Dans cet article, nous analysons comment et dans quelle mesure les changements dans les modalités d’allocation des financements publics génèrent des transformations dans les pratiques, les temporalités et l’organisation de la recherche en histoire. Face aux deux thèses qui s’affrontent autour de cette problématique, l’une soutenant l’hypothèse de la déprofessionnalisation et de la perte d’autonomie des chercheurs, et l’autre celle d’une recomposition de la profession académique, le travail d’enquête réalisé dans trois laboratoires d’histoire en France montre qu’il n’y a pas (...) de modèle unique d’adaptation des équipes et des chercheurs par rapport à la montée en puissance des financements sur projet (FSP). La prise en compte du niveau organisationnel, avec ses spécificités contextuelles, se révèle essentielle pour saisir les modalités d’ajustement des laboratoires et des chercheurs face au renforcement des mécanismes de contractualisation. Par ailleurs, contrairement aux disciplines nécessitant des dispositifs expérimentaux coûteux, le niveau plus modeste des ressources mobilisées pour la conduite des recherches en histoire permet plus facilement aux historiens d’adopter une position de repli face aux FSP. Cette posture est également renforcée par le système de reconnaissance de la qualité académique propre au champ historiographique qui accorde une importance particulière au travail individuel et à l’investissement de longue durée. (shrink)
A Rousseauist bias towards the study of human aggression has treated it as a regrettable anomaly rather than a volatile reflection of important forces in human evolution. Intrepidly, Nell displays the arc of connection between predation in humans and other animals and the neurophysiological factors that underlie chronic interest in accident, death, and harsh force.
Lionel Erskine Nimmo Britton was a working-class author who published one novel of more than seven hundred pages—a stylistically daring Hunger and Love 1—and three plays—Brain. A Play of the Whole Earth, Spacetime Inn: A Play, and Animal Ideas: A Dramatic Symphony of the Human in the Universe, all of which, to varying degrees and in very different ways, focus on his key interests: the experience of the working classes and the theory of human evolution through cooperative effort. An (...) eccentric socialist with anarchist leanings, conscientious objector during World War I, admirer of Soviet Russia, and... (shrink)
Lionel Penrose (1898–1972) was an important leader during the mid-20th century decline of eugenics and the development of modern medical genetics. However, historians have paid little attention to his radical theoretical challenges to mainline eugenic concepts of mental disease. Working from a classification system developed with his colleague, E. O. Lewis, Penrose developed a statistically sophisticated and clinically grounded refutation of the popular position that low intelligence is inherently a disease state. In the early 1930s, Penrose advocated dividing “mental (...) defect” (low intelligence) into two categories: “pathological mental defect,” which is a disease state that can be traced to a distinct genetic or environmental cause, and “subcultural mental defect,” which is not an inherent disease state, but rather a statistically necessary manifestation of human variation in intelligence. I explore the historical context and theoretical import of this contribution, discussing its rejection of typological thinking and noting that it preceded Theodosius Dobzhansky’s better-known defense of human diversity. I illustrate the importance of Penrose’s contribution with a discussion of an analogous situation in contemporary medicine, the controversial practice of using human growth hormone injections to treat “idiopathic short stature” (mere diminutive height, with no distinct cause). I show how Penrose’s contributions to understanding human variation make such treatments appear quite misguided. (shrink)
Trilling's "larger naturalism," acknowledging as it does the value of mystery and the power of fact, aligns him with Arnold and Freud and Forster in an effort to synthesize the legacies of the Enlightenment and of the Romantic movement: conscious of the authority of the imagination, he "never deceives himself into believing that the power of the imagination is sovereign, that it can make the power of circumstance of no account" ; committed to reason and to an ideal of rational (...) order, he is yet continuously aware of the limits of reason, of the rational intellect's potential tyranny over the emotions, of those forces within men and without which frustrate the mind's will to organize and control experience.1 And this "larger naturalism," with its emphasis upon "a social tradition," implicates Trilling in a particular view of the novel - a view which may be said to inform all of his thinking but which achieves its fullest and clearest expression in such well-known essays as "Manners, Morals and the Novel" and "Art and Fortune." "The novel," he remarks in the first of these polemics, "...is a perpetual quest for reality, the field of its research being always the social world, the material of its analysis being always manners as the indication of the direction of man's soul” . · 1. Nathan A. Scott, Jr., makes substantially the same point in his superb and very nearly definitive account of Trilling's "Anxious Humanism" . Readers familiar with Professor Scott's study will recognize at once the deep and general indebtedness which I am pleased to acknowledge here. Tom Samet is an instructor in literature at Douglass College, Rutgers University. He is currently preparing essays on Henry James and on Conrad and Hemingway. "The Modulated Vision" is part of a study, in progress, of Lionel Trilling and the Anxieties of the Modern. (shrink)
Edmund Burke : apologist for Judaism? -- George Eliot : the wisdom of Dorothea -- Jane Austen : the education of Emma -- Charles Dickens : "a low writer" -- Benjamin Disraeli : the Tory imagination -- John Stuart Mill : the other Mill -- Walter Bagehot : "a divided nature" -- John Buchan : an untimely appreciation -- The Knoxes : a God-haunted family -- Michael Oakeshott : the conservative disposition -- Winston Churchill : "quite simply, a great man" (...) -- Lionel Trilling : the moral imagination. (shrink)
Influential neoclassical economist Lionel McKenzie has made major contributions to postwar economic thought in the fields of equilibrium, trade, and capital accumulation. This selection of his papers traces the development of his thinking in these three crucial areas.McKenzie's early academic life took him to Duke, Princeton, Oxford, the University of Chicago, and the Cowles Commission. In 1957, he went to the University of Rochester to head the economics department there, and he remains at Rochester, now Wilson Professor Emeritus of (...) Economics. McKenzie's most significant research was undertaken during a period that saw the development of the major themes of neoclassical economics and the use of fundamental mathematical methods to do so. McKenzie contributed to both aspects of this research program. He helped shape the direction of the field and, at Rochester, influenced generations of future scholars. In 2002, The MIT Press published McKenzie's Classical General Equilibrium Theory, a detailed summary of the model and methodology. This book, collecting his most important papers in the form in which they were originally published, can be seen as a companion to that one. The many state-of-the-art results achieved in McKenzie's original papers present sophisticated theoretical work that will continue to be important to future developments in the discipline. (shrink)
Peter Russell was King Alfonso XIII Professor of Spanish Studies at the University of Oxford 1953–81. He was recruited into the secret service in the mid-1930s and was sent to Spain during the Civil War. On returning to Oxford, Russell joined Military Intelligence and among other duties was responsible for seeing that the Duke and Duchess of Windsor reached the Bahamas safely. He resumed his academic career after the war and quickly established himself as a scholar of exceptional range and (...) dynamism. Influential publications included ‘Don Quixote as a funny book’ MLA 64, 312–26. Russell was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1977. Obituary by Bruce Taylor. (shrink)