Results for 'Lucas Nogueira do R��go Monteiro Villa'

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  1.  76
    Nietzsche, O Eterno Retorno Ea Ética Do Cuidado de Si/Nietzsche, the Eternal Return and the Ethics of the Self Care.Lucas Nogueira do Rêgo Monteiro Villa - 2012 - Cadernos Do Pet Filosofia 3 (5):41-49.
    Este artigo busca analisar as interpretações mais correntes do conceito nietzscheano do eterno retorno, bem como apresentar uma nova leitura do mesmo enquanto consumação da perspectiva niilista e proposta de um modelo ético baseado no princípio grego do cuidado de si ( epiméleia heautoû ).: This article tries to analyze the most common interpretations about the nietzschean concept of the eternal recurrence, as well as present a new view that sees it as the consummation of the nihilistic perspective and an (...)
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  2.  11
    Vive la Différence.J. R. Lucas - 1978 - Philosophy 53 (205):363-.
    Some of my best friends are women, but I would not want my sister to marry one of them. Modern-minded persons criticize me for manifesting such out-dated prejudices, and would like to send me to Coventry for a compulsory course of reindoctrination. They may be right. It could conceivably be the case that in due course the Sex Discrimination Act will be tightened up, even to the extent of our recognizing that there are no ‘good reasons why the State should (...)
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  3. Tables.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    The Norrington Table is scotched, but not killed. It still appears each year in a national daily, having been compiled by an enterprising graduate with more need for money than time. Some people argue that this shows the futility of trying to suppress the table. But that is not so. In a free society it is open to anyone to obtain information and publish his results. There are many things that people might like to know about colleges. Of greater interest (...)
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  4. The M.A.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    Critics of Oxbridge take unkindly to our M.A. When I had to fill in one of those innumerable time-wasting forms to show how unqualified I was to hold an academic post, I was specifically instructed to describe myself as a B.A., which I was proud to do, since our B.A. is our best degree (everything in Oxford being the opposite of what it seems). But the real equivalent of a mediaeval M.A. is a modern D.Phil, with every academic wanting to (...)
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  5.  7
    Why Do SMEs Go Green? An Analysis of Wine Firms in South Africa.Ralph Hamann, James Smith, Pete Tashman & R. Scott Marshall - 2017 - Business and Society 56 (1):23-56.
    Studies on why small and medium enterprises engage in pro-environmental behavior suggest that managers’ environmental responsibility plays a relatively greater role than competitiveness and legitimacy-seeking. These categories of drivers are mostly considered independent of each other. Using survey data and comparative case studies of wine firms in South Africa, this study finds that managers’ environmental responsibility is indeed the key driver in a context where state regulation hardly plays any role in regulating dispersed, rural firms. However, especially proactive firms are (...)
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  6. Criminalidade E direito: Diálogo entre a evolução do sistema punitivo E a mentalidade social.Analice de Oliveira França & Leonam Lucas Nogueira Cunha - 2013 - Revista Fides 4 (2):203-217.
    CRIMINALIDADE E DIREITO: DIÁLOGO ENTRE A EVOLUÇÃO DO SISTEMA PUNITIVO E A MENTALIDADE SOCIAL.
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  7.  31
    Against Equality Again: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (201):255-280.
    Equality in the present age has become an idol, in much the same way as property was in the age of Locke. Many people worship it, and think that it provides the key to the proper understanding of politics, and that on it alone can a genuinely just society be reconstructed. This is a mistake. Although, like property, it is a useful concept, and although, like property, there are occasions when we want to have it in practice, it is not (...)
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  8.  22
    Análise do diálogo judaico-cristão: Desafios E perspectivas.Adriano Sousa Lima, Lucas dos Santos Ferreira & Roberto Monteiro de Castro Filho - 2018 - Revista de Teologia 12 (21):87-95.
    O presente artigo busca fazer uma análise do diálogo inter-religioso entre o judaísmo e o cristianismo, duas religiões monoteístas, com origens semelhantes, mas separadas por questões históricas e algumas divergências doutrinárias. Inicialmente se propõe relatar a importância do diálogo entre as duas religiões, baseando-se nos trabalhos de Alberto Milkewitz, Edwin Arteaga Tobon, e Frederico Laufer. Após isso, procurou-se identificar os aspectos divergentes e convergentes entre o cristianismo e o judaísmo, para verificar a viabilidade do diálogo. Consultou-se para este momento os (...)
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  9.  53
    How Do Small and Medium Enterprises Go “Green”? A Study of Environmental Management Programs in the U.S. Wine Industry.Mark Cordano, R. Scott Marshall & Murray Silverman - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (3):463-478.
    In industries populated by small and medium enterprises, managers' good intentions frequently incur barriers to superior environmental performance (Tilley, Bus Strategy Environ 8:238-248, 1999). During the period when the U.S. wine industry was beginning to promote voluntary adoption of sound environmental practices, we examined managers' attitudes, norms, and perceptions of stakeholder pressures to assess their intentions to implement environmental management programs (EMP). We found that managers within the simple structures of these small and medium firms are responsive to attitudes, norms, (...)
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  10.  26
    Where Do We Go From Here?Gregory R. Peterson - 1999 - Zygon 34 (1):139-149.
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  11.  28
    Pronouns Without Explicit Antecedents?A. J. Sanford, S. Garrod, A. Lucas & R. Henderson - 1983 - Journal of Semantics 2 (3-4):303-318.
    Yule (1982) has argued that examples from speech show that pronouns may be interpreted nonreferentially. In the present paper, it is argued that pronouns elicit procedures for the identification of referents which are in explicit focus (Sanford and Garrod, 1981). Three experiments are offered in support of this view. The discussion centres on the need for carefully assessing the knowledge-states of listeners when pronouns are used in the absence of antecedents. It is proposed that felicitous use of pronouns without antecedents (...)
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  12.  49
    Health Psychology: Where Are We And Where Do We Go From Here?R. M. Kaplan - 2009 - Mens Sana Monographs 7 (1):3.
    _Human behaviour plays a significant role in most of the leading causes of death. Psychological science has the potential to enhance health outcomes through a better understanding of health promoting and health damaging behaviours. Health psychology and the related field of behavioural medicine focus on the interplay among biological dispositions, behaviour, and social context. The field might advance by building better collaboration with other fields of medicine, sharing expertise on technical aspects of psychometric outcomes assessment, identifying behavioural interventions to reduce (...)
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  13. Minds, Machines and Gödel.J. R. Lucas - 2003 - Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this article, Lucas maintains the falseness of Mechanism - the attempt to explain minds as machines - by means of Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel. Gödel’s theorem shows that in any system consistent and adequate for simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved in the system but that human minds can recognize as true; Lucas points out in his turn that Gödel’s theorem applies to machines because a machine is the concrete instantiation of a formal system: (...)
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  14. Minds, Machines and Gödel.John R. Lucas - 1961 - Philosophy 36 (137):112-127.
    Gödei's Theorem seems to me to prove that Mechanism is false, that is, that minds cannot be explained as machines. So also has it seemed to many other people: almost every mathematical logician I have put the matter to has confessed to similar thoughts, but has felt reluctant to commit himself definitely until he could see the whole argument set out, with all objections fully stated and properly met. This I attempt to do.
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  15.  13
    Ethics and the ‘Human Terrain’: The Role of Academics in the Afghan War.George R. Lucas Jr - 2010 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (1):23-30.
    Against the backdrop of the current “ethics controversy” within the American Anthropological Association over the U.S. Army’s “Human Terrain Systems” project, this article evaluates the moral obligations of scholars and academics asked by their governments to contribute their unique expertise toward the waging or ending of wars of which those scholars morally disapprove. Citing the examples of moral dilemmas occasioned by conflicts between duties of scholarship and duties of citizenship from past wars, together with examples like “Doctors without Borders” at (...)
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  16.  12
    Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1972 - Philosophy 47 (181):229 - 248.
    Justice has always been regarded as one of the fundamental political virtues. No association of human individuals could subsist, says Hume, “were no regard paid to the laws of equity and justice”, and nearly every thinker who has turned to consider human society, has reached the same conclusion. Yet we are not at all clear what justice is, nor why it is so important. There are many other ideals which a society may cherish, and often reformers have felt impatient of (...)
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  17. Where Do You Want To Go Today.R. Owens, J. Hester & W. Teale - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
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  18.  41
    Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
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  19.  16
    Aspecto Anatômicos Do Desenvolvimento Do Fruto de Punica Granatum L.B. L. De Morretes & W. R. Monteiro-Scanavacca - 1969 - Boletim da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, Universidade de São Paulo. Botânica 24:33.
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  20.  1
    Military Ethics: What Everyone Needs to Know.George R. Lucas - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    What significance does "ethics" have for the men and women serving in the military forces of nations around the world? What core values and moral principles collectively guide the members of this "military profession?" This book explains these essential moral foundations, along with "just war theory," international relations, and international law. The ethical foundations that define the "Profession of Arms" have developed over millennia from the shared moral values, unique role responsibilities, and occasional reflection by individual members the profession on (...)
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  21. Apresentação do Dossiê Neokantismo / Presentation of the Dossier Neo-Kantianism.Adriano R. Mergulhão, Lucas A. D. Amaral & Rafael R. Garcia - 2021 - Kant E-Prints 16 (2):9-21.
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  22. Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.John R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-58.
    The argument is a dialectical one. It is not a direct proof that the mind is something more than a machine, but a schema of disproof for any particular version of mechanism that may be put forward. If the mechanist maintains any specific thesis, I show that [146] a contradiction ensues. But only if. It depends on the mechanist making the first move and putting forward his claim for inspection. I do not think Benacerraf has quite taken the point. He (...)
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  23. The Responsibilities of a Businessman.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
     
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  24.  9
    Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
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  25.  2
    Exploring the Relationship Between Mental Well-Being, Exercise Routines, and the Intake of Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Comparison Across Sport Disciplines.Mami Shibata, Julius Burkauskas, Artemisa R. Dores, Kei Kobayashi, Sayaka Yoshimura, Pierluigi Simonato, Ilaria De Luca, Dorotea Cicconcelli, Valentina Giorgetti, Irene P. Carvalho, Fernando Barbosa, Cristina Monteiro, Toshiya Murai, Maria A. Gómez-Martínez, Zsolt Demetrovics, Krisztina Edina Ábel, Attila Szabo, Alejandra Rebeca Melero Ventola, Eva Maria Arroyo-Anlló, Ricardo M. Santos-Labrador, Inga Griskova-Bulanova, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Giuseppe Bersani, Hironobu Fujiwara & Ornella Corazza - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Introduction: Physical distancing under the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic had a significant impact on lifestyles, including exercise routines. In this study, we examined the relationship between mental health and addictive behaviors, such as excessive exercise and the use of image and performance enhancing drugs across 12 sport disciplines.Materials and methods: A large cross-sectional sample of the adult population was surveyed. The mean age was 33.09. The number of male participants was 668. The use of IPEDs was assessed in conjunction with (...)
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  26. .J. R. Lucas - unknown
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was (...)
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  27.  23
    The Strategy of Graceful Decline.George R. Lucas - 2011 - Ethics and International Affairs 25 (2):133-142.
    While Professor Miller claims that just war theory cannot "provide sufficient guidance" on the question of Afghanistan, his concerns actually fall squarely within its purview, and do not suggest its inability to critique proposals to prolong the American and NATO presence in Afghanistan.
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  28. Fellow of Merton College.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    It is meet and right that pride and humility should be the two human characteristics on which University sermons have to be preached. Left to myself, although I might have picked on my modesty as something I should share with you, I should have given the preeminence to other among my sins than pride. My greed, my sloth, my avarice or, in this salacious age my lust, are subjects on which I could tell you much that might interest you. Pride (...)
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  29.  11
    Fighting Games and Go: Exploring the Aesthetics of Play in Professional Gaming.Mark R. Johnson & Jamie Woodcock - 2017 - Thesis Eleven 138 (1):26-45.
    This paper examines the varied cultural meanings of computer game play in competitive and professional computer gaming and live-streaming. To do so it riffs off Andrew Feenberg’s 1994 work exploring the changing meanings of the ancient board game of Go in mid-century Japan. We argue that whereas Go saw a de-aestheticization with the growth of newspaper reporting and a new breed of ‘westernized’ player, the rise of professionalized computer gameplay has upset this trend, causing a re-aestheticization of professional game competition (...)
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  30. Socratic Citizenship.Dana Villa - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    Many critics bemoan the lack of civic engagement in America. Tocqueville's ''nation of joiners'' seems to have become a nation of alienated individuals, disinclined to fulfill the obligations of citizenship or the responsibilities of self-government. In response, the critics urge community involvement and renewed education in the civic virtues. But what kind of civic engagement do we want, and what sort of citizenship should we encourage? In Socratic Citizenship, Dana Villa takes issue with those who would reduce citizenship to (...)
     
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  31. A filosofia da matemática de Frege no contexto do neokantismo.Gottfried Gabriel, Sven Schlotter, Lucas A. D. Amaral & Rafael R. Garcia - 2021 - Kant E-Prints 16 (2):363-376.
    Há muitos pontos de concordância entre Frege e os neokantianos. Isso vale especialmente para os representantes do neokantismo da teoria do valor ou do Sudoeste alemão na tradição de Hermann Lotze. Não discutiremos aqui todos os aspectos dessa proximidade; de acordo com o tema que propomos, ficaremos restritos à filosofia da matemática. A primeira parte do artigo tratará da relação entre aritmética e geometria, mostrando surpreendentes semelhanças entre Frege e o neokantiano Otto Liebmann. A segunda parte discutirá as diferentes recepções (...)
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  32.  12
    Evil, Omniscience and Omnipotence: R. W. K. PATERSON.R. W. K. Paterson - 1979 - Religious Studies 15 (1):1-23.
    There are numerous ‘solutions’ to the problem of evil, from which theists can and do freely take their pick. It is fairly clear that any attempt at a solution must involve a scaling-down of one or more of the assertions out of whose initial conflict the problem arises – either by a downward revision of what we mean by omnipotence, or omniscience, or benevolence, or by minimizing the amount or condensing the varieties of evil actually to be found in the (...)
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  33.  1
    O Hiato (in)Transponível Entre Fatos E Valores: Uma Abordagem a Partir Do Realismo-Cognitivo de Thomas Scanlon.Lucas Mateus Dalsotto - 2016 - Griot : Revista de Filosofia 14 (2):183-195.
    No decorrer dos últimos três séculos desenvolveu-se em ética uma dicotomia entre fatos e valores cuja influência ainda hoje gera discussões. Nesse ensejo, a intenção deste artigo é propor, a partir do realismo-cognitivo de Scanlon, uma leitura alternativa a respeito dessa dicotomia estabelecida entre fatos e valores. Em geral, boa parte desse problema deve-se ao motivo de que as reivindicações do domínio normativo são muitas vezes avaliadas a partir da ótica da ciência, isto é, da visão científica de mundo. Mas (...)
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  34. An Academy for Non-Academics.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    One of the great virtues of Oxford is that most of its members are not academics, nor ever supposed that they sould be. They come to Oxford for three or four years and then go on their way to other occupations in "the service of God in Church and State". It is not that they were not good enough to become dons: it is simply that they had other fish to fry, and would rather be a barrister, a Member of (...)
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  35. Chapter 2 the Development of Normative Reason.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    x2.1 Non-contradiction One can think wrong. The fact that after much thought one has reached a conclusion is no guarantee that the conclusion reached is right. Only a very opinionated man would refuse to concede the possibility of error, and once the admission of fallibility is made, the problem of justifying one's beliefs becomes acute. So we formulate our reasons as best we can. But even when formulated, they may fail to convince. Only if people are willing to be reasonable (...)
     
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  36.  1
    Ethics and the ‘Human Terrain’: The Role of Academics in the Afghan War.George R. Lucas - 2010 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (1):23-30.
    Against the backdrop of the current “ethics controversy” within the American Anthropological Association over the U.S. Army’s “Human Terrain Systems” project, this article evaluates the moral obligations of scholars and academics asked by their governments to contribute their unique expertise toward the waging or ending of wars of which those scholars morally disapprove. Citing the examples of moral dilemmas occasioned by conflicts between duties of scholarship and duties of citizenship from past wars, together with examples like “Doctors without Borders” at (...)
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  37. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    I must start with an apologia. My original paper, ``Minds, Machines and Gödel'', was written in the wake of Turing's 1950 paper in Mind, and was intended to show that minds were not Turing machines. Why, then, didn't I couch the argument in terms of Turing's theorem, which is easyish to prove and applies directly to Turing machines, instead of Gödel's theorem, which is horrendously difficult to prove, and doesn't so naturally or obviously apply to machines? The reason was that (...)
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  38. IΣOnomia.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    Equality is one of the great issues of our age, but few people stop to wonder at its being an issue in politics at all. Yet it is surprising that a concept which has its natural habitat in the mathematical sciences should have taken root in our thinking about how we should be governed. We do not naturally think of society in terms of group theory, or rings or fields, and have long been aware of the difficulties in establishing any (...)
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  39. Recovering the Vacs.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    Much of the vac is wasted. Although many undergraduates are sensible, and use the vacations wisely, not only for holiday but for all the reading they cannot do in term, others---perhaps the majority---fritter it away in paid employment or jaunts to Katmandu, or wherever is fashionable at the time.
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  40. The Lay-Out of Arguments.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    Arguments have been much misunderstood. Not only has it been assumed that they must be deductive, but it has been assumed also that, although often expressed in loose and elliptical form, they must be capable, if they are valid at all, of being expressed with absolute precision, as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the action in question to be appropriate. Mathematical arguments are capable of being stated precisely, and it has long been a reproach to workers in (...)
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  41.  2
    Supporting Patients With Untreated Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance: What Causes an Increase in Anxiety During the First 10 Months?Maria Francesca Alvisi, Paola Dordoni, Tiziana Rancati, Barbara Avuzzi, Nicola Nicolai, Fabio Badenchini, Letizia De Luca, Tiziana Magnani, Cristina Marenghi, Julia Menichetti, Villa Silvia, Zollo Fabiana, Salvioni Roberto, Valdagni Riccardo & Bellardita Lara - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    BackgroundThe psychological burden possibly deriving from not immediately undergoing radical treatment for prostate cancer could be a potential disadvantage of active surveillance, especially in the eve of some relevant clinical exams [i.e., re-biopsy, prostate-specific antigen test, and medical examination]. Even if it is known from the literature that the majority of PCa men in AS do not report heightened anxiety, there is a minority of patients who show clinically significant levels of anxiety after diagnosis. The present study aimed to investigate (...)
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  42. Ludwig on Conditional Intentions.Luca Ferrero - 2015 - Methode 4 (6):61-74.
    In this paper, I discuss Ludwig's systematic and illuminating account of conditional intentions, with particular reference to my own view (presented in "Conditional Intentions", Noûs, 2009). In contrast to Ludwig, I argue that we should prefer a formal characterization of conditional intentions rather than a more substantial one in terms of reasons for action (although the conditions that qualify an intention bear on the reasonableness and justifiability of the intention). I then defend a partially different taxonomy of the conditions that (...)
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  43.  52
    An Engagement with Plato's Republic: A Companion to the Republic.Basil Mitchell & J. R. Lucas - 2003 - Ashgate.
    Introductions should introduce, but sometimes lead to engagements. That is our aim. We want to make Plato’s Republic more easily read by modern readers, but do not want to do only that. For philosophy is like poetry, and cannot be learned second-hand. I can learn all sorts of facts about a poem, but unless I have entered into the poet’s experience, if only in my imagination, it remains dead. Similarly, I shall not see the point of text-book analyses of philosophical (...)
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  44. Every Thing Must Go * by James Ladyman and Don Ross with David Spurrett and John Collier.S. R. Allen - 2009 - Analysis 69 (3):565-567.
    Wisely, the authors begin this book by describing it as a polemic. They argue that most contemporary analytic metaphysics is a waste of time and resources since contemporary ‘neo-scholastic’ metaphysical theorizing cannot hope to attain objective truth given its penchant for making a priori claims about the nature of the world which are backed up by appeal to intuition. In engaging in this activity, metaphysicians have, the authors claim, abandoned hope of locating any interesting connection between their metaphysical pronouncements and (...)
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  45.  46
    Real Equality of Opportunity: BARRY R. GROSS.Barry R. Gross - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):120-142.
    We are often told that we are morally obligated to produce equal opportunity for all. Therefore, it seems we should examine what power we have to produce that desirable state. For it would be nonsense to say we are required to provide what is beyond our power to provide. When we examine this question, we find our power limited by two sets of constraints. One set comprises formal constraints upon the idea itself of equal opportunity. We cannot do the logically (...)
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  46.  41
    Do We Really Want a Moral Justification of Our Basic Ideals?James R. Flynn - 1974 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 17 (1-4):151 – 173.
    It is commonly held that when there is a conflict of basic ideals, e.g. a humane man v. an elitist or a Social Darwinist or someone who holds a revenge ethic, no moral justification is possible. This paper attempts to go further and show that such a justification would be undesirable, would carry a price few would be willing to pay. The thesis is developed to shed light not only on classical thinkers (Plato, Locke, Kant) but also on the attractions (...)
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  47.  24
    Philosophy and Practice: Some Issues About War and Peace: R. M. Hare.R. M. Hare - 1984 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 18:1-15.
    I am going in this lecture on ‘Philosophy and Practice’ first to say something about philosophy and then something about practice, in order to show you how they bear on one another. But I must start by paying a tribute to the President of the Society for Applied Philosophy, Professor Sir A. J. Ayer, who has kindly agreed to take the chair at this lecture. I can honestly say that he is more responsible than anybody else for putting me on (...)
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  48. The Classical Model of Science: A Millennia-Old Model of Scientific Rationality.Willem R. de Jong & Arianna Betti - 2010 - Synthese 174 (2):185-203.
    Throughout more than two millennia philosophers adhered massively to ideal standards of scientific rationality going back ultimately to Aristotle’s Analytica posteriora . These standards got progressively shaped by and adapted to new scientific needs and tendencies. Nevertheless, a core of conditions capturing the fundamentals of what a proper science should look like remained remarkably constant all along. Call this cluster of conditions the Classical Model of Science . In this paper we will do two things. First of all, we will (...)
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  49. How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less A D Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions.Malcolm R. Forster & Elliott Sober - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
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  50. Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle.Cass R. Sunstein - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is the relationship between fear, danger, and the law? Cass Sunstein attacks the increasingly influential Precautionary Principle - the idea that regulators should take steps to protect against potential harms, even if causal chains are uncertain and even if we do not know that harms are likely to come to fruition. Focusing on such problems as global warming, terrorism, DDT, and genetic engineering, Professor Sunstein argues that the Precautionary Principle is incoherent. Risks exist on all sides of social situations, (...)
     
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