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Linda Zagzebski
University of Oklahoma
  1. Virtues of the Mind: An Inquiry Into the Nature of Virtue and the Ethical Foundations of Knowledge.Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Almost all theories of knowledge and justified belief employ moral concepts and forms of argument borrowed from moral theories, but none of them pay attention to the current renaissance in virtue ethics. This remarkable book is the first attempt to establish a theory of knowledge based on the model of virtue theory in ethics. The book develops the concept of an intellectual virtue, and then shows how the concept can be used to give an account of the major concepts in (...)
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  2. Exemplarist Moral Theory.Linda Zagzebski - 2017 - Oup Usa.
    In Exemplarist Moral Theory of Linda Zagzebski presents an original moral theory based on direct reference to exemplars of goodness, whom we identify through the emotion of admiration. Using examples of heroes, saints, and sages, she shows how narratives of exemplars and empirical work on the most admirable persons can be incorporated into the theory to serve both theoretical and practical purposes.
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  3. Epistemic Authority: A Theory of Trust, Authority, and Autonomy in Belief.Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    In this book Zagzebski gives an extended argument that the self-reflective person is committed to belief on authority. Epistemic authority is compatible with autonomy, but epistemic self-reliance is incoherent. She argues that epistemic and emotional self-trust are rational and inescapable, that consistent self-trust commits us to trust in others, and that among those we are committed to trusting are some whom we ought to treat as epistemic authorities, modeled on the well-known principles of authority of Joseph Raz. These principles apply (...)
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  4. The Inescapability of Gettier Problems.Linda Zagzebski - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (174):65-73.
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  5. The Search for the Source of Epistemic Good.Linda Zagzebski - 2003 - Metaphilosophy 34 (1-2):12-28.
    Knowledge has almost always been treated as good, better than mere true belief, but it is remarkably difficult to explain what it is about knowledge that makes it better. I call this “the value problem.” I have previously argued that most forms of reliabilism cannot handle the value problem. In this article I argue that the value problem is more general than a problem for reliabilism, infecting a host of different theories, including some that are internalist. An additional problem is (...)
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  6. Exemplarist Virtue Theory.Linda Zagzebski - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (1-2):41-57.
    Abstract: In this essay I outline a radical kind of virtue theory I call exemplarism, which is foundational in structure but which is grounded in exemplars of moral goodness, direct reference to which anchors all the moral concepts in the theory. I compare several different kinds of moral theory by the way they relate the concepts of the good, a right act, and a virtue. In the theory I propose, these concepts, along with the concepts of a duty and of (...)
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  7. The Search for the Source of Epistemic Good.Linda Zagzebski - 2008 - In Duncan Pritchard & Ram Neta (eds.), Metaphilosophy. Routledge. pp. 55.
    Knowledge has almost always been treated as good, better than mere true belief, but it is remarkably difficult to explain what it is about knowledge that makes it better. I call this “the value problem.” I have previously argued that most forms of reliabilism cannot handle the value problem. In this article I argue that the value problem is more general than a problem for reliabilism, infecting a host of different theories, including some that are internalist. An additional problem is (...)
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  8. On Epistemology.Linda Zagzebski - 2009 - Wadsworth.
    These books will prove valuable to philosophy teachers and their students as well as to other readers who share a general interest in philosophy.
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  9. Epistemic authority.Linda Zagzebski - 2017 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 53 (3):92-107.
    Contemporary defenders of autonomy and traditional defenders of authority generally assume that they have so little in common as to make it hopeless to attempt a dialogue on the defensibility of epistemic, moral, or religious authority. In this paper I argue that they are mistaken. Under the assumption that the ultimate authority over the self is the self, I defend authority in the realm of belief on the same grounds as Joseph Raz uses in his well-known defense of political authority (...)
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  10.  90
    "What Is Knowledge?".Linda Zagzebski - 1999 - In John Greco & Ernest Sosa (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 92-116.
  11. Recovering Understanding.Linda Zagzebski - 2001 - In M. Steup (ed.), Knowledge, Truth, and Duty: Essays on Epistemic Justification, Responsibility, and Virtue. Oxford University Press.
     
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  12. Intellectual Virtue: Perspectives From Ethics and Epistemology.Michael DePaul & Linda Zagzebski (eds.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    The idea of a virtue has traditionally been important in ethics, but only recently has gained attention as an idea that can explain how we ought to form beliefs as well as how we ought to act. Moral philosophers and epistemologists have different approaches to the idea of intellectual virtue; here, Michael DePaul and Linda Zagzebski bring work from both fields together for the first time to address all of the important issues. It will be required reading for anyone working (...)
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  13. Virtue Epistemology: Essays on Epistemic Virtue and Responsibility.Abrol Fairweather & Linda Zagzebski (eds.) - 2000 - London: Oxford University Press.
    Virtue Epistemology is a new movement receiving the bulk of recent attention from top epistemologists and ethicists; this volume reflects the best work in that vein. Included are unpublished articles by such eminent philosophers as Robert Audi, Simon Blackburn, Alvin Goldman, Christopher Hookway, Keith Lehrer, and Ernest Sosa.
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  14. Emotion and Moral Judgment.Linda Zagzebski - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):104–124.
    This paper argues that an emotion is a state of affectively perceiving its intentional object as falling under a "thick affective concept" A, a concept that combines cognitive and affective aspects in a way that cannot be pulled apart. For example, in a state of pity an object is seen as pitiful, where to see something as pitiful is to be in a state that is both cognitive and affective. One way of expressing an emotion is to assert that the (...)
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  15. Admiration and the Admirable.Linda Zagzebski - 2015 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 89 (1):205-221.
    The category of the admirable has received little attention in the history of philosophy, even among virtue ethicists. I don't think we can understand the admirable without investigating the emotion of admiration. I have argued that admiration is an emotion in which the object is ‘seen as admirable’, and which motivates us to emulate the admired person in the relevant respect. Our judgements of admirability can be distorted by the malfunction of our disposition to admiration. We all know many ways (...)
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  16.  97
    Divine Motivation Theory.Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Widely regarded as one of the foremost figures in contemporary philosophy of religion, this book by Linda Zagzebski is a major contribution to ethical theory and theological ethics. At the core of the book lies a form of virtue theory based on the emotions. Quite distinct from deontological, consequentialist and teleological virtue theories, this one has a particular theological, indeed Christian, foundation. The theory helps to resolve philosophical problems and puzzles of various kinds: the dispute between cognitivism and non-cognitivism in (...)
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  17. Does Libertarian Freedom Require Alternate Possibilities?Linda Zagzebski - 2000 - Philosopical Perspectives 14 (s14):231-248.
  18. Divine Motivation Theory.Linda Zagzebski - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (225):629-632.
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  19.  47
    Intellectual Virtue.Linda Zagzebski & Michael Depaul - 2004 - Mind 113 (452):791-794.
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  20. The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge.Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski - 1991 - Oup Usa.
    This original analysis examines the three leading traditional solutions to the dilemma of divine foreknowledge and human free will--those arising from Boethius, from Ockham, and from Molina. Though all three solutions are rejected in their best-known forms, three new solutions are proposed, and Zagzebski concludes that divine foreknowledge is compatible with human freedom. The discussion includes the relation between the foreknowledge dilemma and problems about the nature of time and the causal relation; the logic of counterfactual conditionals; and the differences (...)
     
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  21.  57
    Replies to Christoph Jäger and Elizabeth Fricker.Linda Zagzebski - 2016 - Episteme 13 (2):187-194.
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  22. Intellectual Motivation and the Good of Truth.Linda Zagzebski - 2003 - In Linda Zagzebski & Michael DePaul (eds.), Intellectual Virtue: Perspectives From Ethics and Epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 135--154.
     
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  23. Epistemic Value and the Primacy of What We Care About.Linda Zagzebski - 2004 - Philosophical Papers 33 (3):353-377.
    Abstract In this paper I argue that to understand the ethics of belief we need to put it in a context of what we care about. Epistemic values always arise from something we care about and they arise only from something we care about. It is caring that gives rise to the demand to be epistemically conscientious. The reason morality puts epistemic demands on us is that we care about morality. But there may be a (small) class of beliefs which (...)
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  24. From Reliabilism to Virtue Epistemology.Linda Zagzebski - 2000 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:173-179.
    In Virtues of the Mind I object to process reliabilism on the grounds that it does not explain the good of knowledge in addition to the good of true belief. In this paper I wish to develop this objection in more detail, and will then argue that this problem pushes us first in the direction of two offspring of process reliabilism—faculty reliabilism and proper functionalism, and, finally, to a true virtue epistemology.
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  25. Epistemic Authority and Its Critics.Linda Zagzebski - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (4):169--187.
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  26. Intellectual Autonomy.Linda Zagzebski - 2013 - Philosophical Issues 23 (1):244-261.
  27. What If the Impossible Had Been Actual.Linda Zagzebski - 1990 - In M. Beaty (ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 165--183.
     
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  28. Omnisubjectivity.Linda Zagzebski - 2008 - In Jon Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 231-248.
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  29. Ethical and Epistemic Egoism and the Ideal of Autonomy.Linda Zagzebski - 2007 - Episteme 4 (3):252-263.
    In this paper I distinguish three degrees of epistemic egoism, each of which has an ethical analogue, and I argue that all three are incoherent. Since epistemic autonomy is frequently identified with one of these forms of epistemic egoism, it follows that epistemic autonomy as commonly understood is incoherent. I end with a brief discussion of the idea of moral autonomy and suggest that its component of epistemic autonomy in the realm of the moral is problematic.
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  30.  59
    Epistemic Value Monism.Linda Zagzebski - 2004 - In Greco John (ed.), Ernest Sosa and His Critics. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 190--198.
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  31. Précis of Virtues of the Mind. [REVIEW]Linda Zagzebski - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (1):169.
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  32.  72
    Foreknowledge and Free Will.Linda Zagzebski - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:online.
  33. Recent Work on Divine Foreknowledge and Free Will.Linda Zagzebski - 2002 - In Robert Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 45-64.
  34. Does Ethics Need God?Linda Zagzebski - 1987 - Faith and Philosophy 4 (3):294-303.
    This essay presents a moral argument for the rationality of theistic belief. If all I have to go on morally are my own moral intuitions and reasoning and those of others, I am rationally led to skepticism, both about the possibility of moral knowledge and about my moral effectiveness. This skepticism is extensive, amounting to moral despair. But such despair cannot be rational. It follows that the assumption of the argument must be false and I must be able to rely (...)
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  35. The Admirable Life and the Desirable Life.Linda Zagzebski - 2006 - In T. D. J. Chappell (ed.), Values and Virtues: Aristotelianism in Contemporary Ethics. Oxford University Press.
     
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  36. The Philosophy of Religion: An Historical Introduction.Linda Zagzebski - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    An accessible and engaging introduction to the philosophy of religion. Written with verve and clarity by a leading philosopher and contributor to the field Places key issues and debates in the philosophy of religion in their historical contexts, highlighting the conditions that led to the development of the field Addresses the core topics, among them the the existence of God, the problem of evil, death and the afterlife, and the problem of religious diversity Rich with argument, yet never obtrusive Forms (...)
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  37. Religious Luck.Linda Zagzebski - 1994 - Faith and Philosophy 11 (3):397-413.
  38.  14
    Emotion and Moral Judgment.Linda Zagzebski - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):104-124.
    This paper argues that an emotion is a state of affectively perceiving its intentional object as falling under a “thick affective concept” A, a concept that combines cognitive and affective aspects in a way that cannot be pulled apart. For example, in a state of pity an object is seen as pitiful, where to see something as pitiful is to be in a state that is both cognitive and affective. One way of expressing an emotion is to assert that the (...)
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  39.  20
    Does Libertarian Freedom Require Alternate Possibilities?Linda Zagzebski - 2000 - Noûs 34 (s14):231-248.
  40.  16
    Ethical and Epistemic Egoism and the Ideal of Autonomy.Linda Zagzebski - 2007 - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 4 (3):252-263.
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  41. The Uniqueness of Persons.Linda Zagzebski - 2001 - Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (3):401 - 423.
    Persons are thought to have a special kind of value, often called "dignity," which, according to Kant, makes them both infinitely valuable and irreplaceably valuable. The author aims to identify what makes a person a person in a way that can explain both aspects of dignity. She considers five definitions of "person": (1) an individual substance of a rational nature (Boethius), (2) a self-conscious being (Locke), (3) a being with the capacity to act for ends (Kant), (4) a being with (...)
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  42. Rational Faith: Catholic Responses to Reformed Epistemology.Linda Zagzebski (ed.) - 1993 - Notre Dame Press.
  43.  16
    The Moral Gap: Kantian Ethics, Human Limits, and God’s Assistance.Linda Zagzebski & John E. Hare - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (2):291.
    The title of Hare’s book refers to the gap between the demand that morality places on us and our natural capacity to live by it. Such a gap is paradoxical if we accept the “‘ought’ implies ‘can”’ principle. The solution, Hare argues, is that the gap is filled by the Christian God. So we ought to be moral and can do so—with divine assistance. Hare’s statement and defense of the existence of the gap combines a rigorously Kantian notion of the (...)
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  44. A Defense of Epistemic Authority.Linda Zagzebski - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (2):293-306.
    In this paper I argue that epistemic authority can be justified in the same way as political authority in the tradition of political liberalism. I propose principlesof epistemic authority modeled on the general principles of authority proposed by Joseph Raz. These include the Content-Independence thesis, the Pre-emption thesis, the Dependency thesis, and the Normal Justification thesis. The focus is on the authority of a person’s beliefs, although the principles can be applied to the authority of another person’s testimony and the (...)
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  45.  12
    4. Individual Essence and the Creation.Linda Zagzebski - 2019 - In Thomas V. Morris (ed.), Divine and Human Action: Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism. Cornell University Press. pp. 119-144.
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  46.  84
    Omnisubjectivity: Why It Is a Divine Attribute.Linda Zagzebski - 2016 - Nova et Vetera 14 (2):435-450.
  47. Virtue Epistemology.Linda Zagzebski - 1998 - In Edward Craig (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge.
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  48.  53
    Must Knowers Be Agents.Linda Zagzebski - 2001 - In Abrol Fairweather & Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski (eds.), Virtue Epistemology: Essays on Epistemic Virtue and Responsibility. Oxford University Press. pp. 142--57.
  49. Morality and Religion.Linda Zagzebski - 2005 - In William J. Wainwright (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    Almost all religions contain a code of morality, and in spite of the factthat there are moral codes and philosophies that do not rely upon anyreligion, it has been traditionally argued that there are at least threeimportant ways in which morality needs religion: the goal of the morallife is unreachable without religious practice, religion is necessary toprovide moral motivation, and religion provides morality with itsfoundation and justification. These three ways in which morality may needreligion are independent, but I argue that (...)
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  50.  21
    Reported Miracles: A Critique of Hume.Linda Zagzebski & Joseph Houston - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (4):538.
    Joseph Houston’s book is a fine contribution to the philosophical investigation of the value of miracle reports for religious apologetics. It covers a wide range of arguments of interest to philosophers about the concept of miracles and the justifiability of belief in their occurrence, but it is also rich in theological and biblical sources. Houston’s reasoning throughout is careful and subtle, but neither technical nor excessively pedantic. So while the book is primarily intended for scholars, students should find it within (...)
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