This paper supports the need for health professionals to be trained in argumentation theory, by illustrating the challenges that they face in interacting with patients and according to the different models of consultation that patients prefer. While there is no ideal model of consultation that can be promoted universally, the ability to construct arguments in support of health professionals’ points of view, as well as the ability to engage in critical discussion with patients, translate in essential skills for reaching patients’ (...) agreement when communication develops through the interpretative model or the informed decision model or, eventually, shared decision-making. Keywords: models of consultation, argumentation skills, medical training, patient-centeredness, informed consent. (shrink)
The recent crisis of the Eurozone has led scholars and activists to critically consider the ordoliberal tradition of thought, in order to underline the ideological and effective primacy of the German interests within EU’s economic and monetary policies. Starting from this last widespread assertion, the author, after having recalled the differences which exist among the liberalism of the “Freiburg School” and that of the “Vienna School”, analyzes and discusses the principles of Walter Eucken’s economic policy, in particular, the “constitutive principles” (...) and the “regulative principles” of his Wettbewerbsordnung. Nevertheless, if it is true that the ordoliberal concept of competition is based on a Leistungsprinzip which requires a starker Staat, how does the Wettbewerbsordnung coexist with EU’s systems of governance? Actually, says the author, the multilevel European governance seems to be better understood if intended as a “hybrid”, with respect to which not always Ordoliberalism plays a role consistent with its tradition. (shrink)
O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o bem-estar dos trabalhadores da saúde de um centro de reabilitação e readaptação, relacionando-o com a crença no mundo justo e com o lócus de controle. Participaram 146 profissionais que responderam a um questionário formado por perguntas sobre dados sócio-demog..
This introduction analyzes some of the key questions concerning the political variations of the neoliberal economic discourse in today’s Europe. In particular, the relationship between the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty and the rebirth of the “economic nation” is taken into account. In the great transformation imposed by the ongoing economic crisis, the author stresses the importance of grasping not only the German roots of the European Ordoliberalism, but also those of a hybrid politics, based on governance policies, and implicitly imposed (...) by the unfinished character of the great transformation itself. (shrink)
A main identifying factor of professions is professionals' willingness to comply with ethical and professional standards, often defined in a code of ethics and conduct. In a period of intense nursing mobility, if the public are aware that health professionals have committed themselves to the drawing up of a code of ethics and conduct, they will have more trust in the health professional they choose, especially if this person comes from another European Member State. The Code of Ethics and Conduct (...) for European Nursing is a programmatic document for the nursing profession constructed by the FEPI (European Federation of Nursing Regulators) according to Directive 2005/36/EC On recognition of professional qualifications , and Directive 2006/123/EC On services in the internal market, set out by the European Commission. This article describes the construction of the Code and gives an overview of some specific areas of importance. The main text of the Code is reproduced in Appendix 1. (shrink)
This paper is about a special version of PDL, proposed by Marcus Kracht, for reasoning about sibling ordered trees. It has four basic programs corresponding to the child, parent, left- and right-sibling relations in such trees. The original motivation for this language is rooted in the field of model-theoretic syntax. Motivated by recent developments in the area of semi-structured data, and, especially, in the field of query languages for XML documents, we revisit the language. This renewed interest comes with a (...) special focus on complexity and expressivity aspects of the language, aspects that have so far largely been ignored. We survey and derive complexity results, and spend most of the paper on the most important open question concerning the language: what is its expressive power? We approach this question from two angles: Which first-order properties can be expressed? And which second-order properties? While we are still some way from definitive answers to these questions, we discuss two first-order fragments of the PDL language for ordered trees, and show how the language can be used to express some typical problems, like the boolean circuit and the frontier problem. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to offer a view of the current status of women in medical physics and biomedical engineering, while focusing on solutions towards gender balance and providing examples of current activities carried out at national and international levels. The International Union of Physical and Engineering Scientists in Medicine is committed to advancing women in science and health and has several initiatives overseen by the Women in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Task Group. Some of the main (...) strategies proposed by the Task Group to attain gender balance are: identify and promote female role models that achieve successful work-life balance, establish programs to develop female leaders, create opportunities for females to increase the international visibility within the scientific community, and establish archives and databases of women in STEM. (shrink)
This paper proposes an empirical assessment of the main factors behind the decision of a corporate sponsor to launch a socially responsible fund. Our analysis is performed on a database that encompasses 414 SR fund creations by 46 corporate sponsors between 1990 and 2012. We provide evidence that economic and human resources slack, leverage, low media coverage and high extra-financial performance of the corporate sponsor contribute to an increase of the probability to propose SR funds. These results lead us to (...) argue that the introduction of such funds goes beyond the economic objective of enlarging the market share of the corporate sponsor. It may thus be seen as a particular strategy in terms of communication and signaling, due to the specific characteristics of SR funds. (shrink)
Whitehead, in his famous book Process and Reality, proposed a definition of point assuming the concepts of "region" and "connection relation" as primitive. Several years after and independently Grzegorczyk, in a brief but very interesting paper, proposed another definition of point in a system in which the inclusion relation and the relation of being separated were assumed as primitive. In this paper we compare their definitions and we show that, under rather natural assumptions, they coincide.
It is shown the complete equivalence between the theory of continuous (enumeration) fuzzy closure operators and the theory of (effective) fuzzy deduction systems in Hilbert style. Moreover, it is proven that any truth-functional semantics whose connectives are interpreted in [0,1] by continuous functions is axiomatizable by a fuzzy deduction system (but not by an effective fuzzy deduction system, in general).
This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students (N?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as an average grade four months later. The results indicated gender differences in the perception of teacher and peers support, achievement goals and maths performance. The effects of goal orientations, teacher and peers support on achievement were (...) moderated by gender. Furthermore, the interaction between classroom environment and performance goals on maths grades varied with gender. In the boys? sample, performance-avoidance goals interacted with teacher support, while in the girls? sample, performance-approach goals interacted with peers support in predicting maths grades. The educational implications of these gender differences are discussed. (shrink)
What is the relation of risk to negativity? Is it possible to think a notion of the negative that doesn't exclude the other via inclusion? These two questions are at the heart of Massimo Donà's discussion of immunity. Drawing on Roberto Esposito's genealogy of immunity in community, Donà shows how immunity depends upon a paradox of separation that brings the common and the immune closer together. After sketching the relation of immunity to the notion of polemos, Donà argues that the (...) immune subject, by including the other, negates itself so that the other becomes the true self. The essay closes with a series of reflections on how to think negation and immunity together through pregnancy; a negation that affirms a nonsubstitutive or alternative way of being. (shrink)
Whitehead, in his famous book "Process and Reality", proposed a deﬁnition of point assuming the concepts of “region” and “connection relation” as primitive. Several years after and independently Grzegorczyk, in a brief but very interesting paper proposed another deﬁnition of point in a system in which the inclusion relation and the relation of being separated were assumed as primitive. In this paper we compare their deﬁnitions and we show that, under rather natural assumptions, they coincide.
This study evaluated how gender is related to children’s intelligence beliefs, goal orientations and academic achievement and whether there are gender differences in how intelligence beliefs and goal orientations are related to academic achievement. The participants, 362 seventh grade students, completed measures regarding their intelligence beliefs and goal orientations at the beginning of the second semester and the grades were collected at the end of the semester. Girls reported higher scores on incremental belief, mastery goal and higher achievement but lower (...) levels of performance avoidance compared to boys. The relations between intelligence beliefs and academic achievement were fully mediated by both performance goals. Further, there were no gender differences in the associations among intelligence beliefs, goal orientations and achievement. The findings reveal that goal orientations are a mechanism that might explain why intelligence beliefs are l... (shrink)