Results for 'Lidy Smit'

228 found
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  1.  17
    The Interplay Between Theory of Mind and Social Emotional Functioning in Adolescents With Communication and Language Problems.Lidy Smit, Harry Knoors, Daan Hermans, Ludo Verhoeven & Constance Vissers - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  2. Kant on Marks and the Immediacy of Intuition.Houston Smit - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):235-266.
    The distinction between concept and intuition is of the utmost importance for understanding Kant’s critical philosophy. For, as Kant himself claimed, all the distinctive claims of this philosophy rest on, and develop out of, a detailed account of the way all our cognition of things requires both intuitions and concepts.
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  3. The Incentivized Action View of Institutional Facts as an Alternative to the Searlean View: A Response to Butchard and D’Amico.J. P. Smit, Filip Buekens & Stan du Plessis - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (1):44-55.
    In our earlier work, we argued, contra Searle, that institutional facts can be understood in terms of non-institutional facts about actions and incentives. Butchard and D’Amico claim that we have misinterpreted Searle, that our main argument against him has no merit and that our positive view cannot account for institutional facts created via joint action. We deny all three charges.
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  4.  34
    The Development of Altruistic Behavior Out of Reactive Crying.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):79-86.
    Reactive crying, displayed by children as a response to the distress of another, is described as a precursor of helping and caring. There are several stages during the transition from the innate, reactive cry to the intentional response. Children at the age of 6–14 months are able to control their reactive distress response, yet still respond to the distress of others by displaying distress behavior themselves. Two explanations are discussed. According to one explanation, children are confused about what happens to (...)
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  5.  14
    The Moral Purpose of the State: Culture, Social Identity, and Institutional Rationality in International Relations.Christian Reus-Smit - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
  6. Machine Morality: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches for Modelling Human Moral Faculties. [REVIEW]Wendell Wallach, Colin Allen & Iva Smit - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (4):565-582.
    The implementation of moral decision making abilities in artificial intelligence (AI) is a natural and necessary extension to the social mechanisms of autonomous software agents and robots. Engineers exploring design strategies for systems sensitive to moral considerations in their choices and actions will need to determine what role ethical theory should play in defining control architectures for such systems. The architectures for morally intelligent agents fall within two broad approaches: the top-down imposition of ethical theories, and the bottom-up building of (...)
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  7.  59
    Darwin’s Rehabilitation of Teleology Versus Williams’ Replacement of Teleology by Natural Selection.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):357-365.
    Williams argued that Darwin replaced teleology by natural selection. This article argues that this idea is based on a misunderstanding of Darwin’s critique of the argument from design. Darwin did not replace teleology by evolutionary explanations but showed that we can understand teleology without referring to a Designer. He eliminated the concept of design and rehabilitated Aristotelian teleological explanations. The implication is that adaptations should not be investigated as if designed, but with the help of both teleological and evolutionary explanations. (...)
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  8. Individual Rights and the Making of the International System.Christian Reus-Smit - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    We live today in the first global system of sovereign states in history, encompassing all of the world's polities, peoples, religions and civilizations. Christian Reus-Smit presents a new account of how this system came to be, one in which struggles for individual rights play a central role. The international system expanded from its original European core in five great waves, each involving the fragmentation of one or more empires into a host of successor sovereign states. In the most important, (...)
     
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  9. Artificial Morality: Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Hybrid Approaches. [REVIEW]Colin Allen, Iva Smit & Wendell Wallach - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):149-155.
    A principal goal of the discipline of artificial morality is to design artificial agents to act as if they are moral agents. Intermediate goals of artificial morality are directed at building into AI systems sensitivity to the values, ethics, and legality of activities. The development of an effective foundation for the field of artificial morality involves exploring the technological and philosophical issues involved in making computers into explicit moral reasoners. The goal of this paper is to discuss strategies for implementing (...)
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  10.  71
    Developing the Incentivized Action View of Institutional Reality.J. P. Smit, Filip8 Buekens & Stan Du Plessis - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8).
    Contemporary discussion concerning institutions focus on, and mostly accept, the Searlean view that institutional objects, i.e. money, borders and the like, exist in virtue of the fact that we collectively represent them as existing. A dissenting note has been sounded by Smit et al. (Econ Philos 27:1–22, 2011), who proposed the incentivized action view of institutional objects. On the incentivized action view, understanding a specific institution is a matter of understanding the specific actions that are associated with the institution (...)
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  11.  17
    Grandmothers and Children’s Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa.Sandor Schrijner & Jeroen Smits - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):65-89.
    Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother’s importance depends on the family’s circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother’s co-residence and children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive. Grandmothers over age 60 are most effective in helping their children. They (...)
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  12. What Is Money? An Alternative To Searle's Institutional Facts.J. P. Smit, Filip Buekens & Stan du Plessis - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (1):1-22.
    In The Construction of Social Reality, John Searle develops a theory of institutional facts and objects, of which money, borders and property are presented as prime examples. These objects are the result of us collectively intending certain natural objects to have a certain status, i.e. to ‘count as’ being certain social objects. This view renders such objects irreducible to natural objects. In this paper we propose a radically different approach that is more compatible with standard economic theory. We claim that (...)
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  13.  19
    Reuniting Ethics and Social Science: The Oxford Handbook of International Relations.Christian Reus-Smit & Duncan Snidal - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (3):261-271.
    The quality of our theoretical argumentation, the diversity and insights of our methods, and our general level of understanding are markedly better than a generation ago. However, this progress has been driven by a division of labor with increased specialization that has led each part of the field to become narrower.
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  14.  21
    Strategies and Motives for Resistance to Persuasion: An Integrative Framework.Marieke L. Fransen, Edith G. Smit & Peeter W. J. Verlegh - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  15.  34
    Feasibility of Motor Imagery Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder – A Pilot Study.Imke L. J. Adams, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Jessica M. Lust, Peter H. Wilson & Bert Steenbergen - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  16.  23
    EEG Resting State Functional Connectivity in Adult Dyslexics Using Phase Lag Index and Graph Analysis.Gorka Fraga González, Dirk J. A. Smit, Melle J. W. van der Molen, Jurgen Tijms, Cornelis Jan Stam, Eco J. C. de Geus & Maurits W. van der Molen - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  17. Inclusive Fitness Theory and the Evolution of Mind and Language.Harry Smit - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (2):287-314.
    Philosophers have shown that the Aristotelian conception of mind and body is capable of resolving the problems confronting dualism. In this paper the resolution of the mind–body problem is extended with a scientific solution by integrating the Aristotelian framework with evolutionary theory. It is discussed how the theories of Fisher and Hamilton enable us to construct and solve hypotheses about how the mind evolved out of matter. These hypotheses are illustrated by two examples: the evolutionary transition from cells to multicellular (...)
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  18.  19
    Institutions and the Artworld – A Critical Note.Buekens Filip & J. P. Smit - 2018 - Journal of Social Ontology 4 (1):53-66.
    Contemporary theories of institutions as clusters of stable solutions to recurrent coordination problems can illuminate and explain some unresolved difficulties and problems adhering to institutional definitions of art initiated by George Dickie and Arthur Danto. Their account of what confers upon objects their institutional character does not fit well with current work on institutions and social ontology. The claim that “the artworld” confers the status of “art” onto objects remains utterly mysterious. The “artworld” is a generic notion that designates a (...)
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  19.  91
    Kant’s “I Think” and the Agential Approach to Self-Knowledge.Houston Smit - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (7):980-1011.
    ABSTRACTThis paper relates Kant’s account of pure apperception to the agential approach to self-knowledge. It argues that his famous claim ‘The I think must be able to accompany all of my represent...
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  20. Seven Misconceptions About the Mereological Fallacy: A Compilation for the Perplexed.Harry Smit & Peter M. S. Hacker - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (5):1077-1097.
    If someone commits the mereological fallacy, then he ascribes psychological predicates to parts of an animal that apply only to the (behaving) animal as a whole. This incoherence is not strictly speaking a fallacy, i.e. an invalid argument, since it is not an argument but an illicit predication. However, it leads to invalid inferences and arguments, and so can loosely be called a fallacy. However, discussions of this particular illicit predication, the mereological fallacy, show that it is often misunderstood. Many (...)
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  21.  76
    Cigarettes, Dollars and Bitcoins – an Essay on the Ontology of Money.J. P. Smit, Filip8 Buekens & Stan Du Plessis - 2016 - Journal of Institutional Economics 12 (2):327 - 347.
    What does being money consist in? We argue that something is money if, and only if, it is typically acquired in order to realise the reduction in transaction costs that accrues in virtue of agents coordinating on acquiring the same thing when deciding what thing to acquire in order to exchange. What kinds of things can be money? We argue against the common view that a variety of things (notes, coins, gold, cigarettes, etc.) can be money. All monetary systems are (...)
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  22. The Transition From Animal to Linguistic Communication.Harry Smit - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (3):158-172.
    Darwin’s theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication. However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling. It is discussed that language evolved (...)
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  23.  5
    Whistleblowing and Media Logic: A Case Study.Robert Es & Gerard Smit - 2003 - Business Ethics: A European Review 12 (2):144-150.
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  24.  42
    How to Do Things Without Words - A Theory of Declarations.J. P. Smit & Filip Buekens - 2017 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 47 (3):235-254.
    Declarations like “this meeting is adjourned” make certain facts the case by representing them as being the case. Yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the mechanism whereby the utterance of a declaration can bring about a new state of affairs. In this paper, we use the incentivization account of institutional facts to address this issue. We argue that declarations can serve to bring about new states of affairs as their utterance have game theoretical import, typically in virtue of (...)
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  25. Kant on Apriority and the Spontaneity of Cognition.Houston Smit - 2009 - In Samuel Newlands & Larry M. Jorgensen (eds.), Metaphysics and the Good: Themes From the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams. Oxford University Press.
  26.  70
    The Moral Significance of Gratitude in Kant's Ethics.Houston Smit & Mark Timmons - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (4):295-320.
    In this essay, we examine the grounds, nature and content, status, acquisition and role, and justification of gratitude in Kant's ethical system, making use of student notes from Kant's lectures on ethics. We are especially interested in questions about the significance of gratitude in Kant's ethics. We examine Kant's claim that gratitude is a sacred duty, because it cannot be discharged, and explain how this claim is consistent with his insistence that “ought” implies “can.” We argue that for Kant a (...)
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  27. Popper and Wittgenstein on the Metaphysics of Experience.Harry Smit - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):319-336.
    In the Tractatus Wittgenstein argued that there are metaphysical truths. But these are ineffable, for metaphysical sentences try to say what can only be shown. Accordingly, they are pseudo-propositions because they are ill-formed. In the Investigations he no longer thought that metaphysical propositions are pseudo-propositions, but argued that they are either nonsense or norms of descriptions. Popper criticized Wittgenstein’s ideas and argued that metaphysical truths are effable. Yet it is by now clear that he misunderstood Wittgenstein’s arguments and misguidedly thought (...)
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  28. A Conceptual Contribution to Battles in the Brain.Harry Smit - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):803-821.
    Badcock and Crespi have advanced the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia are caused by imbalanced imprinting in the brain. They argue that an imbalance between the effects of paternally and maternally expressed genes on brain development results in either an extreme paternal (autism) or maternal brain (schizophrenia). In this paper their conceptual model is discussed and criticized since it presupposes an incoherent distinction between observable physical and hidden mental phenomena. An alternative model is discussed that may be more fruitful for (...)
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  29. Effects of Imprinted Genes on the Development of Communicative Behavior: A Hypothesis. [REVIEW]Harry Smit - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):247-255.
    The kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts that imprinted genes affect parent–child and child–child interactions. During prenatal and neonatal stages, patrigenes promote selfish and matrigenes altruistic behavior. Models predict that this imprinted gene expression pattern is reversed starting with the juvenile stage. This article explores possible effects of imprinted genes on nonverbal and simple and complex linguistic behaviors before and after the reversal. A hypothesis is discussed that is based on the observation language evolved as a new form of communicative (...)
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  30. Toward a Christian Conception of History.Meijer C. Smit (ed.) - 2002 - University Press of America.
    Meyer Cornelis Smit taught history and philosophy in the Free University at Amsterdam for a quarter century. Toward a Christian Conception of History presents the harvest of his scholarly output. The relation between God and history and the problems inherent in articulating that relation in a manner consistent with historic Christian belief and modern ideas of historical existence is the central theme of Smit's writing. Smit discusses the influence of one's world view on the practice and appreciation (...)
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  31.  73
    Weismann, Wittgenstein and the Homunculus Fallacy.Harry Smit - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):263-271.
    A problem that has troubled both neo-Darwinists and neo-Lamarckians is whether instincts involve knowledge. This paper discusses the contributions to this problem of the evolutionary biologist August Weismann and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Weismann discussed an empirical homunculus fallacy: Lamarck’s theory mistakenly presupposes a homunculus in the germ cells. Wittgenstein discussed a conceptual homunculus fallacy which applies to Lamarck’s theory: it is mistaken to suppose that knowledge is stored in the brain or DNA. The upshot of these two fallacies is (...)
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  32.  82
    Why Bare Demonstratives Need Not Semantically Refer.J. P. Smit - 2012 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 42 (1):43-66.
    I-theories of bare demonstratives take the semantic referent of a demonstrative to be determined by an inner state of the utterer. E-theories take the referent to be determined by factors external to the utterer. I argue that, on the Standard view of communication, neither of these theories can be right. Firstly, both are committed to the existence of conventions with superfluous content. Secondly, any claim to the effect that a speaker employs the conventions associated with these theories cannot have any (...)
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  33. The Role of Reflection in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.Houston Smit - 1999 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 80 (2):203–223.
    There are two prevailing interpretations of the status which Kant accorded his claims in the Critique of Pure Reason: 1) he is analyzing our concepts of cognition and experience; 2) he is making empirical claims about our cognitive faculties. I argue for a third alternative: on Kant's account, all cognition consists in a reflective consciousness of our cognitive faculties, and in critique we analyze the content of this consciousness. Since Strawson raises a famous charge of incoherence against such a position, (...)
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  34.  2
    Introduction.Christian Reus-Smit - 2009 - In The Moral Purpose of the State: Culture, Social Identity, and Institutional Rationality in International Relations. Princeton University Press. pp. 3-11.
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  35.  35
    Responsible Leadership Development Through Management Education: A Business Ethics Perspective.Arnold Smit - 2013 - African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):45.
    Whilst business has contributed hugely to human development and economic progress, there is, at the same time, an intensifying debate about its complicity in aggravating the sustainability risks that society is currently facing. This debate also has a bearing on the role of management education in shaping the ethical and functional paradigms in the light of which businesses are created, developed and managed, as well as the parameters in the light of which they are evaluated and rated to be successful (...)
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  36.  20
    Weismann, Wittgenstein and the Homunculus Fallacy.Harry Smit - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):263-271.
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  37.  75
    Internalism and the Origin of Rational Motivation.Houston Smit - 2003 - The Journal of Ethics 7 (2):183-231.
    What makes a subject''s motivationrational is its originating in her practicalreasoning. I explain the appeal of this thesisabout rational motivation, and explore itsrelation to recent discussions of internalismabout reasons for action. I do so in theservice of clarifying an important meta-ethicaldebate between Humean motivational skeptics andtheir Kantian opponents. This debate is oneover whether, as this skeptic contends andKantians deny, considerations about ourmotivational capacities, together withinternalism, restrict genuine reasons foraction to merely instrumental ones. I arguethat properly adjudicating this debate requiresidentifying one (...)
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  38.  1
    God, the Beautiful and Mathematics: A Response.Peter-Ben Smit & Rianne de Heide - 2021 - HTS Theological Studies 77 (4):1-4.
    Volker Kessler argues two points to Rudolf Bohren’s list of four areas where God becomes beautiful should be extended with a fifth one: mathematics and mathematics can be argued as a place where God becomes beautiful. In this response, we would like to argue that the extension of Bohren’s list that Kessler argues in favour of is superfluous and that Kessler makes a number of questionable assumptions about mathematics. By arguing against Kessler, we intend to make an interdisciplinary contribution to (...)
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  39.  92
    Individual Differences in Patterns of Appraisal and Anger Experience.Peter Kuppens, Iven Van Mechelen, Dirk Jm Smits, Paul De Boeck & Eva Ceulemans - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):689-713.
  40.  43
    Whistleblowing and Media Logic: A Case Study.Robert Es & Gerard Smit - 2003 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 12 (2):144-150.
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  41.  12
    Kathryn Smits, Werner Besch, and Victor Lange, Eds., Interpretation Und Edition Deutscher Texte des Mittelalters: Festschrift Für John Asher Zum 60. Geburtstag. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1981. Pp. Xvii, 210; Frontispiece and 8 Black-and-White Plates. [REVIEW]Hubert Heinen - 1983 - Speculum 58 (3):854-855.
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  42.  9
    Book Reviews : Howard L. Kaye, The Social Meaning of Modern Biology: From Social Darwinism to Sociobiology. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT,1986. Pp. 184, $9.95 (Paper. [REVIEW]Harry E. Smit - 1992 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (4):531-534.
  43.  1
    Applying Political Theory: Issues and Debates.Katherine Smits - 2009 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    How can political theory help us understand and solve the political questions of our time? This introduction to political theory illuminates its relevance and applicability and clarifies what is at stake in debates over welfare, terrorism and civil liberties, minority rights, abortion and euthanasia, freedom of speech and a range of other issues.
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  44. Apriority, Reason, and Induction in Hume.Houston Smit - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (3):313-343.
    In what follows, I argue that Hume works with a notion of the a priori that, though unfamiliar today, was standard in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On this notion of the a priori, to know (consider, prove) something a priori is to know (consider, prove) it from the grounds that make it true. I will refer to this as the "from-grounds" notion of the a priori, and to the now-familiar and dominant notion—on which to know something a priori is (...)
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  45.  9
    An Evaluation of the Reporting on Ethics and Integrity of Selected Listed Motor Vehicle Companies.Anet Magdalena Smit & Elizabeth J. Bierman - 2017 - African Journal of Business Ethics 11 (1).
    Transparency in reporting has become very important and various stakeholders expect companies to disclose sensitive information, such as ethical aspects, integrity and anti-corruption information. Any indication of corruption can be detrimental when trying to attract foreign investors to invest in a country. These disclosure practices could place remarkable pressure on a company that needs to portray a positive image to their stakeholders. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the reporting on ethics, integrity and anti-corruption of companies in (...)
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  46.  79
    Just War and Terrorism: The End of the Just War Concept?Wim Smit (ed.) - 2005 - Peeters.
    With its interesting spectrum of viewpoints on some very actual and challenging themes, this book attempts to challenge the personal opinion of scholars and ...
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  47.  15
    ‘No Polycarps Among Us’? Questions for Reformed Political Theology Today.Dirk J. Smit - 2015 - Studies in Christian Ethics 28 (2):187-200.
    Offering an overview of challenges and questions, the essay situates contemporary directions and developments in Reformed thought about political ethics by considering whether four well-known slogans from the tradition of Reformed political thought are still meaningful and credible under changed conditions today. The four slogans, integrally related to one another, are the lordship of Christ, the prophetic role of the church, the love for justice, and the importance of calling. The essay draws primarily on recent South African experiences, where the (...)
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  48. Small Pipe-Clay Devotional Figures: Touch, Play and Animation.Lieke Smits - 2020 - Das Mittelalter 25 (2):397-423.
    Small, mass-produced pipe-clay figurines were popular devotionalia in the late medieval Low Countries. In this paper, focusing on representations of the Christ Child, I study the sensory and playful ways in which such objects were used as ‘props of perception’ in spiritual games of make-believe or role-play. Not only does this particular iconography invite tactile and playful behaviour, the figurines fit within a larger context of image practices involving visions and make-believe. Through such practices images were animated and imbued with (...)
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  49. The Divine Mystery in History.Meijer Cornelis Smit - 1955 - Kampen, J. H. Kok.
     
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  50.  5
    “Un”Trepreneurship.Maria Smit & Marius Pretorius - 2020 - African Journal of Business Ethics 14 (1):62-81.
    The current theoretical framing of entrepreneurship includes a number of diverse phenomena under the same conceptual umbrella, yet the terms are often conflated and used interchangeably. Based on the assumption that anything included under this conceptual umbrella contributes to economic development and job creation, entrepreneurship has become appropriated as a development tool in the Global South where poverty and unemployment are rife. This study introduces the term entrepreneurship as a development apparatus and defines it as the implementation of entrepreneurship support (...)
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