Results for 'Lili-Ann Wolff'

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  1. Rousseaus Émile: En Tidlös Provokation.Lili-Ann Wolff - 2013 - Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi 2 (1):44-69.
    One of the most legendary educational books ever written is Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s “Émile ou de l’Education”. Most obviously Rousseau wrote this book guided by diverse more or less conscious purposes and one of the main problems it presents is paradoxical: Does education have to promote freedom by force? In this article I will, firstly, present several aims that might have triggered Rousseau to write “Émile”. Secondly, I will discuss Rousseau’s view of the so called “educational paradox”. Since this quandary touches (...)
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  2.  1
    Det är inte enbart frågan om nomenklatur: Naturvetenskap och estetik.Lili-Ann Wolff & Pia Sjöblom - 2016 - Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi 5 (2):38-61.
    This article discusses the way humans value nature, with a focus on the way they value nature aesthetically. Of particular interest are the values of children and adolescents and the role of aesthetics in scientific studies. The discussion is based on philosophical writings, especially aesthetic sources, and current environmental education empirical research. Our aim is to show the necessity the science lessons have of an unambiguous aesthetic dimension. With flexible teaching methods that partly take place outdoor, the students' own values (...)
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  3. Collected Works of Charlotte Wolff.Charlotte Wolff - 2015 - Routledge.
    Charlotte Wolff was born in Riesenburg, West Prussia into a middle-class Jewish family. She studied philosophy and then medicine at several German universities, completing her doctorate in Berlin in 1926. Working in various institutions over the next few years, she was also interested in psychotherapy and had a small private medical and psychotherapeutic practice. In 1933 she was forced to leave Germany because of the Nazi regime, and settled for a few years in Paris. As a German refugee she (...)
     
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  4.  11
    Interview with Jonathan Wolff.Jonathan Wolff & Berges Sandrine - unknown
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  5. Briefwechsel Zwischen Leibniz Und Christian Wolff. Aus den Handschriften der Koeniglichen Bibliothek Zu Hannover.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Wolff & K. Gerhardt - 1971 - G. Olms.
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  6. The Critical Spirit Essays in Honor of Herbert Marcuse. Edited by Kurt H. Wolff and Barrington Moore. With the Assistance of Heinz Lubasz, Maurice R. Stein and E.V. Walter. --. [REVIEW]Kurt H. Wolff, Barrington Moore & Herbert Marcuse - 1967 - Beacon Press.
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  7.  14
    Pang-White, Ann A., Ed., The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender.Lili Zhang - 2018 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 17 (2):297-300.
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  8. Explanation and Demonstration in the Haller-Wolff Debate.Karen Detlefsen - 2006 - In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), The Problem of Animal Generation in Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    The theories of pre-existence and epigenesis are typically taken to be opposing theories of generation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. One can be a pre-existence theorist only if one does not espouse epigenesis and vice versa. It has also been recognized, however, that the line between pre-existence and epigenesis in the nineteenth century, at least, is considerably less sharp and clear than it was in earlier centuries. The debate (1759-1777) between Albrecht von Haller and Caspar Friedrich Wolff on (...)
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  9.  18
    Wolff's Empirical Psychology and the Structure of the Transcendental Logic.Brian A. Chance - 2018 - In Corey Dyck & Falk Wunderlich (eds.), Kant and his German Contemporaries. Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.
    It is often claimed that the structure of the Transcendental Logic is modeled on the Wolffian division of logic textbooks into sections on concepts, judgments, and inferences. While it is undeniable that the Transcendental Logic contains elements that are similar to the content of these sections, I believe these similarities are largely incidental to the structure of the Transcendental Logic. In this essay, I offer an alternative and, I believe, more plausible account of Wolff’s influence on the structure of (...)
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  10.  32
    Before and Beyond Leibniz: Tschirnhaus and Wolff on Experience and Method.Corey W. Dyck - manuscript
    In this chapter, I consider the largely overlooked influence of E. W. von Tschirnhaus' treatise on method, the Medicina mentis, on Wolff's early philosophical project (in both its conception and execution). As I argue, part of Tschirnhaus' importance for Wolff lies in the use he makes of principles gained from experience as a foundation for the scientific enterprise in the context of his broader philosophical rationalism. I will show that this lesson from Tschirnhaus runs through Wolff's earliest (...)
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  11. The Priority of Judging: Kant on Wolff's General Logic.Corey W. Dyck - 2016 - Estudos Kantianos 4 (2):99-118.
    In this paper, I consider the basis for Kant's praise of Wolff's general logic as "the best we have." I argue that Wolff's logic was highly esteemed by Kant on account of its novel analysis of the three operations of the mind (tres operationes mentis), in the course of which Wolff formulates an argument for the priority of the understanding's activity of judging.
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  12.  60
    Christian Wolff and Experimental Philosophy.Alberto Vanzo - 2015 - In Daniel Garber & Donald Rutherford (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. vol. 7, 225-255.
    This chapter discusses the relation between Christian Wolff's philosophy and the methodological views of early modern experimental philosophers. The chapter argues for three claims. First, Wolff's system relies on experience at every step and his views on experiments, observations, hypotheses, and the a priori are in line with those of experimental philosophers. Second, the study of Wolff's views demonstrates the influence of experimental philosophy in early eighteenth-century Germany. Third, references to Wolff's empiricism and rationalism are best (...)
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  13. Review of 'The Great Ocean of Knowledge. The Influence of Travel Literature on the Work of John Locke' by Ann Talbot. [REVIEW]María G. Navarro - 2011 - Seventeenth-Century News 69 (3&4):162-164.
    The resercher Ann Talbot presents in this book one of the more complex and in-depth studies ever written about the influence of travel literature on the work of the British philospher John Locke (1632-1704). At the end of the 18th century the study of travel literature was an alternative to academic studies. The philosopher John Locke recommended with enthousiasm these books as a way to comprehend human understanding. Several members of the Royal Society like John Harris (1966-1719) affirmed that the (...)
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  14.  14
    Transformations of Transcendental Philosophy: Wolff, Kant, and Hegel.Karin de Boer - 2011 - Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 32 (1-2):50-79.
    Shedding new light on Kant’s use of the term ‘transcendental’ in the Critique of Pure Reason, this article aims to determine the elements that Kant’s transcendental philosophy has in common with Wolffian ontology as well as the respects in which Kant turns against Wolff. On this basis I argue that Wolff’s, Kant’s and Hegel’s conceptions of metaphysics – qua first philosophy – have a deeper affinity than is commonly assumed. Bracketing the issue of Kant’s alleged subjectivism, I challenge (...)
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  15.  11
    Epigenetic Theories: Caspar Friedrich Wolff and Immanuel Kant.Ina Goy - 2014 - In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter. pp. 43-60.
    In this paper, I investigate the relation of Kant's theory of biology to epigenetic accounts of organic generation and development. In the literature, a dispute about similarities between Blumenbach's epigenetic account and Kant dominated the debate for many years (see Lenoir 1980, 1981, and 1982, 17–34, Richards 2000; 2002, 207–37; Look 2006, and van den Berg 2009). Some more recent interpreters claim that Wolff's, more than Blumenbach's account plays the pivotal role in the development of a vitalistic conception of (...)
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  16. Newton and Wolff.Marius Stan - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):459-481.
    Newton rested his theory of mechanics on distinct metaphysical and epistemological foundations. After Leibniz's death in 1716, the Principia ran into sharp philosophical opposition from Christian Wolff and his disciples, who sought to subvert Newton's foundations or replace them with Leibnizian ideas. In what follows, I chronicle some of the Wolffians' reactions to Newton's notion of absolute space, his dynamical laws of motion, and his general theory of gravitation. I also touch on arguments advanced by Newton's Continental followers, such (...)
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  17.  11
    Christian Wolff’s Lectures on Grotius’s De Iure Belli Ac Pacis From 1739–1740.Frank Grunert & Béla Kapossy - 2017 - Grotiana 38 (1):229-233.
    _ Source: _Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 229 - 233 This note announces a recent find in a private Swiss archive: Christian Wolff’s complete lecture course on Grotius’s _De iure belli ac pacis_ that he gave at the University of Marburg between June 1739 and May 1740.
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  18.  27
    Kurt H. Wolff and Italy: Tracing the Steps of an Elusive Spirit on His Journey Home.Onorina Vecchio - 2016 - Human Studies 39 (3):433-450.
    This article traces Kurt H. Wolff’s involvement with Italy, from his first sojourn in the 1930s as a German Jewish intellectual in exile to the end of his life. Wolff developed profound ties with the country that hosted him, and that he was forced to abandon once racial laws were introduced there on the eve of World War II. Nonetheless, throughout his life he regarded Italy as an elective homeland of sorts. Wolff’s Italian experience is revisited through (...)
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  19.  23
    Notions directrices et architectonique de la métaphysique. La critique kantienne de Wolff en 1763.Stefanie Buchenau - 2011 - Astérion 9.
    Cet article cherche à reconstituer la thèse de Christian Wolff sur l’évidence (Deutlichkeit) des principes métaphysiques, dans un article de 1729 sur les « Notions directrices et le véritable usage de la première science », qui offre une référence centrale (et méconnue aujourd’hui) aux répondants du concours de 1762-1763, dont Kant. Wolff affirme en effet que la métaphysique est susceptible d’une certitude égale voire supérieure à celle des mathématiques et qu’elle diffuse cette certitude à travers toutes les autres (...)
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    Kurt Wolff’s Interpretation of Mannheim’s Late Political Writings.Sandro Segre - 2016 - Human Studies 39 (3):451-463.
    This article deals with Kurt Wolff’s interpretation of Karl Mannheim, with reference to his writings on social planning. Wolff’s interpretation is presented and discussed in the context provided by other interpreters of Mannheim. They have, generally speaking, given scant attention to the late works by Mannheim, and rather focused on Ideology and Utopia, Mannheim’s most celebrated work. Interpreters who have considered these writings on planning have been mostly or entirely critical of them, objecting to their vagueness and inadequacy (...)
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  21.  12
    Michael Wolff über Kant als Logiker. Eine Stellungnahme zu Wolffs Metakritik.Theodor Ebert - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (2):373 - 382.
    In an earlier article (see J Gen Philos Sci (2009) 40: 357-372) I have discussed the arguments brought forward by Michael Wolff against the interpretation given in the commentary by Ebert and Nortmann on Aristotle's syllogistic theory (Aristoteles Analytica Priora Buch I, übersetzt und erläutert von Theodor Ebert und Ulrich Nortmann. Berlin 2007) and against the critique of Kant's adaption of the syllogistic logic. I have dealt with Wolff's arguments concerning (Ebert/Nortmann's interpretation of) Aristotle in the paper mentioned (...)
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  22. Pure Understanding, the Categories, and Kant's Critique of Wolff.Brian A. Chance - 2018 - In Kate Moran (ed.), Freedom and Spontaenity in Kant. Cambridge University Press.
    The importance of the pure concepts of the understanding (i.e. the categories) within Kant’s system of philosophy is undeniable. As I hope to make clear in this essay, however, the categories are also an essential part of Kant’s critique of Christian Wolff. In particular, I argue that Kant’s development of the categories represents a decisive break with the Wolffian conception of the understanding and that this break is central to understanding the task of the Transcendental Analytic. This break, however, (...)
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  23. Matter, Life, and Generation Eighteenth-Century Embryology and the Haller-Wolff Debate.Shirley A. Roe - 1981
     
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  24. How Real Is the Reality in Documentary Film? Jill Godmilow, in Conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro.Ann-Louise Shapiro - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (4):80–101.
    Documentary film, in the words of Bill Nichols, is one of the "discourses of sobriety" that include science, economics, politics, and history-discourses that claim to describe the "real," to tell the truth. Yet documentary film, in more obvious ways than does history, straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge. And the visual languages with which it operates have quite different effects than does the written text. In the following interview conducted during the winter of (...)
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  25.  30
    How Real Is the Reality in Documentary Film? Jill Godmilow, in Conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro.Ann-Louise Shapiro - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (4):80-101.
    Documentary film, in the words of Bill Nichols, is one of the "discourses of sobriety" that include science, economics, politics, and history-discourses that claim to describe the "real," to tell the truth. Yet documentary film, in more obvious ways than does history, straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge. And the visual languages with which it operates have quite different effects than does the written text. In the following interview conducted during the winter of (...)
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  26.  26
    Ann Dummett's Contribution to the Understanding of Immigration and Racism.Kimberly Ann Harris - 2015 - Critical Philosophy of Race 3 (1):20-27.
    This is a bibliography of Ann Dummett's work.
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  27.  16
    Cristiano Wolff E Il Razionalismo Precritico.Mariano Campo - 1940 - Journal of Philosophy 37 (22):611-612.
  28.  15
    La riscoperta di Christian Wolff: Un tentativo di bilancio.Luigi Cataldi Madonna - 2008 - Rivista di Filosofia 99 (2):291-319.
  29. Cristiano Wolff E Il Razionalismo Precritico.Mariano Campo - 1939 - Vite E Pensiero.
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  30. Wolff, Kant e le origini dell’antropologia filosofica.R. Martinelli - 2007 - .
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  31.  41
    Kant, Wolff and the Method of Philosophy.Gabriele Gava - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 8:271-303.
    Both in his pre-critical writings and in his critical works, Kant criticizes the Wolffian tradition for its use of the mathematical method in philosophy. The chapter argues that the apparent unambiguousness of this opposition between Kant and Wolff notwithstanding, the problem of ascertaining the relationship between Kant’s and Wolff’s methods in philosophy cannot be dismissed so quickly. Only a close consideration of Kant’s different remarks on Wolff’s approach and a comparison of the methods that Wolff and (...)
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  32. A Wolff in Kant’s Clothing: Christian Wolff’s Influence on Kant’s Accounts of Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (1):44-53.
    In attempts to come to grips with Kant’s thought, the influence of the philosophy of Christian Wolff (1679-1754) is often neglected. In this paper, I consider three topics in Kant’s philosophy of mind, broadly construed, where Wolff’s influence is particularly visible: consciousness, self-consciousness, and psychology. I argue that we can better understand Kant’s particular arguments and positions within this context, but also gain a more accurate sense of which aspects of Kant’s accounts derive from the antecedent traditions and (...)
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  33.  23
    Diverging views of epigenesis: the Wolff–Blumenbach debate.Andrea Gambarotto - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (2):12.
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach is widely known as the father of German vitalism and his notion of Bildungstrieb, or nisus formativus, has been recognized as playing a key role in the debates about generation in German-speaking countries around 1800. On the other hand, Caspar Friedrich Wolff was the first to employ a vitalist notion, namely that of vis essentialis, in the explanatory framework of epigenetic development. Is there a difference between Wolff’s vis essentialis and Blumenbach’s nisus formativus? How does (...)
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  34.  6
    Between biology and chemistry in the Enlightenment: how nutrition shapes vital organization. Buffon, Bonnet, C.F. Wolff.Cécilia Bognon-Küss - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):11.
    This paper seeks to characterize how the study of nutrition processes contributed to revisit the problem of vital organization in the late eighteenth century. It argues that focusing on nutrition leads to reformulate the problem of the relation between life and organization in terms of processes, rather than static or given structures. This nutrition-centered approach to life amounts to acknowledge the specific strategic role nutrition played in the development of a materialist approach to the generation of vital organization. The paper (...)
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  35. A fundamentação das ciências compreensivas: a posição de Dilthey reconstruí­da a partir de Leibniz, Wolff e Kant.Marcos César Seneda - 2007 - Princípios 14 (22):123-144.
    A obra de Dilthey desempenha um papel fundamental para a filosofia contemporânea, na medida em que Dilthey distingue duas esferas por meio das quais temos acesso ao todo da realidade: a experiência objetiva ( die Erfahrung ) e a vivência ( das Erlebnis ). É esta distinçáo que possibilita a Dilthey, em oposiçáo às ciências da natureza, conceber as condições de evidência e validade das ciências do espírito. Ainda que náo nomeada com estes termos, esta distinçáo vai estar na base (...)
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  36.  52
    Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop. A Foreword by Ann Cavoukian, Ph.D. [REVIEW]Ann Cavoukian - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):247-251.
    In November, 2009, a prominent group of privacy professionals, business leaders, information technology specialists, and academics gathered in Madrid to discuss how the next set of threats to privacy could best be addressed.The event, Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop, was co-hosted by my office and that of the Israeli Law, Information and Technology Authority. It marked the latest step in a journey that I began in the 1990’s, when I first focused on enlisting the support of technologies that could (...)
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  37.  57
    Michael Wolff über Syllogismen bei Aristoteles und Vernunftschlüsse bei Kant.Th Ebert - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):357-372.
    This is a critique of Michael Wolff's ideas on Kant and Aristotle. I criticize in particular his overestimation of Kant as a logician and his claim that Aristotle wants to offer proofs for his perfect syllogisms.
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  38. Wolff on Order and Space.Desmond Hogan - 2007 - In Stolzenberg (ed.), Wolff und die europäische Aufklärung: Akten des 1. Internationalen Wolff-Kongresses.
     
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  39.  20
    Organisms-Mechanisms: Stahl, Wolff, and the Case Against Reductionist Exclusion.Alfred Gierer - 1996 - Science in Context 9 (4).
    Unlike Aristotelian physics with its teleological notions, modern physics was developed exclusively in relation to the nonliving domain. This raised the question as to whether mechanics applies to organisms, and if so, to what extent. From the seventeenth century on, mechanistic ideas became prominent in biological and medical theory. Contemporary biology explains essential features of life on the basis of physical laws and processes. This does not prove, however, that the early mechanists were essentially right. In the eighteenth century, following (...)
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  40.  28
    Game Theory and the History of Ideas About Rationality: An Introductory Survey: Ann E. Cudd.Ann E. Cudd - 1993 - Economics and Philosophy 9 (1):101-133.
    Although it may seem from its formalism that game theory must have sprung from the mind of John von Neumann as a corollary of his work on computers or theoretical physics, it should come as no real surprise to philosophers that game theory is the articulation of a historically developing philosophical conception of rationality in thought and action. The history of ideas about rationality is deeply contradictory at many turns. While there are theories of rationality that claim it is fundamentally (...)
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  41.  14
    Wolff and Kant on Scientific Demonstration and Mechanical Explanation.Hein van den Berg - 2013 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 95 (2):178-205.
    This paper analyzes Immanuel Kant’s views on mechanical explanation on the basis of Christian Wolff’s idea of scientific demonstration. Kant takes mechanical explanations to explain properties of wholes in terms of their parts. I reconstruct the nature of such explanations by showing how part-whole conceptualizations in Wolff’s logic and metaphysics shape the ideal of a proper and explanatory scientific demonstration. This logico-philosophical background elucidates why Kant construes mechanical explanations as ideal explanations of nature.
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  42.  12
    Christian Wolff and Leibniz.Charles A. Corr - 1975 - Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (2):241.
    A recent article in this journal describes certain mathematical and philosophical controversies which occurred in Prussia during the middle decades of the 18th century. The article pays particular attention to the position of Christian Wolff and to the views of some of his followers. Both Wolff and the Wolffians are shown to have supported some of Leibniz's doctrines against those of the Newtonian camp. As a result, or perhaps in part as a premise, there is a strong tendency (...)
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  43.  72
    Between Wolff and Kant: Merian's Theory of Apperception.Udo Thiel - 1996 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (2):213-232.
    Between Wolff and Kant: Merian's Theory of Apperception UDO THIEL IT IS WELL KNOWN that the nodon of apperception or self-consciousness is central to Kant's theoretical philosophy. Kant introduces the notion in one of the crucial parts of the Critique of Pure Reason, the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories, and assigns it an important role in his critique of traditional metaphysics of the soul in the Transcendental Dialectic.' It is also well known that Kant did not invent the term (...)
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  44. Christian Wolff: Rational Thoughts on God, the World and the Soul of Human Beings; Also All Things in General (1720).Wolff - 2009 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials. Cambridge University Press.
  45.  42
    A Short Reply to Wolff's Argument That Democracy is Irrational.Fraser W. Smith - 2008 - Think 6 (16):49.
    Wolff suggests by way of the following argument that democracy appears to be irrational. Here is the argument given: 1) Ruling is a skill. 2) It is rational to leave the exercise of skills to experts [sic] 3) In a democracy the people rule. 4) The people are not experts. Therefore: 5) Democracy is irrational.
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    Theorising and Exposing Institutional Racism in Britain: The Contribution of Ann and Michael Dummett to Critical Philosophy of Race.Robert Bernasconi - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):593-606.
    By helping to introduce the relatively new concept of institutional racism into Britain, Sir Michael and Ann Dummett expanded the concept of racism beyond the limited sense it had been given in the 1940s and 1950s when racism tended to be associated with the scientific concept of race and when the focus tended to fall on the intent to harm or speak harm of a group that was identified as a race by science. They recognised that ‘race’ was primarily a (...)
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  47.  47
    Reply to Wolff, Plato, Smith, Churchill and Aristotle on Democracy.Timothy Childers - 2009 - Think 8 (22):93-99.
    Fraser Smith argues that Plato's argument against democracy as reconstructed by Jonathon Wolff is flawed because in a ‘modern’ democracy the people do not rule, but instead elect officials subject to a system of checks and balances. Smith's conception of democracy is much like Churchill's . I will argue that Smith's reply does not address Wolff and Plato's argument. I will then point out that Aristotle replied to Plato's argument in an appealing – and strikingly modern – fashion. (...)
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  48.  39
    Wolff E Kant Sobre Obrigação E Lei Natural: A Rejeição Do Voluntarismo Teológico Na Moral.Cunha Bruno - 2015 - Trans/Form/Ação 38 (3):99-116.
    RESUMO:O objetivo deste artigo é discutir sobre os conceitos de obrigação e lei natural, tendo como referência o polêmico debate moderno envolvendo intelectualismo e voluntarismo. Em um primeiro momento, destacaremos a rejeição de Wolff ao voluntarismo de Pufendorf e sua orientação em direção ao intelectualismo de Leibniz. Conforme essa nova orientação, uma teoria da lei natural não deve basear seu conceito de obrigação na autoridade das leis e em seu poder coercitivo, mas, por outro lado, unicamente na ideia de (...)
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  49.  42
    Vindication of the Human and Social Science of Kurt H. Wolff.Gary Backhaus - 2003 - Human Studies 26 (3):309-335.
    The purpose of this article is to vindicate the viability of Kurt H. Wolff''s methodology of surrender-and-catch for the human and social sciences. The article is divided into three sections. The first section explicates the fundamental significance of surrender-and-catch and Wolff''s motivation for advocating its practice. The second section compares surrender-and-catch with phenomenological methodology as well as objective science and the province of the everyday. The third section illustrates surrender-and-catch through my own practice. In this section I contextualize (...)
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  50.  23
    Theorising and Exposing Institutional Racism in Britain: The Contribution of Ann and Michael Dummett to Critical Philosophy of Race.Robert Bernasconi - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):593-606.
    By helping to introduce the relatively new concept of institutional racism into Britain, Sir Michael and Ann Dummett expanded the concept of racism beyond the limited sense it had been given in the 1940s and 1950s when racism tended to be associated with the scientific concept of race and when the focus tended to fall on the intent to harm or speak harm of a group that was identified as a race by science. They recognised that ‘race’ was primarily a (...)
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