El De dogmatibus ecclesiasticis de Genadio de Marsella se encuentra próximo a la tradición de los símbolos, compilaciones doctrinarias de consulta ágil, por su estructura interna y contenidos. El examen del tratado genadiano contribuye a delimitar su contexto de composición, así como las preferencias dogmáticas de su autor. The De dogmatibus ecclesiasticis of Gennadius of Massilia is close to the tradition of symbols, easy to read doctrinal compilations, because of its structure and contents. The exam of Gennadius’ book contributes to (...) define its composition context and its author’s dogmatic choices. (shrink)
The COVID-19 pandemic and its related policies (e.g., stay at home and social distancing orders) have increased people’s use of digital technology, such as social media. Researchers have, in turn, utilized artificial intelligence to analyze social media data for public health surveillance. For example, through machine learning and natural language processing, they have monitored social media data to examine public knowledge and behavior. This paper explores the ethical considerations of using artificial intelligence to monitor social media to understand the public’s (...) perspectives and behaviors surrounding COVID-19, including potential risks and benefits of an AI-driven approach. Importantly, investigators and ethics committees have a role in ensuring that researchers adhere to ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice in a way that moves science forward while ensuring public safety and confidence in the process. (shrink)
Texto produzido com base na experiência de redação de um Memorial Acadêmico. Reflexão sobre o sentido do Memorial, como um olhar retrospectivo sobre o passado acadêmico e o significado de sua reconstrução feita, inevitavelmente, sob a ótica do presente. Sendo diferente do sentido que possuía no momento em que foi vivido, o passado só pode ser recuperado como reconstrução póstuma.
Among ethicists and engineers within robotics there is an ongoing discussion as to whether ethical robots are possible or even desirable. We answer both of these questions in the positive, based on an extensive literature study of existing arguments. Our contribution consists in bringing together and reinterpreting pieces of information from a variety of sources. One of the conclusions drawn is that artifactual morality must come in degrees and depend on the level of agency, autonomy and intelligence of the machine. (...) Moral concerns for agents such as intelligent search machines are relatively simple, while highly intelligent and autonomous artifacts with significant impact and complex modes of agency must be equipped with more advanced ethical capabilities. Systems like cognitive robots are being developed that are expected to become part of our everyday lives in future decades. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that their behaviour is adequate. In an analogy with artificial intelligence, which is the ability of a machine to perform activities that would require intelligence in humans, artificial morality is considered to be the ability of a machine to perform activities that would require morality in humans. The capacity for artificial (artifactual) morality, such as artifactual agency, artifactual responsibility, artificial intentions, artificial (synthetic) emotions, etc., come in varying degrees and depend on the type of agent. As an illustration, we address the assurance of safety in modern High Reliability Organizations through responsibility distribution. In the same way that the concept of agency is generalized in the case of artificial agents, the concept of moral agency, including responsibility, is generalized too. We propose to look at artificial moral agents as having functional responsibilities within a network of distributed responsibilities in a socio-technological system. This does not take away the responsibilities of the other stakeholders in the system, but facilitates an understanding and regulation of such networks. It should be pointed out that the process of development must assume an evolutionary form with a number of iterations because the emergent properties of artifacts must be tested in real world situations with agents of increasing intelligence and moral competence. We see this paper as a contribution to the macro-level Requirement Engineering through discussion and analysis of general requirements for design of ethical robots. (shrink)
A influência da família no desenvolvimento da criança e do adolescente é um foco importante de pesquisa atualmente. Para estudar a relação entre a interação familiar e a auto-estima de adolescentes, 111 alunos (13 e 14 anos), de três escolas particulares de Porto União (SC) responderam a Escala de A..
The Green Revolution is often seen as epitomising the dawn of scientific and technological advancement and modernity in the agricultural sector across developing countries, a process that unfolded from the 1940s through to the 1980s. Despite the time that has elapsed, this episode of the past continues to resonate today, and still shapes the institutions and practices of agricultural science and technology. In Brazil, China, and India, narratives of science-led agricultural transformations portray that period in glorifying terms—entailing pressing national imperatives, (...) unprecedented achievements, and heroic individuals or organizations. These “epic narratives” draw on the past to produce meaning and empower the actors that deploy them. Epic narratives are reproduced over time and perpetuate a conviction about the heroic power of science and technology in agricultural development. By crafting history and cultivating a sense of scientific nationalism, exceptionalism, and heritage, these epic narratives sustain power-knowledge relations in agricultural science and technology, which are underpinned by a hegemonic modernization paradigm. Unravelling the processes of assemblage and reproduction of epic narratives helps us make sense of how science and technology actors draw on their subjective representations of the past to assert their position in the field at present. This includes making claims about their credentials to envision and deliver sustainable solutions for agriculture into the future. (shrink)
Como propiciar um estado permanente de criação filosófica no ensino da Filosofia entre os estudantes do Ensino Superior? Eis o objetivo deste artigo. Essa questão está previamente acompanhada por dois argumentos: um deles relativo ao fato de que o ensino prevê uma atitude de abertura, disposição e curiosidade, condições essas indispensáveis à aprendizagem. O segundo, decorrente do primeiro, é que o ensino de Filosofia está intimamente vinculado à natureza própria da Filosofia que, distante da busca pela verdade como afirmação ou (...) detenção de um saber, resulta da experiência de alguém que é perguntado pela verdade, em certa atitude que se expressa no “cuidado de si mesmo” conduzindo a uma transformação, como vem apresentado por Michel Foucault em sua obra “A Hermenêutica do Sujeito”. Argumentaremos que o filosofar pode ser intensificado pela arte e, nesse aspecto, iremos estabelecer relações entre experiência filosófica e música como paisagem sonora. Essa conexão estimula entre os alunos a construção de realidades materiais e imateriais – paisagens – de modo que habitem seu universo de memórias afetivas, intelectuais, poéticas, musicais e filosóficas. Em sintonia com essa forma de pensar, será apresentado o conceito de pensamento-sentimento desenvolvido pela filósofa portuguesa Paula Cristina Pereira, que exibe grande fecundidade na direção do acesso às matrizes fundantes de nossa condição antropológica existencial. Nesse diálogo entre filosofia e música, escuta musical e experiência filosófica suscitam-se possibilidades para um ensino de filosofia habitado pelo sensível e pelos sentidos da vida em tempos tão difíceis como na atualidade, porque extremamente fugazes, dispersos, “líquidos” e carentes de densidade e dignidade humana. Palavras-chave: Ensino de Filosofia. Filosofia e Educação. Arte e Filosofia. Paisagem Sonora. Pensamento-Sentimento. (shrink)
El objetivo del presente estudio es describir dos experiencias de implementaci ó n de un programa de intervenci ó n dirigido a j ó venes y adolescentes españoles y dominicanos. El programa se desarrolla mediante la estrategia de gamificaci ó n a travé s del videojuego "Aislados" que contribuye al desarrollo del aprendizaje social y emocional. Se comparan las experiencias, incluyendo los resultados de autopercepci ó n en ambos contextos.
Starting symbolically from a place of transit and mobility such as the Galleria in Naples, I look at the pace of immigration movements to Italy from both ex-colonial territories and other countries. Precarity characterizes the migrant condition in Italy: entrance and stay permits; work and housing, which are difficult to obtain and always temporary; bureaucratic control is severe and the right to citizenship is distant. The collective amnesia of the colonial enterprise obscures the fact that at least some of the (...) guests of today were the hosts of yesterday. I analyse these, and other aspects, in the literature of migration that in recent decades has emerged in Italy, focusing on women's writing and confronting the problem of how long it will take for this literature to receive recognition in the Italian literary canon. In women's narratives, precarity emerges in the journey of emigration, described as a real odyssey; in tensions over identity and language; in contrasting cultures of departure and cultures of destination; in the problematic concept of ‘home’. Racial and gender differences subsumed in the colour of skin are a recurrent motif. For women, hardships may be more deeply felt: isolation and loneliness is augmented by the distance from children and family; the relationship between past and present more troublesome as it often leads to a double oppression. independence is more fiercely fought for in the affirmation of identity. Finally, I show that, alongside conditions of isolation and despair, strength and hope in the new life emerge from these writings, touching on the importance of writing in Italian and on the motives leading to this choice. (shrink)
The Internet was born in 1960’s, then Internet ethics appeared as a branch of information ethics. It seems, however, our status on the Net is not yet scrutinized. We investigate this problem with the help of philosophers like Dreyfus, Merleau-Ponty, and Austin.
Thèse d'histoire, ce livre traite des itinéraires humains dans le réseau ferré qui, au début du XXe siècle, se répand et s'avance de l'Ouest de l'Etat de São Paulo vers celui du Mato Grosso, la Bolivie et le Paraguay, dans un projet d'intégration économique régional et de modernisation de l'intérieur du Brésil. Il existe déjà beaucoup d'études sur le chemin de fer et le rail au Brésil, mais ce livre est le seul à évoquer des expériences féminines. Des documents administratifs (...) de la com.. (shrink)
Transformations are not only conditioned by facts encompassing narrower or wider panoramas: from concentrating on death and one (political) role (the ode of Horace), through recalling Cleopatra’s mature life and love (the drama of Shakespeare), to creating an image embracing the heroine’s whole life with its numerous roles, but as a mother and a daughter in the first place, because even her lovers resemble a father and a child (the fictional biography of Karen Essex). Above all, they appear to be (...) more connected with different attitudes towards universal references lying within human cognitive abilities. Horace’s didactic opposition of contradictory patterns leads to the victory of one of them — and it is a linear pattern, as an equivalent of modern myth, which is accepted by the author himself. In Shakespeare, it takes a form of tragedy resulting from the fragmentary character of each pattern, one of which introduces change (archaic myth) and the other constancy (modern myth), and from a painful attempt to combine them. In Essex, the vision of the world in which archaic myth, strongly represented by a child, triumphs is utopian. Irrespective of the differences, all the works realize the essential role played by images developed by heroes, and especially by authors, in human cognition. (shrink)
This new edition of Baran and Davis's successful text provides a comprehensive, historically based, introduction to mass communication theory. Clearly written with examples, graphics, and other materials to illustrate key theories, this edition traces the emergence of two main bodies of mass communication theory: social, behavioral and critical, cultural. The authors emphasize that media theories are human creations that typically are intended to address specific problems or issues.
This article contributes to the environmental justice debate by analysing the case of the ILVA steel plant in Taranto, Italy. It accounts for the radical polarisation of the public debate between industrialists and environmentalists. These dominant perspectives are polarised but not politicised. In the reading of the crisis, both fronts adopt similar techno-scientific arguments while failing to problematise the multiple dimensions of environmental injustice and to connect the crisis to broader social relations of production. This article contends, therefore, that the (...) environmental debate in Taranto unfolds in a post-political situation, where technical narratives prevail at the expense of more political positions. In this context, any attempts to politicise the public debate is either absorbed by the dominant views or marginalised. (shrink)
The authors investigate the contemporary idea of noosphere (the conceptual and ideological basis for considering the coming ecological crisis). The authors arrive at the conclusion that the concept of human plays the central role in ecology as all the ecological problems rest upon the problem of mankind’s moral imperative. Therefore the authors claim, applying among others Vernadsky’s views, that the idea of human in the field of ecology should be today revised.
Der Beitrag diskutiert die vielfältigen Askese-Traditionen und Vorstellungen einer neuen religiösen Gruppe im Osten Indiens, deren Zentren in asketischen Orden und der Laienbevölkerung in Stammesgebieten Odishas liegen.
While Chile's partial decriminalization of abortion in 2017 was a long overdue recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights, nearly four years later the caseload remains well below expectations. This pattern is the product of standing barriers in access to abortion-related health services, especially at the primary care point of entry. This study seeks to identify and describe these barriers. The findings presented here were obtained through a qualitative, exploratory study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with relevant actors identified through (...) non-random sampling and snowballing techniques. Coding was inductive and complemented by semantic content analysis. The authors find that the key barriers in primary care to accessing legal abortion are unfamiliarity with the law, insufficient practitioner training, intersectoral discrimination, and the stigma surrounding abortion. They conclude that the government needs to exercise its constitutional mandate as guarantor of public health and act promptly to safeguard and guarantee the abortion rights of Chilean women. (shrink)
In the Summa theologiae, Aquinas distinguishes between an extrinsic and an intrinsic beatitude, the first being caused by God and the latter by human acts. The sixteenth-century Salamanca commentators on the Summa concentrate their interpretative efforts on the intrinsic beatitude, assigning to the human acts an indispensable role in order to reach beatitude. Their main concern is to refute the Lutheran conception of man’s passive role in his own justification.
In the second half of the sixteenth century, many universities influenced by Salamanca adopted the Summa theologiae as the textbook for teaching scholastic theology. At the same time, the universities decided that some minor chairs should teach one of the Sentences commentaries written by one of the following authors: Duns Scotus, Durand of Saint-Pourçain, or Gabriel Biel. As a result, some commentaries on these commentaries started to appear. This is most notably the case when it comes to the University of (...) Coimbra, where Aquinas’s Summa became the textbook only very late and where the chairs of Scotus, Durand and Biel were instituted in the second half of the century. This article provides a list of questions making up thirteen commentaries produced in Coimbra, where, unlike what happened in Salamanca, the professors belonged to different religious orders. It also presents the list of questions of one commentary connected with a Franciscan convent. Some reflections on the need to study late-scholastic manuscripts as well as on the structure of these commentaries are also offered. (shrink)
O presente estudo pretende compreender como a diáspora interfere no ato de ouvir a programação da Rádio Comunitária 87.9 FM de Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, pela internet, isto é, se o fato de ouvir a emissora por meio do site aproxima os indivíduos diaspóricos de Frederico Westphalen, da Rádio ou de alguém que resida no município e como isso acontece. A metodologia utilizada foi de entrevistas em profundidade com ouvintes da Rádio Comunitária FM que estão em situação de (...) diáspora e também com o diretor da emissora. A grande maioria dos entrevistados ouve a Rádio como uma maneira de se manter próximo a Frederico Westphalen ou a algum familiar ou amigo que resida no município, diminuindo assim os efeitos da diáspora em suas vidas, como a saudade, por exemplo. (shrink)
In response to the paper by Cotnoir and Bacon published in RSL 2/2012, we would like to add some remarks regarding supplementation principles. It is known that in a classical mereology, the Strong Supplementation Principle (SSP) together with antisymmetry enforces the Weak Supplementation Principle (WSP). Instead, in the nonwellfounded mereology, the failure of extensionality causes the failure of antisymmetry (Cotnoir, 2010), hence the investigated model is also nonantisymmetric. Cotnoir supposes that the failure of antisymmetry implies the failure of (WSP) when (...) (PP1) is applied, however gives no explicit argument, which we would like to supply in this paper. Additionally, when (PP2) is applied, (SSP) implies (WSP), hence the failure of antisymmetry does not necessarily imply the failure of (WSP). (shrink)
Multiple sclerosis significantly affects how patients maintain the resources they consider important. The aim of this paper is to describe the moderation effect of time since diagnosis on the evaluation of resources by patients with multiple sclerosis, on the basis of S.E. Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. The study was conducted using paper and pencil methods and involved 77 patients, of whom 32 received their diagnosis less than four years ago, and 45 more than four years ago. The patients’ resource (...) evaluation was investigated using the Polish adaptation of the COR questionnaire. Patients who received their diagnosis more than four years ago were more likely to consider vital and spiritual resources to be more important. In patients diagnosed less than four years ago, the loss of economic, political, and vital resources was significant. It is shown moderation effect of time since diagnosis. The results may for the basis for further research. (shrink)
Resumo Este artigo pretende avaliar o papel da imagem na história do atomismo e sua relação com a ideia da visualização do invisível da matéria, com enfoque nas perspectivas epistemológicas de Gaston Bachelard. As origens do atomismo estão ligadas à visão, mas é somente no final do século XVI que a iconografia atomística surge. No artigo, a autora procura evidenciar a tentação humana para o “reino das imagens”: começando por explanar a importância da “metafísica da poeira” ; fazendo notar que (...) o termo “átomo” designou entidades diversas e ressaltando a importância conferida à geometria nas concepções atomísticas, tão presente ao longo da história do atomismo filosófico; tecendo considerações sobre uma das primeiras imagens do átomo - Area Democriti, de Giordano Bruno; colocando em destaque a problemática da imagem no atomismo contemporâneo e do seu radical abstracionismo; explorando o paradoxo da utilidade das imagens a partir de várias obras bachelardianas; mostrando que Bachelard não parece tomar a noção de imagem em sentido lato e que distinguir imagens de não-imagens é supor que ela tenha uma essência e classificação estável; e, por fim, apontando para o fato de cada vez mais a filosofia da ciência tentar apurar qual a função que a iconografia pode ter na criação científica e na transmissão de conhecimento.This article aims to evaluate the role of image in the history of atomism and its relation with the idea of visualization of the invisible of matter, focusing on the epistemological perspectives of Gaston Bachelard. The origins of atomism are linked to vision, but it is only in the late sixteenth century that the atomistic iconography appears. In the article, the author seeks to evince the human temptation to "the realm of images": starting by expounding the importance of the "metaphysics of dust" ; noting that the term "atom" has designated several entities and emphasizing the importance given to geometry in atomistic conceptions, so present throughout the history of philosophical atomism; making considerations about one of the first images of the atom - Area Democriti, of Giordano Bruno; by highlighting the problematics of the image in contemporary atomism and of its radical abstractionism; exploring the paradox of the usefulness of images from various works of Bachelard; showing that Bachelard does not seem to take the concept of image in a broad sense and that to distinguish images of non-images is to assume that it has an essence and stable classification; and, finally, pointing to the fact that increasingly the philosophy of science attempts to investigate what function the iconography may have in scientific creation and transmission of knowledge. (shrink)
Mentalization is a form of social cognition that enables to perceive and interpret human behaviour in terms of intentional mental states and is influenced by social context. Hence, we examined mentalization related to specific attachment relationships. This study involved 115 participants who reported their relationship-specific and global attachment styles, and perspective-taking tendency towards their attachment figures. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task-Revised was used as a proxy for mentalization disregarding relationships. The results showed that perspective-taking was associated with relationship-specific (...) attachment avoidance whereas global characteristics of mentalization were not related to attachment quality. Our findings indicate that the link between attachment quality and mentalization is relationship-specific. (shrink)