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Louis C. Charland [48]Louis Christian Charland [3]
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Louis C. Charland
University of Western Ontario
  1. Cynthia's Dilemma: Consenting to Heroin Prescription.Louis C. Charland - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):37-47.
    Heroin prescription involves the medical provision of heroin in the treatment of heroin addiction. Rudimentary clinical trials on that treatment modality have been carried out and others are currently underway or in development. However, it is questionable whether subjects considered for such trials are mentally competent to consent to them. The problem has not been sufficiently appreciated in ethical and clinical discussions of the topic. The challenges involved throw new light on the role of value and accountability in contemporary discussions (...)
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  2.  36
    Character: Moral Treatment and the Personality Disorders.Louis C. Charland - 2004 - In Jennifer Radden (ed.), The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A Companion. Oxford: Oup Usa. pp. 64-77.
    This chapter argues that the conditions under the umbrella “personality disorders” actually constitute two very different kinds of theoretical entities. In particular, several core personality disorders are actually moral, and not medical, conditions. Thus, the categories that are held to represent them are really moral, and not medical, theoretical kinds. The chapter works back from the possibility of treatment to the nature of the kinds that are allegedly treated, revisiting 18th-century ideas of moral treatment along the way. The discussion closes (...)
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  3. The Natural Kind Status of Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2002 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):511-37.
    It has been argued recently that some basic emotions should be considered natural kinds. This is different from the question whether as a class emotions form a natural kind; that is, whether emotion is a natural kind. The consensus on that issue appears to be negative. I argue that this pessimism is unwarranted and that there are in fact good reasons for entertaining the hypothesis that emotion is a natural kind. I interpret this to mean that there exists a distinct (...)
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  4. Reconciling Cognitive and Perceptual Theories of Emotion: A Representational Proposal.Louis C. Charland - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):555-579.
    The distinction between cognitive and perceptual theories of emotion is entrenched in the literature on emotion and is openly used by individual emotion theorists when classifying their own theories and those of others. In this paper, I argue that the distinction between cognitive and perceptual theories of emotion is more pernicious than it is helpful, while at the same time insisting that there are nonetheless important perceptual and cognitive factors in emotion that need to be distinguished. A general representational metatheoretical (...)
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  5.  86
    Review of "Strong Feelings: Emotion, Addiction and Human Behavior" by Jon Elster. [REVIEW]Louis C. Charland - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (1):108.
    The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association defines substance dependence, more commonly known as “drug addiction,” as “a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite significant substance-related problems. There is a pattern of repeated self-administration that usually results in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive drug-taking behavior.” If drug addiction is a matter of compulsion, as this definition suggests, then is it correct to say that a drug addict chooses to (...)
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  6.  60
    Anorexia Nervosa as a Passion.Louis C. Charland, Tony Hope, Anne Stewart & Jacinta Tan - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (4):353-365.
    Contemporary diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa explicitly refer to affective states of fear and anxiety regarding weight gain, as well as a fixed and very strong attachment to the pursuit of thinness as an overarching personal goal. Yet current treatments for that condition often have a decidedly cognitive orientation and the exact nature of the contribution of affective states and processes to anorexia nervosa remains largely uncharted theoretically. Taking our inspiration from the history of psychiatry, we argue that conceptualizing anorexia (...)
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  7.  58
    Appreciation and Emotion: Theoretical Reflections on the Macarthur Treatment Competence Study.Louis C. Charland - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):359-376.
    When emotions are mentioned in the literature on mental competence, it is generally because they are thought to influence competence negatively; that is, they are thought to impede or compromise the cognitive capacities that are taken to underlie competence. The purpose of the present discussion is to explore the possibility that emotions might play a more positive role in the determination of competence. Using the MacArthur Treatment Competence Study as an example, it is argued that appreciation, a central theoretical concept (...)
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  8. A Madness for Identity: Psychiatric Labels, Consumer Autonomy, and the Perils of the Internet.Louis C. Charland - 2004 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (4):335-349.
    Psychiatric labeling has been the subject of considerable ethical debate. Much of it has centered on issues associated with the application of psychiatric labels. In comparison, far less attention has been paid to issues associated with the removal of psychiatric labels. Ethical problems of this last sort tend to revolve around identity. Many sufferers are reticent to relinquish their iatrogenic identity in the face of official label change; some actively resist it. New forms of this resistance are taking place in (...)
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  9. Feeling and Representing: Computational Theory and the Modularity of Affect.Louis C. Charland - 1995 - Synthese 105 (3):273-301.
    In this paper I review some leading developments in the empirical theory of affect. I argue that (1) affect is a distinct perceptual representation governed system, and (2) that there are significant modular factors in affect. The paper concludes with the observation thatfeeler (affective perceptual system) may be a natural kind within cognitive science. The main purpose of the paper is to explore some hitherto unappreciated connections between the theory of affect and the computational theory of mind.
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  10.  59
    Emotion as a Natural Kind: Towards a Computational Foundation for Emotion Theory.Louis C. Charland - 1995 - Philosophical Psychology 8 (1):59-84.
    In this paper I link two hitherto disconnected sets of results in the philosophy of emotions and explore their implications for the computational theory of mind. The argument of the paper is that, for just the same reasons that some computationalists have thought that cognition may be a natural kind, so the same can plausibly be argued of emotion. The core of the argument is that emotions are a representation-governed phenomenon and that the explanation of how they figure in behaviour (...)
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  11.  34
    Competence and Inequity Are Both Important to the Ethics of Supervised Injectable Opioid Assisted Treatment.Louis Christian Charland - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (12):41-43.
    I very much enjoyed reading the interesting and original article by Steel and colleagues (2017). But I found myself strongly disagreeing with its conclusion once the real point of the argument became clear to me. At the same time, I believe that the authors are correct to draw attention to the importance of context and inequities in framing discussions of the ethics of voluntary consent in heroin prescription research. I begin with a brief summary of the authors’ conclusion, quoting directly (...)
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  12.  46
    Anorexia and the MacCAT-T Test for Mental Competence: Validity, Value, and Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (4):283-287.
  13. Decision-Making Capacity to Consent to Medical Assistance in Dying for Persons with Mental Disorders.Louis C. Charland, Trudo Lemmens & Kyoko Wada - 2016 - Journal of Ethics in Mental Health:1-14.
    Following a Canadian Supreme Court ruling invalidating an absolute prohibition on physician assisted dying, two reports and several commentators have recommended that the Canadian criminal law allow medical assistance in dying (MAID) for persons with a diagnosis of mental disorder. A key element in this process is that the person requesting MAID be deemed to have the ‘mental capacity’ or ‘mental competence’ to consent to that option. In this context, mental capacity and mental competence refer to ‘decision-making capacity’, which is (...)
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  14.  27
    Moral Undertow and the Passions: Two Challenges for Contemporary Emotion Regulation.Louis C. Charland - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (1):83-91.
    The history and philosophy of affective terms and concepts contains important challenges for contemporary scientific accounts of emotion regulation. First, there is the problem of moral undertow. This arises because stipulating the ends of emotion regulation requires normative assumptions that ultimately derive from values and morals. Some historical precedents are considered to help explain and address this problem. Second, there is the problem of organization. This arises because multiple emotions are often organized and oriented in very particular ways over the (...)
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  15.  67
    Affective Neuroscience and Addiction.Louis C. Charland - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):20-21.
    The author comments on the article “The neurobiology of addiction: Implications for voluntary control of behavior,‘ by S. E. Hyman. Hyman suggests that addicted individuals have substantial impairments in cognitive control of behavior. The author states that brain and neurochemical systems are involved in addiction. He also suggests that neuroscience can link the diseased brain processes in addiction to the moral struggles of the addicts.
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  16.  45
    The Varieties of Compulsion in Addiction.Louis C. Charland - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (2):50-51.
    The target of Hanna Pickard's very erudite and thought-provoking article is compulsion. She argues that “addiction is not a form of compulsion” and that “addictive desires are not irresistible” (Pickard 2012, 40). However, I fear that compulsion as she presents it is ultimately a metaphysical straw figure, trapped in a false metaphysical dichotomy. What is lacking is a proper attention to specific individual clinical cases, examined over time. At the same time, Pickard's discussion is extremely important because of the manner (...)
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  17.  42
    In Defence of “Emotion”. [REVIEW]Louis C. Charland - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):133-154.
  18.  43
    Is Mr. Spock Mentally Competent? Competence to Consent and Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 1998 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (1):67-81.
    Most contemporary models and tests for mental competence do not make adequate provision for the positive influence of emotion in the determination of competence. This most likely is due to a reliance on an outdated view of emotion according to which these models are essentially noncognitive. Leading developments in modern emotion theory indicate that this noncognitive theory of emotion is no longer tenable. Emotions, in fact, are essentially representational in a manner that makes them “cognitive” in an important sense. This (...)
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  19.  53
    Medical or Moral Kinds? Moving Beyond a False Dichotomy.Louis C. Charland - 2010 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 17 (2):119-125.
    I am delighted that Zachar and Potter have chosen to refer to my work on the DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders in their very interesting and ambitious target article. Their suggestion that we turn to virtue ethics rather than traditional moral theory to understand the relation between moral and nonmoral factors in personality disorders is certainly original and worth pursuing. Yet, in the final instance, I am not entirely sure about the exact scope of their proposed analysis. I also worry (...)
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  20.  33
    Emotion Experience and the Indeterminacy of Valence.Louis C. Charland - 2005 - In Lisa Feldman Barrett, Paula M. Niedenthal & Piotr Winkielman (eds.), Emotion and Consciousness. Guilford Press. pp. 231-254.
  21.  89
    Why Psychiatry Should Fear Medicalisation.Louis C. Charland - 2013 - In K. W. M. Fulford, Davies M., Gipps R., Graham G., Sadler J., Stanghellini G. & Thornton T. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 159-175.
    Medicalization in contemporary psychopharmacology is increasingly dominated by commercial interests that threaten the scientific and ethical integrity of psychiatry. At the same time, the proliferation of new social media has altered the manner in which the social groups and institutions that have stakes in medicalization interact. Consumers are at once more powerful than ever before, but also more vulnerable. The upshot of all these developments is that medicalization is no longer simply the professed enemy of anti-psychiatry and its supporters. It (...)
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  22.  22
    William James on Passion and Emotion: Influence of Théodule Ribot.Louis C. Charland - 2019 - Emotion Review 11 (3):234-246.
    This case study in the history of “passion” and “emotion” is based on the writings of William James. James is famous for his (1884) theory of emotion. However, like his illustrious colleague, Théodule Ribot, he also recognized the importance of “passion” in psychology. That aspect of James’s work is underappreciated. Ribot explicitly defends the necessity of including “passion” in psychology. James does not go that far. But he does utilize a very similar concept in connection with the term “passion” and (...)
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  23. Reinstating the Passions: Arguments From History of Psychopathology.Louis C. Charland - 2009 - In Peter Goldie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion. Oxford University Press.
  24.  30
    La psychopathologie et le statut d’espèce naturelle de l’émotion.Louis C. Charland - 2006 - Philosophiques 33 (1):217-230.
    La thérapie rationnelle des émotions est basée sur l’hypothèse qu’un trouble de la pensée conduit à des troubles du sentiment qui eux-mêmes conduisent à des troubles de comportement. Du point de vue thérapeutique, la stratégie consiste à corriger les sentiments et le comportement en modifiant le trouble de raisonnement. Cette forme très en vogue de psychothérapie des troubles émotionnels fournit une illustration intéressante des relations nomologiques intriquées qui peuvent exister entre les patrons relativement fixes d’états émotionnels, d’états comportementaux et d’états (...)
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  25.  22
    Can Women in Labor Give Informed Consent to Epidural Analgesia?Kyoko Wada, Louis C. Charland & Geoff Bellingham - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (4):475-486.
    There are reasons to believe that decision‐making capacity (mental competence) of women in labor may be compromised in relation to giving informed consent to epidural analgesia. Not only severe labor pain, but also stress, anxiety, and premedication of analgesics such as opioids, may influence women’s decisional capacity. Decision‐making capacity is a complex construct involving cognitive and emotional components which cannot be reduced to ‘understanding’ alone. A systematic literature search identified a total of 20 empirical studies focused on women’s decision‐making about (...)
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  26.  24
    The Hypothesis That Anorexia Nervosa Is a Passion: Clarifications and Elaborations.Louis C. Charland, Tony Hope, Anne Stewart & Jacinta Tan - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (4):375-379.
    We are grateful for these two insightful commentaries, which both see novelty and value in the manner in which we invoke the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa is a passion, to help explain data from the Anorexia Experiences Study, which provides the basis of our inquiry. In this response, we wish to clarify and elaborate on our hypothesis; in particular, the difference between passions and moods, the manner in which our hypothesis touches on issues of authenticity and identity, and the compelling (...)
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  27.  12
    In Defence of Emotion: Critical Notice of Paul E. Griffiths's What Emotions Really Are: The Problem of Psychological Categories.Louis C. Charland - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):133-154.
  28.  24
    Cognitive Modularity of Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (sup1):213-228.
  29.  17
    In Defence of “Emotion”: Critical Notice.Louis C. Charland - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):113-154.
  30.  15
    Are There Answers?Louis C. Charland - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):1-2.
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  31.  37
    Tuke's Healing Discipline -- Commentary on 'Progress and Power: Exploring the Disciplinary Connections Between Moral Treatment and Psychiatric Rehabilitation', by Erica-Lilleleht.Louis C. Charland - 2002 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, Psychology 9 (2):183-186.
    THE TARGET OF ERICA LILLELEHT'S interesting comparison between 19th-century moral treatment and 20th-century psychiatric rehabilitation is contemporary psychiatric rehabilitation. Using Foucault's (1979) Discipline and Punish as her critical foil, she argues that psychiatric rehabilitation is "an approach to madness fraught with paradox." The paradox lies in the fact that the techniques of psychiatric rehabilitation can be practiced in a manner that contradicts its professed humanitarian intentions; notably, liberating the mad from "resource dependency and segregated living." The lesson to be drawn (...)
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  32.  41
    Anorexia and the MacCAT-T Test for Mental Competence: Validity, Value, and Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 13 (4):283-287.
    How does one scientifically verify a psychometric instrument designed to assess the mental competence of medical patients who are asked to consent to medical treatment? Aside from satisfying technical requirements like statistical reliability, results yielded by such a test must conform to at least some accepted pretheoretical desiderata; for example, determinations of competence, as measured by the test, must capture a minimal core of accepted basic intuitions about what competence means and what a theory of competence is supposed to do. (...)
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  33.  34
    Describing Our “Humanness”: Can Genetic Science Alter What It Means to Be “Human”?Angela Campbell, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Louis C. Charland - 1998 - Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (4):413-426.
    Over the past several decades, geneticists have succeeded in identifying the genetic mutations associated with disease. New strategies for treatment, including gene transfer and gene therapy, are under development. Although genetic science has been welcomed for its potential to predict and treat disease, interventions may become ethically objectionable if they threaten to alter characteristics that are distinctively human. Before we can determine whether or not a genetic technique carries this risk, we must clarify what it means to be “human”. This (...)
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  34.  34
    Perceptual Symbol Systems and Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):612-613.
    In his target article, Barsalou cites current work on emotion theory but does not explore its relevance for this project. The connection is worth pursuing, since there is a plausible case to be made that emotions form a distinct symbolic information processing system of their own. On some views, that system is argued to be perceptual: a direct connection with Barsalou's perceptual symbol systems theory. Also relevant is the hypothesis that there may be different modular subsystems within emotion and the (...)
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  35.  61
    As Autonomy Heads Into Harm's Way.Louis C. Charland - 2004 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (4):361-363.
    Interdisciplinary work of the sort attempted in my paper is fraught with risks and obstacles. One especially pernicious obstacle is the short-sighted prejudice that insists we should always divide a problem into its various components, allocate different parts to their respective disciplines, publish each separately, and, above all, keep the ethics separate from the rest. Although this may sometimes constitute good tactical advice in the mature stages of inquiry on a complex topic, it begs the question in the early initial (...)
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  36.  1
    Technological Reason and the Regulation of Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2007 - In James Phillips (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Technology and Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 55-69.
    Louis Charland's ‘Technological reason and the regulation of emotion’ focuses on a specific area, that of the emotions, in which he sees a problematic dominance of the technical attitude. He argues that our technologically oriented psychiatry has taken an instrumentalist approach to regulation of emotion that severely limits and distorts the role of emotion in psychiatric practice. A prominent example is the exclusion of moral judgments and values, emotion-laden aspects of experience, from psychotherapy because they do not fit the technical (...)
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  37.  33
    Review of 'What Emotions Really Are: The Problem of Psychological Categories', by Paul E. Griffiths. [REVIEW]Louis C. Charland - 2002 - Mind and Language 17 (3):318-324.
  38.  38
    Cognitive Modularity of Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2008 - In Luc Faucher & Christine Tappolet (eds.), The Modularity of Emotions. Calgary: University of Calgary Press. pp. 213-228.
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  39.  22
    Response to the Commentaries.Louis C. Charland - 1998 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (1):93-95.
    The main purpose of my paper was to encourage discussion on the link between contemporary emotion theory and current work on mental competence. All of the commentators appear to be sympathetic to this project, although Youngner disagrees with how I have gone about it. In this response, I will try and correct a few misunderstandings and expand on several points that obviously need a far more detailed treatment than could have been provided in a single paper. I start with a (...)
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  40.  15
    Review of "Passion and Reason: Making Sense of Our Emotions" by Richard Lazarus and Bernice Lazarus. [REVIEW]Louis C. Charland - 1996 - Philosophical Psychology 9 (3):401-404.
    In Passion and reason, acclaimed social psychologist Richard Lazarus and co-author Bernice Lazarus attempt a project they say is unique. Their goal is to provide a popular account of the emotions for the lay reader which is comprehensive, does not over-simplify, and can serve as a guide to greater self-knowledge and understanding. The book is intended to strike a balance between the naive `formulaic genre' of typical self-help books on the subject, while at the same time avoiding the complexity and (...)
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  41.  9
    How Not to Walk Away From The Science of Consciousness.Louis C. Charland - 2006 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (4):17-19.
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  42.  7
    Benevolence and Discipline: The Concept of Recovery in Early Nineteenth-Century Moral Treatment.Louis C. Charland - 2012 - In Abraham Rudnick (ed.), Recovery of People with Mental Illness: Philosophical and Related Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 65.
    This is a chapter on the history of ideas related to recovery. Moral treatment was a novel approach to caring for mentally ill patients that arose towards the end of the eighteenth century in Europe, and then spread to North America. It is most famously associated with the names of William Tuke in York, and Philippe Pinel in Paris. These two very different men—Tuke was a wealthy English Quaker businessman and philanthropist, and Pinel was a famous French medical author and (...)
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  43. Consent or Coercion? Treatment Referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous -- Commentary on Michael Clinton's:" Should Mental Health Professionals Refer Clients with Substance Use Disorders to 12-Step Programs?".Louis C. Charland - 2007 - Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 2 (1):1-3.
    Clinton is certainly correct that there can be serious ethical problems with mental health professionals referring clients with substance dependence and other addictionrelated problems to 12-step programs. But the philosophical doctrine of representationalism he proposes is not a helpful way to address those issues. It seems more like red herring that only serves to detract attention from the real problem. This is the coercive nature of referrals to 12-step programs in many treatment and rehabilitation centres. Clinton’s discussion is helpful because (...)
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  44. Fact and Value in Emotion.Louis C. Charland & Peter Zachar - 2008 - John Benjamins.
    There is a large amount of scientific work on emotion in psychology, neuroscience, biology, physiology, and psychiatry, which assumes that it is possible to study emotions and other affective states, objectively. Emotion science of this sort is concerned primarily with 'facts' and not 'values', with 'description' not 'prescription'. The assumption behind this vision of emotion science is that it is possible to distinguish factual from evaluative aspects of affectivity and emotion, and study one without the other. But what really is (...)
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  45. Lost in Myth, Lost in Translation: Philippe Pinel’s 1809 Medico-Philosophical Treatise on Mental Alienation.Louis C. Charland - 2018 - International Journal of Mental Health 47 (3):245-249.
    Philippe Pinel is widely regarded as one of the founders of modern evidence-based psychiatry. Yet, until recently, his most important contributions to psychiatric theory and practice were effectively lost in myth, or lost in translation. It is instructive to review the history of these developments in order to correct any errors or omissions that may stand in the way of an accurate recognition of Pinel’s contributions to psychiatry, while at the same time highlighting some of his achievements that have been (...)
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  46. Review of Richard S. Lazarus & Bernice N. Lazarus'-Passion and Reason: Making Sense of Our Emotions. [REVIEW]Louis C. Charland - 1996 - Philosophical Psychology 9:401-403.
     
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  47. Technological Reason and Regulation of Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2008 - In James Phillips (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Technology and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
  48.  1
    Medico-Philosophical Treatise on Mental Alienation.Gordon Hickish, David Healy & Louis C. Charland - 2008 - Wiley.
    First ever English Translation of Philippe PInel's 2nd Medico-Philosophical Treatise on Mental Alienation. The founder of French psychiatry wrote Medico-Philosophical Treatise on Mental Alienation in 1800 and reworked it nine years later. This book is the "Entirely Reworked and Extensively Expanded" version from 1809. Today, it can give historians of medicine and psychiatrists an overview of mental illnesses as they were viewed in that era. The author, Philippe Pinel, became known as the doctor who worked to free the insane from (...)
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