17 found
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  1. Just Another Article on Moore’s Paradox, But We Don’t Believe That.Iskra Fileva & Linda A. W. Brakel - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5153-5167.
    We present counterexamples to the widespread assumption that Moorean sentences cannot be rationally asserted. We then explain why Moorean assertions of the sort we discuss do not incur the irrationality charge. Our argument involves an appeal to the dual-process theory of the mind and a contrast between the conditions for ascribing beliefs to oneself and the conditions for making assertions about independently existing states of affairs. We conclude by contrasting beliefs of the sort we discuss with the structurally similar but (...)
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  2. Categories of Wrong Belief--A Proposal.Linda A. W. Brakel - manuscript
    Wrong beliefs, known by some as ‘alternative facts’, have proliferated lately in important areas of human life, including social, political, and public health domains. This can be and has been damaging. This brief article proposes an epistemological category classification of these wrong beliefs, with the following mappings: a) ‘No-Information’ marked by willful blindness produces ‘Empty Beliefs’; b) ‘Mis-Information’ yields ‘Mis(taken) Beliefs’; and c) ‘Dis-Information’ predicated on blatant distortions produces ‘Dis(torted) Beliefs’. This simple classification system, is perhaps epistemologically satisfying, and moreover (...)
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  3. Subliminal unconscious conflict alpha power inhibits supraliminal conscious symptom experience.Howard Shevrin, Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel, Ramesh Kushwaha, Natalia L. Kalaida & Ariane Bazan - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a (...)
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  4. Phonological Ambiguity Detection Outside of Consciousness and Its Defensive Avoidance.Ariane Bazan, Ramesh Kushwaha, E. Samuel Winer, J. Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel & Howard Shevrin - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
    Freud proposes that in unconscious processing, logical connections are also (heavily) based upon phonological similarities. Repressed concerns, for example, would also be expressed by way of phonologic ambiguity. In order to investigate a possible unconscious influence of phonological similarity, 31 participants were submitted to a tachistoscopic subliminal priming experiment, with prime and target presented at 1ms. In the experimental condition, the prime and one of the 2 targets were phonological reversed forms of each other, though graphemically dissimilar (e.g., “nice” and (...)
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  5.  9
    Philosophy, psychoanalysis, and the A-rational mind.Linda A. W. Brakel - 2009 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Just what sort of a theory is psychoanalytic theory? -- Did Kant precede Freud on a-rational thought? -- Why primary process is hard to know -- Representational a-rational thinking : a proper function account for phantasy and wish -- Drive theory and primary process -- Phantasies, neurotic-beliefs, and beliefs-proper -- Desire and the readiness-to-act -- Compare and contrast : Gardner, Lear, Cavell, and Brakel.
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  6.  9
    The Ontology of Psychology: Questioning Foundations in the Philosophy of Mind.Linda A. W. Brakel - 2013 - New York: Routledge.
    In this volume, Brakel raises questions about conventions in the study of mind in three disciplines—psychoanalysis, philosophy of mind, and experimental philosophy. She illuminates new understandings of the mind through interdisciplinary challenges to views long-accepted. Here she proposes a view of psychoanalysis as a treatment that owes its successes largely to its biological nature—biological in its capacity to best approximate the extinction of problems arising owing to aversive conditioning. She also discusses whether or not "the mental" can have any real (...)
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  7.  52
    Freud's dual process theory and the place of the a-rational.Linda A. W. Brakel & Howard Shevrin - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):527-528.
    In this commentary on Stanovich & West (S&W) we call attention to two points: (1) Freud's original dual process theory, which antedates others by some seventy-five years, deserves inclusion in any consideration of dual process theories. His concepts of primary and secondary processes (Systems 1 and 2, respectively) anticipate significant aspects of current dual process theories and provide an explanation for many of their characteristics. (2) System 1 is neither rational nor irrational, but instead a-rational. Nevertheless, both the a-rational System (...)
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  8.  9
    Could Understanding Harm?Iskra Fileva & Linda A. W. Brakel - 2023 - Philosophy Psychiatry and Psychology 30 (3):211-214.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Could Understanding Harm?Iskra Fileva, PhD (bio) and Linda A.W. Brakel, MD (bio)We would like to thank the editors for organizing this symposium and our commentators—Marga Reimer and James Phillips—for the thought-provoking feedback. Although we had thought about the ideas we discuss from many different angles, our commentators raised several interesting issues we had not considered. We are grateful for the opportunity to continue the conversation.Reply to ReimerAs Professor Reimer (...)
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  9.  4
    Understanding First: A Psychoanalytic Take on Self-Constitution.Iskra Fileva & Linda A. W. Brakel - 2023 - Philosophy Psychiatry and Psychology 30 (3):195-204.
    In this paper, we criticize what we dub the “pruning view” of self-constitution, championed widely by philosophers, mainly though not exclusively in the Kantian tradition, and instead defend an alternative view inspired by psychoanalysis. We argue that normative assessment comes much too early on the pruning view, so early that it interferes with achieving deeper self-understanding that can produce lasting change. On the proposal we advocate, self-constitution must begin with a non-moralizing attempt to truly understand why one has undesirable and (...)
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  10. Psychoanalysis and Philosophy of Mind: Unconscious Mentality in the Twenty-First Century.Simon Boag, Linda A. W. Brakel & Vesa Talvitie - 2015 - London: Routledge.
     
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  11.  6
    Philosophy, science, and psychoanalysis: a critical meeting.Simon Boag, Linda A. W. Brakel & Vesa Talvitie (eds.) - 2015 - London: Karnac.
    The perennial interest in psychoanalysis shows no signs of abating and the longevity of psychoanalytic theory is seen in the varied extensions and elaborations of Freudian thinking in the fields of neuroscience and cognitive theory. Nevertheless, the scientific standing of psychoanalysis has long been questioned and developments in the fields of the philosophy of science and psychology require a fresh assessment of the scientific standing of psychoanalysis. While there are a range of views on the topic of whether psychoanalysis is (...)
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  12.  2
    Philosophy, Science, and Psychoanalysis.Simon Boag, Linda A. W. Brakel & Vesa Talvitie - 2015 - London: Routledge.
    To even approach the question regarding the scientific nature of psychoanalysis, a foundation comprising a sophisticated conceptual and philosophical framework is required. This volume represents the junction where philosophy, science, and psychoanalysis meet and presents arguments of the scientific standing of psychoanalysis.
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  13. A-Rationality: The Views of Freud and Wittgenstein Explored.Linda A. W. Brakel (ed.) - 2021 - London: Routledge.
  14.  2
    Investigations Into the Trans Self and Moore's Paradox.Linda A. W. Brakel - 2020 - Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book explores how the trans phenomenon can challenge the existing concept of the Self and its nature. The catalyst is Moore’s Paradox: can a trans person coherently state ‘I am a girl but I don’t believe that’? More deeply, three fundamental philosophical questions arise, of ontological, epistemological, and conceptual significance: what Self understands that the natal-gender is ‘wrong’? How does the trans person know that the natal-gender is ‘wrong’ and what counts as evidence? And finally, how does this effect (...)
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  15. Phantasies and wishes: a proper function account of a-rational primary process mediated mentation.Linda A. W. Brakel - 2002 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80:1-16.
     
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  16.  5
    Phantasies, Neurotic-Beliefs, and Beliefs-Proper.Linda A. W. Brakel - 2001 - American Journal of Psychoanalysis 61.
    This paper presents a philosophical analysis of three cognitive states familiar and important to psychoanalysts—phantasy, neurotic-belief, and belief-proper. It explores the differences among these three propositional attitudes and finds that the development of secondary process capacities of reality testing and truth directness out of earlier primary process operations plays a crucial role. Difficulties in the proper typing of cognitive states are discussed, as are the consequences of such confounds. This use of a philosophical method serves to sharpen the familiar psychoanalytic (...)
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  17.  2
    Philosophy, Psychoanalysis, and the A-Rational Mind.Linda A. W. Brakel - 2009 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Philosophy, Psychoanalysis, and the A-Rational Mind provides a powerful re-appraisal of psychoanalysis and the role it can play in helping us understand human nature. It explores basic psychological phenomena- beliefs, desires, phantasies, wishes - examining a range of fascinating case histories, and explaining their significance.
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