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Lloyd Strickland
Manchester Metropolitan University
  1. Leibniz and the Two Sophies: The Philosophical Correspondence.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - Toronto: Iter.
    LEIBNIZ AND THE TWO SOPHIES is a critical edition of all of the philosophically important material from the correspondence between the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) and his two royal patronesses, Electress Sophie of Hanover (1630-1714), and her daughter, Queen Sophie Charlotte of Prussia (1668-1705). In this correspondence, Leibniz expounds in a very accessible way his views on topics such as the nature and operation of the mind, innate knowledge, the afterlife, ethics, and human nature. The correspondence also contains the (...)
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  2. The Shorter Leibniz Texts: A Collection of New Translations.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - London: Continuum.
    This volume contains more than 60 original translations of papers written by the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). As well as contributing to Leibniz scholarship, it is intended to function as an introductory text for students.
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  3. Leibniz on Eternal Punishment.Lloyd Strickland - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (2):307-331.
  4. God's Problem of Multiple Choice.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - Religious Studies 42 (2):141-157.
    A question that has been largely overlooked by philosophers of religion is how God would be able to effect a rational choice between two worlds of unsurpassable goodness. To answer this question, I draw a parallel with the paradigm cases of indifferent choice, including Buridan's ass, and argue that such cases can be satisfactorily resolved provided that the protagonists employ what Otto Neurath calls an ‘auxiliary motive’. I supply rational grounds for the employment of such a motive, and then argue (...)
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  5. Leibniz's Monadology: A New Translation and Guide.Lloyd Strickland - 2014 - Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    A fresh translation and in-depth commentary of Leibniz's seminal text, the Monadology. -/- Written in 1714, the Monadology is widely considered to be the classic statement of Leibniz's mature philosophy. In the space of 90 numbered paragraphs, totalling little more than 6000 words, Leibniz outlines - and argues for - the core features of his philosophical system. Although rightly regarded as a masterpiece, it is also a very condensed work that generations of students have struggled to understand. -/- Lloyd Strickland (...)
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  6. Leibniz’s Harmony Between the Kingdoms of Nature and Grace.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 98 (3):302-329.
    One of the more exotic and mysterious features of Leibniz’s later philosophical writings is the harmony between the kingdom of nature and the kingdom of grace. In this paper I show that this harmony is not a single doctrine, but rather a compilation of two doctrines, namely (1) that the order of nature makes possible the rewards and punishments of rational souls, and (2) that the rewards and punishments of rational souls are administered naturally. I argue that the harmony is (...)
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  7. Leibniz’s Philosophy of Purgatory.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (3):531-548.
    As a lifelong Lutheran who resisted numerous attempts by Catholic acquaintances to convert him, one might reasonably expect Leibniz to have followedthe orthodox Lutheran line on disputed doctrinal issues, and thus held amongst other things that the doctrine of purgatory was false. Yet there is strong evidencethat Leibniz personally accepted the doctrine of purgatory. After examining this evidence, I determine how Leibniz sought to justify his endorsement of purgatory and explain how his endorsement sits alongside his frequent rehearsal of familiar (...)
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  8.  80
    How Sincere Was Leibniz’s Religious Justification for War in the Justa Dissertatio?Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer (volume 5). Hildesheim: Georg Olms. pp. 401-412.
    This paper is concerned with Leibniz’s Egypt Plan, written in 1671 and 1672, when Leibniz was in the service of the Elector of Mainz. One of the aims of this paper is to offer a more balanced and plausible reading of the religious benefits of war that Leibniz outlines in his Egypt plan.
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  9. Determining the Best of All Possible Worlds.Lloyd Strickland - 2005 - Journal of Value Inquiry 39 (1):37-47.
    The concept of the best of all possible worlds is widely considered to be incoherent on the grounds that, for any world that might be termed the best, there is always another that is better. I note that underlying this argument is a conviction that the goodness of a world is determined by a single kind of good, the most plausible candidates for which are not maximizable. Against this I suggest that several goods may have to combine to determine the (...)
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  10.  54
    The Reception of the Theodicy in England.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Leibniz, Caroline und die Folgen der englischen Sukzession. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. pp. 69-91.
    Leibniz wished that his Theodicy (1710) would have as great and as wide an impact as possible, and to further this end we find him in his correspondence with Caroline often expressing his desire that the book be translated into English. Despite his wishes, and Caroline’s efforts, this was not to happen in his lifetime (indeed, it did not happen until 1951, almost 250 years after Leibniz’s death). But even though the Theodicy did not make quite the impact in England (...)
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  11. Leibniz's Monadological Positive Aesthetics.Pauline Phemister & Lloyd Strickland - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (6):1214-1234.
    One of the most intriguing – and arguably counter-intuitive – doctrines defended by environmental philosophers is that of positive aesthetics, the thesis that all of nature is beautiful. The doctrine has attained philosophical respectability only comparatively recently, thanks in no small part to the work of Allen Carlson, one of its foremost defenders. In this paper, we argue that the doctrine can be found much earlier in the work of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz who devised and defended a version of positive (...)
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  12. Leibniz on Whether the World Increases in Perfection.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (1):51 – 68.
  13. Philosophy and the Search for Truth.Lloyd Strickland - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (4):1079-1094.
    Philosophy, as it is understood and practiced in the West, is and has been generally considered to be the search for truth. But even if philosophy is the search for truth, it does not automatically follow that those who are identified as ‘philosophers’ are themselves actually engaged in that search. And indeed, in this paper I argue that many philosophers have in fact not been genuinely engaged in the search for truth (in other words, many philosophers have not been doing (...)
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  14. Leibniz and Millenarianism.Lloyd Strickland & Daniel J. Cook - 2011 - In F. Beiderbeck & S. Waldhoff (eds.), Pluralität der Perspektiven und Einheit der Wahrheit im Werk von G. W. Leibniz. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 77-90.
  15. The Doctrine of ‘the Resurrection of the Same Body’ in Early Modern Thought.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):163.
    The Judaeo-Christian belief in the general resurrection has long been troubled by the issue of personal identity, but prior to the advent of such concerns there existed a cognate concern about the identity not of the resurrected person, but of the resurrected person's body. Although this latter issue has exercised scholars of various ages, concern with it was particularly keen in early modern times. In this paper I chart the various ways bodily identity was conceived by early modern thinkers in (...)
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  16. On The Necessity Of The Best (Possible) World.Lloyd Strickland - 2005 - Ars Disputandi 5.
    Many have argued that if God exists then he must necessarily create the best possible world , which entails that the bpw necessarily exists, and is therefore the only possible world. But without any scope for comparison, the superlative term ‘best’ is clearly inappropriate and so the bpw cannot be the bpw at all! As such, it must be impossible for God to create it. Hence if God exists then he must of necessity make something that is impossible to create! (...)
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  17. The Philosophy of Sophie, Electress of Hanover.Lloyd Strickland - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (2):186 - 204.
    In philosophical circles, Electress Sophie of Hanover (1630-1714) is known mainly as the friend, patron, and correspondent of Leibniz. While many scholars acknowledge Sophie's interest in philosophy, some also claim that Sophie dabbled in philosophy herself, but did not do so either seriously or competently. In this paper I show that such a view is incorrect, and that Sophie did make interesting philosophical contributions of her own, principally concerning the nature of mind and thought.
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  18. Leibniz Reinterpreted.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - London, UK: Continuum.
    Leibniz Reinterpreted tackles head on the central idea in Leibniz's philosophy, namely that we live in the best of all possible worlds. Strickland argues that Leibniz's theory has been consistently misunderstood by previous commentators. In the process Strickland provides both an elucidation and reinterpretation of a number of concepts central to Leibniz's work, such as 'richness', 'simplicity', 'harmony' and 'incompossibility', and shows where previous attempts to explain these concepts have failed. This clear and concise study is tightly focussed and assumes (...)
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  19. Leibniz's Key Philosophical Writings: A Guide.Paul Lodge & Lloyd Strickland (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents introductory chapters from internationally-renowned experts on eleven of Leibniz's key philosophical writings. Offering accessible accounts of the ideas and arguments of his work, along with information on their composition and context, this book is an invaluable companion to the study of Leibniz.
     
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  20. Leibniz's Monadological Positive Aesthetics.Pauline Phemister & Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - In Pauline Phemister & Jeremy William Dunham (eds.), Monadologies. London: Routledge.
     
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  21.  9
    Physical Stigma, Interaction, and Compliance.Sharon L. Soble & Lloyd H. Strickland - 1974 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4 (2):130-132.
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  22.  38
    Current Trends in Soviet Social Psychology.Lloyd Strickland & Eugenia Lockwood - 1989 - Studies in East European Thought 37 (3):191-203.
  23.  20
    Current Trends in Soviet Social Psychology.Lloyd Strickland & Eugenia Lockwood - 1989 - Studies in Soviet Thought 37 (3):191-203.
  24.  34
    Discourse on Metaphysics.Lloyd Strickland - 2020 - In Paul Lodge & Lloyd Strickland (eds.), Leibniz's Key Philosophical Writings: A Guide. Oxford, UK: pp. 56-79.
    The “Discourse on Metaphysics” is widely considered to be Leibniz’s most important philosophical work from his so-called “middle period”. Written early in 1686, when Leibniz was 39 years old, it consolidates a number of philosophical ideas that he had developed and sketched out in the years beforehand in a host of short private essays, fragments, and letters. This chapter guides the reader through the key themes of the “Discourse”, such as God’s choice of the best, the nature of substance, final (...)
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  25.  1
    False Optimism? Leibniz, Evil, and the Best of All Possible Worlds.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 15 (1):17-35.
    Leibniz’s claim that this is the best of all possible worlds has been subject to numerous criticisms, both from his contemporaries and ours. In this paper I investigate a cluster of such criticisms based on the existence, abundance or character of worldly evil. As several Leibniz-inspired versions of optimism have been advanced in recent years, the aim of my investigation is to assess not just how Leibniz’s brand of optimism fares against these criticisms, but also whether optimism as a philosophy (...)
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  26. False Optimism? Leibniz, Evil, and the Best of All Possible Worlds.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 15 (1):17-35.
    Leibniz’s claim that this is the best of all possible worlds has been subject to numerous criticisms, both from his contemporaries and ours. In this paper I investigate a cluster of such criticisms based on the existence, abundance or character of worldly evil. As several Leibniz-inspired versions of optimism have been advanced in recent years, the aim of my investigation is to assess not just how Leibniz’s brand of optimism fares against these criticisms, but also whether optimism as a philosophy (...)
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  27.  83
    God and Prepunishment.Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (1):105-127.
    The belief that some misfortunes are punishments sent from God has been affirmed by many different cultures and religions throughout human history. The belief has proved a pervasive one, and is still endorsed today by many adherents of the great western religions of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. Invariably, what is believed is that a present misfortune is divine punishment for a past sin. But could a present misfortune in fact be divine punishment for a future sin? That is, could God prepunish (...)
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  28. God’s Creatures? Divine Nature and the Status of Animals in the Early Modern Beast-Machine Controversy.Lloyd Strickland - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 74 (4):291-309.
    In early modern times it was not uncommon for thinkers to tease out from the nature of God various doctrines of substantial physical and metaphysical import. This approach was particularly fruitful in the so-called beast-machine controversy, which erupted following Descartes’ claim that animals are automata, that is, pure machines, without a spiritual, incorporeal soul. Over the course of this controversy, thinkers on both sides attempted to draw out important truths about the status of animals simply from the notion or attributes (...)
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  29. How Leibniz Would Have Responded to the Lisbon Earthquake.Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - In Julia Weckend, Erik Vynckier & Lloyd Strickland (eds.), Tercentenary Essays in the Philosophy and Science of Leibniz. Basingstoke: Palgrave. pp. 257-278.
    On 1 November 1755, the city of Lisbon in Portugal was virtually destroyed by the largest documented seismic event ever to hit Europe. It is often claimed that the catastrophe severely damaged the plausibility of Leibniz’s optimism, and even the wider project of theodicy. Leibniz died several decades before the Lisbon earthquake struck, and so was unable to address it and the challenges thrown up by it, which would have included an account of how the event was consistent with God’s (...)
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  30.  68
    How Modern Was Leibniz's Biology?Lloyd Strickland - 2005 - Studia Leibnitiana 37 (2):186 - 207.
    Mein Ziel in dieser Arbeit ist es zu bestimmen, in welchem Umfang Leibniz moderne Ansichten in drei Bereichen der Biologie vertreten hat, nämlich in der Frage zum Ursprung von Fossilien, zum Aussterben von Arten und zur Evolution von Arten. In neuerer Zeit haben Forscher behauptet, Leibniz hätte folgende Thesen akzeptiert: (1) Fossilien haben einen organischen Ursprung; (2) einige Arten sind ausgestorben; (3) einige Arten haben sich im Laufe der Zeit entwickelt. Anhand der Betrachtung einer Reihe von Leibniz' Schriften, eingeschlossen solche, (...)
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  31.  93
    John Locke and Personal Identity: Immortality and Bodily Resurrection in 17th-Century Philosophy. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (4):826 - 830.
    British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 826-830, July 2011.
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  32. Leibniz’s Egypt Plan (1671–1672): From Holy War to Ecumenism.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - Intellectual History Review 26 (4):461-476.
    At the end of 1671 and start of 1672, while in the service of the Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, Leibniz composed his Egypt Plan, which sought to persuade Louis XIV to invade Egypt. Scholars have generally supposed that Leibniz’s rationale for devising the plan was to divert Louis from his intended war with Holland. Little attention has been paid to the religious benefits that Leibniz identified in the plan, and those who do acknowledge them are often quick to downplay (...)
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  33.  45
    Leibniz on God and Religion.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - London: Bloomsbury.
    Bringing together Leibniz's writings on God and religion for the very first time, Leibniz on God and Religion: A Reader reflects the growing importance now placed on Leibniz's philosophical theology. This reader features a wealth of material, from journal articles and book reviews published in Leibniz's lifetime to private notes and essays, as well as items from his correspondence. Organised thematically into the following sections, this reader captures the changes in Leibniz's thinking over the course of his career: 1. The (...)
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  34. Leibniz's Observations on Hydrology: An Unpublished Letter on the Great Lombardy Flood of 1705.Lloyd Strickland & Michael Church - 2015 - Annals of Science 72 (4):517-532.
    Although the historical reputation of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) largely rests on his philosophical and mathematical work, it is widely known that he made important contributions to many of the emerging but still inchoate branches of natural science of his day. Among the many scientific papers Leibniz published during his lifetime are ones on the nascent science we now know as hydrology. While Leibniz’s other scientific work has become of increasing interest to scholars in recent years, his thinking about hydrology (...)
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  35.  98
    Leibniz, Purgatory, and Universal Salvation.Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - In Kristof Vanhoutte & Benjamin McCraw (eds.), Purgatory: Philosophical Dimensions. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 111-128.
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  36. Leibniz, the "Flower of Substance," and the Resurrection of the Same Body.Lloyd Strickland - 2009 - Philosophical Forum 40 (3):391-410.
  37.  52
    Leibniz’s Universal Rational Religion.Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - In Herbert Breger (ed.), Natur und Subjekt. Berlin: pp. 1126-1133.
    This paper is concerned with Leibniz's doctrine of “universal rational religion,” i.e. a religion derived from reason and hence accessible to all, Christians and non-Christians alike, by virtue of the universality of reason. In this paper I shall identify some of the key theological truths and doctrines that Leibniz believed could be reached via reason, and as such would be accessible to non-Christians. While Leibniz held that there were a number of theological truths and doctrines that were potentially available to (...)
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  38.  78
    Leibniz Vs. Transmigration: A Previously Unpublished Text From the Early 1700s.Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - Quaestiones Disputatae 7 (2):139-159.
    In this paper, I analyze a previously unpublished Leibniz text from the early 1700s. I give it the title “On Unities and Transmigration” since it contains an outline of his doctrine of unities and an examination of the doctrine of transmigration. The text is valuable because in it Leibniz considers three very specific versions of transmigration that he does not address elsewhere in his writings; these are where a soul is released by the destruction of its body and is then (...)
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  39. Prémontval's "General Misunderstanding on the Question of Optimism".Lloyd Strickland - 2020 - Philosophical Readings 12 (2):321-330.
    One of the most original contributions to the optimism debate of the eighteenth century was put forward by the maverick French Enlightenment thinker, André-Pierre Le Guay de Prémontval, in an essay entitled “General misunderstanding on the question of optimism”. This essay, which seeks to develop a “middle point” between the polarized pro- and anti-optimist positions that characterized the optimism debate, prefigures the development of process or neoclassical theism in important ways. The essay is presented here in English for the first (...)
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  40. Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Waco, TX, USA: Baylor University Press.
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe offers a fascinating window into early modern efforts to prove God’s existence. Assembled here are twenty-two key texts, many translated into English for the first time, which illustrate the variety of arguments that philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries offered for God. These selections feature traditional proofs—such as various ontological, cosmological, and design arguments—but also introduce more exotic proofs, such as the argument from eternal truths, the argument from universal aseity, and the (...)
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  41.  80
    Review of "Leibniz Et le Meilleur des Mondes Possibles" by Paul Rateau. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2015 - Philosophy in Review 35 (6):304-306.
    L'affirmation de l'existence du meilleur des mondes possibles est l'une des thèses leibniziennes les plus connues et sans doute l'une des plus mal comprises. Cet ouvrage en explique le sens, montre sur quels fondements théoriques elle repose et envisage ses implications sur les plans métaphysique et moral. The affirmation of the existence of the best of all possible worlds is one of Leibniz's best known and doubtless least understood theses. This work explains what it means, shows what theoretical foundations it (...)
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  42. Racism, Chauvinism and Prejudice in the History of Philosophy.Lloyd Strickland - 2019 - Institute of Arts and Ideas.
    This piece was originally titled "Racism, Chauvinism and Prejudice in the History of Philosophy" but was later retitled "How Western Philosophy Became Racist" by the publisher.
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  43.  73
    Review of God's Goodness and God's Evil by James Kellenberger. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - Reading Religion.
  44.  89
    Review of "Leibniz's Mill" by Charles Landesman. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - Heythrop Journal 58 (3):545-546.
  45.  53
    Review of "A History of the Concept of God: A Process Approach" by Daniel A. Dombrowski. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Reading Religion.
  46.  63
    Review of "Rebirth and the Stream of Life" by Mikel Burley. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Numen 65:617-619.
  47.  56
    Review of "Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory" by Jerry L. Walls. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - Reading Religion 1.
  48.  38
    Review of "Leibniz: Protestant Theologian" by Irena Backus. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Renaissance Quarterly 71:1545-1546.
  49. Review of "How the World Thinks: A Global History of Philosophy" by Julian Baggini. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2019 - Times Higher Education 2393:52.
  50. Soviet and Western Perspectives in Social Psychology.Lloyd H. Strickland - 1984 - Studies in Soviet Thought 27 (4):335-339.
     
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