This paper argues against both conceptual and linguisticanalysis as sources of a priori knowledge. The key claim is that none of the main views about what concepts are can underwrite the possibility of such knowledge.
Human attitudes about killing nonhuman animals are complex, ambivalent, and contradictory. This study attempts to elucidate those attitudes through a linguisticanalysis of the terms used to refer to the killing of animals. Whereas terms used for killing human beings are highly specific and differentiated on the basis of the motivation for the killing, the nature of the participants, and evaluative and emotional content, terms used for killing animals are vague and interchangeable. Terms for animal-killing often background aspects (...) of the act, making it more palatable to humans. When a term is extended from use with humans to use with animals, it lends a connotation of compassion and mercy to the killing. When a term is extended from use with animals to use with humans, it gives the killing a connotation of brutality. These findings reflect assumptions about the human "right" to take animals' lives while serving to ameliorate the negative feelings such killings evoke. (shrink)
While nietzsche has some sympathy with the program of analytic philosophy, He offers what is in effect a powerful critique of the conception of philosophy as linguisticanalysis and its presuppositions. It is therefore of some interest to consider his 'ante rem' criticisms of this conception of what philosophy is (or ought to be), With a view to evaluating the cluster of currently popular philosophical tendencies which may be subsumed under this label. Several of the most important of (...) these tendencies are described; and then those of nietzsche's methodological and programmatic arguments which bear upon them are discussed. In particular, His reasons are examined for holding that philosophical issues need not be dealt with exclusively--And cannot be dealt with satisfactorily--Within the confines of analysis either of the conceptual systems of non-Philosophical specialists, Or of ordinary language. (shrink)
IT IS ARGUED THAT LINGUISTICANALYSIS DOES NOT DEAL WITH\nTHE PROBLEM OF UNIVERSALS IN A SATISFACTORY WAY. THE\nCONTRIBUTIONS OF RYLE, WITTGENSTEIN AND PEARS ARE\nCONSIDERED. IT IS HELD THAT THE PROBLEM OF UNIVERSALS IS A\nGENUINE METAPHYSICAL PROBLEM AND DOES NOT ADMIT OF BEING\nDISPOSED OF BY CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS. MOREOVER, THE FAILURE\nOF ATTEMPTS BY LINGUISTIC ANALYSTS HERE MUST CAST DOUBT ON\nTHE SOUNDNESS OF THEIR BOLD ANTIMETAPHYSICAL CLAIMS. IT IS\nCONCLUDED THAT THE PROBLEM OF UNIVERSALS IS NOT PRIMARILY\nONE OF NAMING, BUT (...) RATHER OF RESEMBLANCES. (STAFF). (shrink)
A tendency towards diffuse and piecemeal linguisticanalysis threatens to overwhelm Anglo-Saxon philosophy to-day. Stringent linguisticanalysis can indeed be valuable, but much that has been written recently, for instance, in Mind , the stronghold of linguisticanalysis, shows no trace of clearly grasped method and well understood aims. The result is meandering discursiveness, the collection of trivial anecdotes and the random mixing of linguistic, psychological and sociological reflections leading to no clear conclusions.
We present Activity Analysis as a new method for the quantification of subjective reports of altered states of consciousness with regard to the indicated level of simulated motor activity. Empirical linguistic activity analysis was conducted with dream reports conceived immediately after EEG-controlled periods of hypnagogic hallucinations and REM-sleep in the sleep laboratory. Reports of REM-dreams exhibited a significantly higher level of simulated physical dreamer activity, while hypnagogic hallucinations appear to be experienced mostly from the point of passive (...) observer. This study lays the groundwork for clinical research on the level of simulated activity in pathologically altered states of subjective experience, for example in the REM-dreams of clinically depressed patients, or in intrusions and dreams of patients diagnosed with PTSD. (shrink)
The centrality of argumentation in the judicial process is an age-old acquisition of research on legal discourse. Notwithstanding the deep insights provided by legal theoretical and philosophical works, only recently has judicial argumentation been tackled in its linguistic dimension. This paper aims to contribute to the development of linguistic studies of judicial argumentation, by shedding light on evaluation as a prominent aspect in the construction of the judge’s argumentative position. Evaluation as a deep structure of judicial argumentation is (...) studied from a discursive point of view entailing the analysis of a sample of authentic judicial language. Evaluative lexis is investigated within a single genre of judicial discourse, i.e. judgments, instantiated by a corpus of US Supreme Court judgments. Findings show that judges use diversified strategies to take stance as they organise their argumentative discourse: from easily recognisable verbal and adjectival tools to more finely-grained discourse elements such as the encapsulating pattern ‘this/these/that/those + labelling noun’. (shrink)
This paper is based on a doctoral thesis which aimed at investigating on whether the use of strategic vagueness in Security Council resolutions relating to Iraq has contributed to the breakout of the 2002–2003s Gulf war instead of a diplomatic solution of the controversies. This work contains a linguistic and legal comparative analysis between UN and U.S. documents and their drafts in order to demonstrate how vagueness was deliberately added to the final versions of the documents before being (...) passed, and thus strategically used vagueness has played a crucial role in UN resolutions related to the outbreak of war in Iraq, and in relevant legislation produced by the United States for its Congressional authorisation for war. The comparative analysis between S/RES/1441(2002) and US legislation has evidenced that that there would have been diplomatic solutions to the Iraq crises which were not synonymous of light-handed intervention against Iraq, but deliberately vague UN wording allowed the US to build its own legislation with a personal interpretation implying that the UN did not impede military action. (shrink)
Clahsen's compelling evidence for the dual-mechanism model of the lexicon derives in part from the use of cross-linguistic data in psycholinguistic research. This approach reflects a growing (and positive) trend toward incorporating data from several languages when analyzing and modeling human language behavior. This perspective should be expanded to include data from typologically distinct languages to develop more explanatory models of language.
The concepts of "spirit" [dukh], "spiritual," and "spirituality" have had a strange fate in philosophy. It seems that they are constantly and more widely utilized in the literature—as well as when the solution of the basic question of philosophy is formulated as the "relation of matter and spirit," when the "spiritual life of society" or "spiritual culture" is investigated, and when the issue concerns the "spirituality" of the individual as the manifestation of a high level of development of the socialist (...) personality. At the same time, the categorial status of these concepts not only is not recognized in our philosophy, but in encyclopedic dictionaries and monographs it is asserted that "spirit" is an obsolete concept, a favorite of idealistic philosophy, and that in Marxist science it is replaced by the concept of "consciousness.". (shrink)
How can we be certain of what a physics theory is talking about and, at the same time, not have a clue what the theory is about? Yet, this seemingly nonsensical question lurks in the background since the advent of quantum physics and is intimately entangled with the cluster of issues constituting the raw material for philosophers of science striving to negotiate the so-called classical to quantum divide.The discourse of theoretical physics unfolds on two levels: the experimental and the mathematical. (...) It is based on the competent use of everyday language, significantly enriched with sharply defined concepts, in order to deploy necessary resources, to set up and faithfully describe an experimental procedure, and to unambiguously communicate its results. And it expresses in mathematical form properties, states, their interrelations and transformations in the context of an overall conceptual framework.The synthesis of the two levels of discourse, established through the co-evolution of phy .. (shrink)