability.Tal Gilead - 2019 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 38 (4):439-451.
    This article examines how the existence of unpredictability should influence the quest to promote distributive justice in education. First, the article briefly discusses resource allocation in education finance policy and its relationships with existing philosophical theories of distributive justice. It then explains why unpredictability comes into play in education and how this endangers the achievements of distributive justice. It is argued that unpredictability poses a real challenge to enhancing educational justice. Second, the article examines the common policy conception that educational (...)
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  43.  11
    La Théodicée réhabilitée ou Kant versus Elihu.Tal Steinbrecher - 2007 - Archives de Philosophie 2 (2):201-226.
    Le texte publié par Kant en 1791, ayant comme thème l’insuccès de toutes les tentatives en matière de théodicée, suscite en général peu d’intérêt. Cet article cherche à montrer que ce texte en particulier et le problème de la théodicée en général, gardent tout leur intérêt au sein de la philosophie kantienne, malgré la révolution copernicienne et peut-être en raison d’elle. Nous voudrions montrer que ce texte permet de lier la philosophie théorique — le criticisme — et la philosophie pratique, (...)
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  44.  23
    The Provenances of Economic Theory's Impact on Education: French Educational Thought at the End of the Ancien Régime.Tal Gilead - 2011 - Educational Theory 61 (1):55-73.
    Today, the influence of economic thought on educational theory is evident. It seems to weaken, however, the further we travel back in history. In this article, Tal Gilead examines the historical origins of this influence. He shows that it first emerged in French educational thought during the second half of the eighteenth century. Through analyzing a number of books on educational theory from this period, Gilead demonstrates the educational impact of two innovative economic ideas: first, the idea that wealth stems (...)
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  45.  13
    Antti Revonsuo, Inner Presence: Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon.Liad Mudrik & Dominique Lamy - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):379.
  46.  4
    Antti Revonsuo, Inner Presence: Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon.Liad Mudrik & Dominique Lamy - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):379-387.
  47.  24
    Review of Aamodt & Wang (2008): Welcome to Your Brain: Why You Lose Your Car Keys but Never Forget How to Drive and Other Puzzles of Everyday Life. [REVIEW]Liad Mudrik - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (2):441-449.
  48.  7
    The Primary Function of Consciousness: Integration.Liad Mudrik - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  49.  8
    Preparing for Distraction: Attention is Enhanced Prior to the Presentation of Distractors.Tal Makovski - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
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  50.  37
    Education and the Logic of Economic Progress.Tal Gilead - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (1):113-131.
    Over the last few decades, the idea that education should function to promote economic progress has played a major role in shaping educational policy. So far, however, philosophers of education have shown relatively little interest in analysing this notion and its implications. The present article critically examines, from a philosophical perspective, the link between education and the currently prevailing understanding of economic progress, which is grounded in human capital theory. A number of familiar philosophical objections to the idea that economic (...)
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