Results for 'Logicism in Mathematics'

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  1.  23
    Logic, Logicism, and Intuitions in Mathematics.Besim Karakadılar - 2001 - Dissertation, Middle East Technical University
    In this work I study the main tenets of the logicist philosophy of mathematics. I deal, basically, with two problems: (1) To what extent can one dispense with intuition in mathematics? (2) What is the appropriate logic for the purposes of logicism? By means of my considerations I try to determine the pros and cons of logicism. My standpoint favors the logicist line of thought. -/- .
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  2. Toward a Topic-Specific Logicism? Russell's Theory of Geometry in the Principles of Mathematics.Sébastien Gandon - 2009 - Philosophia Mathematica 17 (1):35-72.
    Russell's philosophy is rightly described as a programme of reduction of mathematics to logic. Now the theory of geometry developed in 1903 does not fit this picture well, since it is deeply rooted in the purely synthetic projective approach, which conflicts with all the endeavours to reduce geometry to analytical geometry. The first goal of this paper is to present an overview of this conception. The second aim is more far-reaching. The fact that such a theory of geometry was (...)
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  3.  89
    Which Arithmetization for Which Logicism? Russell on Relations and Quantities in The Principles of Mathematics.Sébastien Gandon - 2008 - History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (1):1-30.
    This article aims first at showing that Russell's general doctrine according to which all mathematics is deducible 'by logical principles from logical principles' does not require a preliminary reduction of all mathematics to arithmetic. In the Principles, mechanics (part VII), geometry (part VI), analysis (part IV-V) and magnitude theory (part III) are to be all directly derived from the theory of relations, without being first reduced to arithmetic (part II). The epistemological importance of this point cannot be overestimated: (...)
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  4.  64
    Stefano Donati. I Fondamenti Della Matematica Nel Logicismo di Bertrand Russell [the Foundations of Mathematics in the Logicism of Bertrand Russell].Gianluigi Oliveri - 2009 - Philosophia Mathematica 17 (1):109-113.
    Bertrand Russell's contributions to last century's philosophy and, in particular, to the philosophy of mathematics cannot be overestimated.Russell, besides being, with Frege and G.E. Moore, one of the founding fathers of analytical philosophy, played a major rôle in the development of logicism, one of the oldest and most resilient1 programmes in the foundations of mathematics.Among his many achievements, we need to mention the discovery of the paradox that bears his name and the identification of its logical nature; (...)
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  5. Sébastien Gandon. Russell's Unknown Logicism: A Study in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. ISBN 978-0-230-57699-5. Pp. Xiv + 266. [REVIEW]A. Urquhart - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (3):399-402.
  6.  14
    Mathematics in and Behind Russell's Logicism and its Reception'.I. Grattan-Guinness - 2003 - In Nicholas Griffin (ed.), Bulletin of Symbolic Logic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 51.
  7. Mathematics in and Behind Russell's Logicism, and Its Reception.Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Richard Cartwright, Peter Hylton, Martin Godwyn, Andrew D. Irvine & Michael Beaney - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (1):72-77.
     
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  8.  15
    Russell's Unknown Logicism: A Study in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics.Andrew David Irvine - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (2):214-215.
  9.  6
    'As'-(~ P--qY And'(3x) F (xY As'-(X)~ F (X)\ It is the Logicist Thesis, Then, That the Logical Concepts Just Given Suffice to Define All Mathemati-Cal Concepts, That Over and Above Them No Specifically Mathematical Con-Cepts Are Required for the Construction of Mathematics. Already Before Frege, Mathematicians in Their Investigations of The).Rudolf Carnap - 1996 - In Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), Logical Empiricism at its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. Garland. pp. 2--112.
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  10. Why Did Weyl Think That Dedekind’s Norm of Belief in Mathematics is Perverse?Iulian D. Toader - 2016 - In Early Analytic Philosophy – New Perspectives on the Tradition. The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science, vol. 80,. pp. 445-451.
    This paper discusses an intriguing, though rather overlooked case of normative disagreement in the history of philosophy of mathematics: Weyl's criticism of Dedekind’s famous principle that "In science, what is provable ought not to be believed without proof." This criticism, as I see it, challenges not only a logicist norm of belief in mathematics, but also a realist view about whether there is a fact of the matter as to what norms of belief are correct.
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  11. Philosophy of Mathematics in the 20th Century: Main Trends and Doctrines.Roman Murawski - 2006 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 91 (1):331-347.
    The aim of the paper is to present the main trends and tendencies in the philosophy of mathematics in the 20th century. To make the analysis more clear we distinguish three periods in the development of the philosophy of mathematics in this century: (1) the first thirty years when three classical doctrines: logicism, intuitionism and formalism were formulated, (2) the period from 1931 till the end of the fifties - period of stagnation, and (3) from the beginning (...)
     
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  12.  84
    The Development of Programs for the Foundations of Mathematics in the First Third of the 20th Century.Solomon Feferman - manuscript
    The most prominent “schools” or programs for the foundations of mathematics that took shape in the first third of the 20th century emerged directly from, or in response to, developments in mathematics and logic in the latter part of the 19th century. The first of these programs, so-called logicism, had as its aim the reduction of mathematics to purely logical principles. In order to understand properly its achievements and resulting problems, it is necessary to review the (...)
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  13.  37
    Gianluigi Oliveri. A Realist Philosophy of Mathematics. Texts in Philosophy;.Julian C. Cole - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):409-420.
    1.1 ContextIn the period following the demise of logicism, formalism, and intuitionism, contributors to the philosophy of mathematics have been divided. On the one hand, there are those who tend to focus on such issues as: Do mathematical entities exist? If so, what type of entities are they and how do we know about them? If not, how can we account for the role that mathematics plays in our everyday and scientific lives? Contributors to this school—let us (...)
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  14. Abstractionism: Essays in Philosophy of Mathematics.Philip A. Ebert & Marcus Rossberg - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Abstractionism, which is a development of Frege's original Logicism, is a recent and much debated position in the philosophy of mathematics. This volume contains 16 original papers by leading scholars on the philosophical and mathematical aspects of Abstractionism. After an extensive editors' introduction to the topic of abstractionism, the volume is split into 4 sections. The contributions within these sections explore the semantics and meta-ontology of Abstractionism, abstractionist epistemology, the mathematics of Abstractionis, and finally, Frege's application constraint (...)
     
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  15.  21
    Heyting’s Contribution to the Change in Research Into the Foundations of Mathematics.Miriam Franchella - 1994 - History and Philosophy of Logic 15 (2):149-172.
    After the 1930s, the research into the foundations of mathematics changed.None of its main directions (logicism, formalism and intuitionism) had any longer the pretension to be the only true mathematics.Usually, the determining factor in the change is considered to be Gödel?s work, while Heyting?s role is neglected.In contrast, in this paper I first describe how Heyting directly suggested the abandonment of the big foundational questions and the putting forward of a new kind of foundational research consisting in (...)
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  16. Some Thoughts and a Proposal in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Haim Gaifman - manuscript
    The paper outlines a project in the philosophy of mathematics based on a proposed view of the nature of mathematical reasoning. It also contains a brief evaluative overview of the discipline and some historical observations; here it points out and illustrates the division between the philosophical dimension, where questions of realism and the status of mathematics are treated, and the more descriptive and looser dimension of epistemic efficiency, which has to do with ways of organizing the mathematical material. (...)
     
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  17.  21
    The Synthesis of Logicism and Formalism in Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language.Thomas Oberdan - 1993 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 1:157-168.
    One important achievement Rudolf Carnap claimed for his book, The Logical Syntax of Language, was that it effected a synthesis of two seemingly antithetical philosophies of mathematics, logicism and formalism. Reconciling these widely divergent conceptions had been a goal of Carnap’s for several years. But in the years in which Carnap’s synthesis evolved, important intellectual developments influenced the direction of his efforts and, ultimately, the final outcome. These developments were, first of all, the epoch-making theorems proved by Kurt (...)
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  18.  8
    The Foundations of Mathematics: A Study in the Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]J. M. P. - 1966 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (1):146-147.
    This is easily the most systematic survey of the foundations of logic and mathematics available today. Although Beth does not cover the development of set theory in great detail, all other aspects of logic are well represented. There are nine chapters which cover, though not in this order, the following: historical background and introduction to the philosophy of mathematics; the existence of mathematical objects as expressed by Logicism, Cantorism, Intuitionism, and Nominalism; informal elementary axiomatics; formalized axiomatics with (...)
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  19.  5
    Objectivity, Realism, and Proof. FilMat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Francesca Boccuni & Andrea Sereni (eds.) - 2016 - Springer International Publishing.
    This volume covers a wide range of topics in the most recent debates in the philosophy of mathematics, and is dedicated to how semantic, epistemological, ontological and logical issues interact in the attempt to give a satisfactory picture of mathematical knowledge. The essays collected here explore the semantic and epistemic problems raised by different kinds of mathematical objects, by their characterization in terms of axiomatic theories, and by the objectivity of both pure and applied mathematics. They investigate controversial (...)
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  20. Some Reflections about Alain Badiou’s Approach to Platonism in Mathematics.Miriam Franchella - 2007 - Analytica 1:67-81.
    A reproach has been done many times to post-modernism: its picking up mathematical notions or results, mostly by misrepresenting their real content, in order to strike the readers and obtaining their assent only by impressing them . In this paper I intend to point out that although Alain Badiou’s approach to philosophy starts with taking distance both from analytic philosophy and from French post-modernism, the categories that he uses for labelling logicism, formalism and intuitionism do not reflect the real (...)
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  21. Justification and Explanation in Mathematics and Morality.Justin Clarke-Doane - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 10.
    In his influential book, The Nature of Morality, Gilbert Harman writes: “In explaining the observations that support a physical theory, scientists typically appeal to mathematical principles. On the other hand, one never seems to need to appeal in this way to moral principles.” What is the epistemological relevance of this contrast, if genuine? This chapter argues that ethicists and philosophers of mathematics have misunderstood it. They have confused what the chapter calls the justificatory challenge for realism about an area, (...)
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  22. Non-Deductive Logic in Mathematics.James Franklin - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (1):1-18.
    Mathematicians often speak of conjectures as being confirmed by evidence that falls short of proof. For their own conjectures, evidence justifies further work in looking for a proof. Those conjectures of mathematics that have long resisted proof, such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Riemann Hypothesis, have had to be considered in terms of the evidence for and against them. It is argued here that it is not adequate to describe the relation of evidence to hypothesis as `subjective', `heuristic' (...)
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  23.  57
    A “Professional Issues and Ethics in Mathematics” Course.James Franklin - 2005 - Australian Mathematical Society Gazette 32:98-100.
    Some courses achieve existence, some have to create Professional Issues and Ethics in existence thrust upon them. It is normally Mathematics; but if you don’t do it, we will a struggle to create a course on the ethical be.” I accepted. or social aspects of science or mathematics. The gift of a greenfield site and a bull- This is the story of one that was forced to dozer is a happy occasion, undoubtedly. But exist by an unusual confluence (...)
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  24.  39
    Logic, Mathematics, and the A Priori, Part II: Core Logic as Analytic, and as the Basis for Natural Logicism.Neil Tennant - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (3):321-344.
    We examine the sense in which logic is a priori, and explain how mathematical theories can be dichotomized non-trivially into analytic and synthetic portions. We argue that Core Logic contains exactly the a-priori-because-analytically-valid deductive principles. We introduce the reader to Core Logic by explaining its relationship to other logical systems, and stating its rules of inference. Important metatheorems about Core Logic are reported, and its important features noted. Core Logic can serve as the basis for a foundational program that could (...)
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  25.  2
    Emmy Noether’s First Great Mathematics and the Culmination of First-Phase Logicism, Formalism, and Intuitionism.Colin McLarty - 2011 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 65 (1):99-117.
    Emmy Noether’s many articles around the time that Felix Klein and David Hilbert were arranging her invitation to Göttingen include a short but brilliant note on invariants of finite groups highlighting her creativity and perspicacity in algebra. Contrary to the idea that Noether abandoned Paul Gordan’s style of mathematics for Hilbert’s, this note shows her combining them in a way she continued throughout her mature abstract algebra.
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  26.  40
    Russell’s Method of Analysis and the Axioms of Mathematics.Lydia Patton - 2017 - In Sandra Lapointe Christopher Pincock (ed.), Innovations in the History of Analytical Philosophy. London: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 105-126.
    In the early 1900s, Russell began to recognize that he, and many other mathematicians, had been using assertions like the Axiom of Choice implicitly, and without explicitly proving them. In working with the Axioms of Choice, Infinity, and Reducibility, and his and Whitehead’s Multiplicative Axiom, Russell came to take the position that some axioms are necessary to recovering certain results of mathematics, but may not be proven to be true absolutely. The essay traces historical roots of, and motivations for, (...)
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  27. Naturalism in Mathematics.Penelope Maddy - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Naturalism in Mathematics investigates how the most fundamental assumptions of mathematics can be justified. One prevalent philosophical approach to the problem--realism--is examined and rejected in favor of another approach--naturalism. Penelope Maddy defines this naturalism, explains the motivation for it, and shows how it can be successfully applied in set theory. Her clear, original treatment of this fundamental issue is informed by current work in both philosophy and mathematics, and will be accessible and enlightening to readers from both (...)
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  28.  46
    The Aim of Russell’s Early Logicism: A Reinterpretation.Anders Kraal - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1-18.
    I argue that three main interpretations of the aim of Russell’s early logicism in The Principles of Mathematics (1903) are mistaken, and propose a new interpretation. According to this new interpretation, the aim of Russell’s logicism is to show, in opposition to Kant, that mathematical propositions have a certain sort of complete generality which entails that their truth is independent of space and time. I argue that on this interpretation two often-heard objections to Russell’s logicism, deriving (...)
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  29. Realism in Mathematics.Penelope MADDY - 1990 - Oxford University Prress.
    Mathematicians tend to think of themselves as scientists investigating the features of real mathematical things, and the wildly successful application of mathematics in the physical sciences reinforces this picture of mathematics as an objective study. For philosophers, however, this realism about mathematics raises serious questions: What are mathematical things? Where are they? How do we know about them? Offering a scrupulously fair treatment of both mathematical and philosophical concerns, Penelope Maddy here delineates and defends a novel version (...)
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  30.  86
    Naturalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Alexander Paseau - 2008 - In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Contemporary philosophy’s three main naturalisms are methodological, ontological and epistemological. Methodological naturalism states that the only authoritative standards are those of science. Ontological and epistemological naturalism respectively state that all entities and all valid methods of inquiry are in some sense natural. In philosophy of mathematics of the past few decades methodological naturalism has received the lion’s share of the attention, so we concentrate on this. Ontological and epistemological naturalism in the philosophy of mathematics are discussed more briefly (...)
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  31. Hilbert, Logicism, and Mathematical Existence.José Ferreirós - 2009 - Synthese 170 (1):33 - 70.
    David Hilbert’s early foundational views, especially those corresponding to the 1890s, are analysed here. I consider strong evidence for the fact that Hilbert was a logicist at that time, following upon Dedekind’s footsteps in his understanding of pure mathematics. This insight makes it possible to throw new light on the evolution of Hilbert’s foundational ideas, including his early contributions to the foundations of geometry and the real number system. The context of Dedekind-style logicism makes it possible to offer (...)
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  32. Imagination in Mathematics.Andrew Arana - 2016 - In Amy Kind (ed.), Routledge Handbook on the Philosophy of Imagination. Routledge. pp. 463-477.
    This article will consider imagination in mathematics from a historical point of view, noting the key moments in its conception during the ancient, modern and contemporary eras.
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  33. Propositional Functions in Extension.Robert Trueman - 2011 - Theoria 77 (4):292-311.
    In his “The Foundations of Mathematics”, Ramsey attempted to marry the Tractarian idea that all logical truths are tautologies and vice versa, and the logicism of the Principia. In order to complete his project, Ramsey was forced to introduce propositional functions in extension (PFEs): given Ramsey's definitions of 1 and 2, without PFEs even the quantifier-free arithmetical truth that 1 ≠ 2 is not a tautology. However, a number of commentators have argued that the notion of PFEs is (...)
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  34. Wittgenstein on Circularity in the Frege-Russell Definition of Cardinal Number.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):354-373.
    Several scholars have argued that Wittgenstein held the view that the notion of number is presupposed by the notion of one-one correlation, and that therefore Hume's principle is not a sound basis for a definition of number. I offer a new interpretation of the relevant fragments on philosophy of mathematics from Wittgenstein's Nachlass, showing that if different uses of ‘presupposition’ are understood in terms of de re and de dicto knowledge, Wittgenstein's argument against the Frege-Russell definition of number turns (...)
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  35.  31
    Representation and Productive Ambiguity in Mathematics and the Sciences.Emily R. Grosholz - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Viewed this way, the texts yield striking examples of language and notation that are irreducibly ambiguous and productive because they are ambiguous.
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  36.  24
    The Future of Mathematics in Economics: A Philosophically Grounded Proposal.Ricardo Crespo & Fernando Tohmé - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (4):677-693.
    The use of mathematics in economics has been widely discussed. The philosophical discussion on what mathematics is remains unsettled on why it can be applied to the study of the real world. We propose to get back to some philosophical conceptions that lead to a language-like role for the mathematical analysis of economic phenomena and present some problems of interest that can be better examined in this light. Category theory provides the appropriate tools for these analytical approach.
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  37.  90
    Neo-Logicism? An Ontological Reduction of Mathematics to Metaphysics.Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - Erkenntnis 53 (1-2):219-265.
    In this paper, we describe "metaphysical reductions", in which the well-defined terms and predicates of arbitrary mathematical theories are uniquely interpreted within an axiomatic, metaphysical theory of abstract objects. Once certain (constitutive) facts about a mathematical theory T have been added to the metaphysical theory of objects, theorems of the metaphysical theory yield both an analysis of the reference of the terms and predicates of T and an analysis of the truth of the sentences of T. The well-defined terms and (...)
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  38.  25
    Frege, Neo-Logicism and Applied Mathematics.Peter Clark - 2004 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 11:169-183.
    A little over one hundred years ago , Frege wrote to Russell in the following terms1: I myself was long reluctant to recognize ranges of values and hence classes; but I saw no other possibility of placing arithmetic on a logical foundation. But the question is how do we apprehend logical objects? And I have found no other answer to it than this, We apprehend them as extensions of concepts, or more generally, as ranges of values of functions. I have (...)
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  39.  11
    Chapter 6. Logic and Mathematics: The Logicist Reduction.Scott Soames - 2003 - In Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 1: The Dawn of Analysis. Princeton University Press. pp. 132-164.
  40.  2
    Mathematics in Philosophy, Philosophy in Mathematics: Three Case Studies.Stewart Shapiro - 2016 - In Francesca Boccuni & Andrea Sereni (eds.), Objectivity, Realism, and Proof. Filmat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
    The interaction between philosophy and mathematics has a long and well articulated history. The purpose of this note is to sketch three historical case studies that highlight and further illustrate some details concerning the relationship between the two: the interplay between mathematical and philosophical methods in ancient Greek thought; vagueness and the relation between mathematical logic and ordinary language; and the study of the notion of continuity.
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  41. Visual Thinking in Mathematics: An Epistemological Study.Marcus Giaquinto - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Visual thinking -- visual imagination or perception of diagrams and symbol arrays, and mental operations on them -- is omnipresent in mathematics. Is this visual thinking merely a psychological aid, facilitating grasp of what is gathered by other means? Or does it also have epistemological functions, as a means of discovery, understanding, and even proof? By examining the many kinds of visual representation in mathematics and the diverse ways in which they are used, Marcus Giaquinto argues that visual (...)
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  42. Discrete and Continuous: A Fundamental Dichotomy in Mathematics.James Franklin - 2017 - Journal of Humanistic Mathematics 7 (2):355-378.
    The distinction between the discrete and the continuous lies at the heart of mathematics. Discrete mathematics (arithmetic, algebra, combinatorics, graph theory, cryptography, logic) has a set of concepts, techniques, and application areas largely distinct from continuous mathematics (traditional geometry, calculus, most of functional analysis, differential equations, topology). The interaction between the two – for example in computer models of continuous systems such as fluid flow – is a central issue in the applicable mathematics of the last (...)
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  43. Teaching and Learning Guide For: Explanation in Mathematics: Proofs and Practice.William D'Alessandro - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11).
    This is a teaching and learning guide to accompany "Explanation in Mathematics: Proofs and Practice".
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  44. Fitting Feelings and Elegant Proofs: On the Psychology of Aesthetic Evaluation in Mathematics.Cain Todd - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica:nkx007.
    ABSTRACT This paper explores the role of aesthetic judgements in mathematics by focussing on the relationship between the epistemic and aesthetic criteria employed in such judgements, and on the nature of the psychological experiences underpinning them. I claim that aesthetic judgements in mathematics are plausibly understood as expressions of what I will call ‘aesthetic-epistemic feelings’ that serve a genuine cognitive and epistemic function. I will then propose a naturalistic account of these feelings in terms of sub-personal processes of (...)
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  45.  89
    Revolutions in Mathematics.Donald Gillies (ed.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Social revolutions--that is critical periods of decisive, qualitative change--are a commonly acknowledged historical fact. But can the idea of revolutionary upheaval be extended to the world of ideas and theoretical debate? The publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962 led to an exciting discussion of revolutions in the natural sciences. A fascinating, but little known, off-shoot of this was a debate which began in the United States in the mid-1970's as to whether the concept of revolution could (...)
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  46.  92
    Conceptual Metaphors and Mathematical Practice: On Cognitive Studies of Historical Developments in Mathematics.Dirk Schlimm - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):283-298.
    This article looks at recent work in cognitive science on mathematical cognition from the perspective of history and philosophy of mathematical practice. The discussion is focused on the work of Lakoff and Núñez, because this is the first comprehensive account of mathematical cognition that also addresses advanced mathematics and its history. Building on a distinction between mathematics as it is presented in textbooks and as it presents itself to the researcher, it is argued that the focus of cognitive (...)
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  47.  28
    History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education.Michael N. Fried - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 669-703.
    This paper surveys central justifications and approaches adopted by educators interested in incorporating history of mathematics into mathematics teaching and learning. This interest itself has historical roots and different historical manifestations; these roots are examined as well in the paper. The paper also asks what it means for history of mathematics to be treated as genuine historical knowledge rather than a tool for teaching other kinds of mathematical knowledge. If, however, history of mathematics is not subordinated (...)
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  48.  35
    Definition in Mathematics.Carlo Cellucci - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):605-629.
    In the past century the received view of definition in mathematics has been the stipulative conception, according to which a definition merely stipulates the meaning of a term in other terms which are supposed to be already well known. The stipulative conception has been so absolutely dominant and accepted as unproblematic that the nature of definition has not been much discussed, yet it is inadequate. This paper examines its shortcomings and proposes an alternative, the heuristic conception.
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  49.  31
    Merleau‐Ponty on Abstract Thought in Mathematics and Natural Science.Samantha Matherne - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):780-97.
    In this paper, I argue that in spite of suggestions to the contrary, Merleau-Ponty defends a positive account of the kind of abstract thought involved in mathematics and natural science. More specifically, drawing on both the Phenomenology of Perception and his later writings, I show that, for Merleau-Ponty, abstract thought and perception stand in the two-way relation of “foundation,” according to which abstract thought makes what we perceive explicit and determinate, and what we perceive is made to appear by (...)
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  50. Proof and Knowledge in Mathematics.Michael Detlefsen (ed.) - 1992 - Routledge.
    These questions arise from any attempt to discover an epistemology for mathematics. This collection of essays considers various questions concerning the nature of justification in mathematics and possible sources of that justification. Among these are the question of whether mathematical justification is _a priori_ or _a posteriori_ in character, whether logical and mathematical differ, and if formalization plays a significant role in mathematical justification.
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