The case of Costa Rica highlights the potential for conflicts between fair priority setting and litigation based on citizens’ right to health. For example, one study found that a large majority of favorable rulings concerning claims for medications by the Costa Rican constitutional court were for experimental or otherwise low-priority treatments. In order to better align judicial judgments with priority setting criteria, in 2014, the court began a partnership with the Cochrane Collaboration to assess medicines’ effectiveness. A recent study argues (...) that this reform has increased the chance of a lawsuit being successful and reduced the number of successful claims for experimental medications. It concludes that this reform has led to modest gains in fairness. This paper identifies three shortcomings in that study’s analysis. First, it does not establish the statistical significance of the effects it highlights. Second, it overlooks that the reform may have changed the number of cases brought. Third, it does not scrutinize the joint impact of these effects. This paper remedies these lacks. It finds that both the increase in the success rate of medication lawsuits and the reduction in successful claims for experimental medication are statistically significant. Furthermore, it finds that the number of claims for medicine has declined significantly. Finally, it argues that because the vast majority of claims are still for low-priority medications, the increase in the success rate has had a negative effect on the fairness of resource allocation that outweighs the decline in experimental treatments. It is only because of the apparent deterrent effect of the reform on claims that its net impact on the fairness of resource allocation is positive. (shrink)
We explore the possibility and some potential payoffs of using the theory of accessible categories in the study of categories of logics. We illustrate this by two case studies focusing on the category of finitary structural logics and its subcategory of algebraizable logics.
. We explore the possibility and some potential payoffs of using the theory of accessible categories in the study of categories of logics. We illustrate this by two case studies focusing on the category of finitary structural logics and its subcategory of algebraizable logics.
La tradición textual nos ha legado un conjunto de sesenta y cuatro epigramas atribuidos a Luciano de Samósata. La mayoría de los estudios dedicados a los mismos se han enfocado en problemas textuales que obstaculizan la comprensión de los mismos en el conjunto de la obra del samosatense y contribuyen a su consideración como apócrifos o falsamente atribuidos. En este estudio dejamos de lado la discusión acerca de la autenticidad de los mismos y, en cambio, exploramos la posible recepción (...) de ciertos recursos y topoi de la Segunda Sofística en este corpus atribuido a Luciano. (shrink)
The late 60s of the twentieth century, in Sergipe, was marked by the outbreak of a series of conflicts over land tenure and lack of work. In a period in which social movements were seen as subversive demonstrations, the struggle of the peasants of the region Cotinguiba was treated as a police matter, through repression and arrest of leaders. This article seeks to analyze the process of negotiation between the peasants of Sergipe Cotinguiba and the political and agrarian elites in (...) the land reform process institution in the state under the mediation of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Aracaju. This negotiation resulted in the creation of the Promotion of Sergipe Field Man and the formation of community farms under the supervision of the Metropolitan Archbishop of Aracaju, Dom Luciano Duarte. With this, it becomes possible to understand the actions of the clergy in the negotiation between peasants and landowners. (shrink)
Este artigo tem como propósito reconstituir o sentido conferido por D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida (1930-2006), bispo-auxiliar de São Paulo e arcebispo de Mariana, secretário e presidente da CNBB além de vice-presidente do CELAM, à sua própria trajetória biográfica. Verifica-se que, se cotejada com balizas culturais contemporâneas, tal configuração de si porta contornos aparentemente paradoxais: ao invés de fortalecer uma identidade pessoal, ela pressupõe uma dinâmica antropológico-religiosa de autoesvaziamento, concomitante a uma atuação mediadora em prol de relações ternárias entre (...) Deus, os sujeitos e si mesmo, processo denominado por D. Luciano como “interiorização da figura Jesus Cristo”. Com o suporte teórico provindo da semiótica e da história religiosa, tal interiorização é aqui compreendida como um programa narrativo específico, que adquiriu formas singulares ao longo dos séculos, com destaque à espiritualidade inaciana, mas preservando sua concepção como um agir, pela fé, em nome da competência atribuída a um Outro. Sugere-se ainda que, na atualidade, a interiorização possa ser aproximada do relato de testemunho, face ao engajamento ético por ela suscitado, que reconfigura o sujeito no compartilhar de experiências vividas e postas em discurso. Palavras-chave: D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida. Biografia. Interiorização. Testemunho.: This article aims at reconstructing the meaning given by D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida (1930-2006), to his own biographical trajectory. D. Luciano was auxiliary bishop of Saint-Paul and Archbishop of Mariana, secretary and president of the CNBB, and also vice president of CELAM. The configuration he made of himself appears to be paradoxical: instead of strengthening a personal identity, it assumes a dynamic anthropological and religious self-emptiness and a mediating performance in favor of ternary relations between God and the subject itself, a process called by the Archbishop as the "internalization of the figure Jesus Christ." With a theoretical support coming from semiotics and religious history, this process of internalization is understood in this article as a specific narrative program which has acquired unique forms over the centuries, with emphasis on Ignatians spirituality, while preserving its conception as an act of faith on behalf of the competency given to an Other. The article also suggests that ,nowadays, that internalization of the figure of Jesus Christ approaches the reported testimony, given the ethical engagement raised by it, which reconfigures the subject in the sharing of experiences of life that are brought into discourse. Keywords : D. Luciano Mendes de Almeida. Biography. Internalization. Testimony. (shrink)
La asociación entre arte y literatura puede rastrearse con facilidad en la cultura occidental desde la Antigüedad grecolatina. En un contexto literario muy marcado por la retórica, Luciano de Samosata apela a menudo, en obras de distinto registro e intención, al arte y a sus representantes como metáfora y referente de la tarea del literato, orador, sofista o escritor. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar algunos de esos textos en los que Luciano, al amparo de símiles y (...) metáforas artísticas, reflexiona sobre la técnica necesaria en la creación literaria, pero, ante todo, sobre la debida aplicación del arte de la palabra; y, también, observar cómo la técnica retórica que preside su producción y utiliza para describir imágenes pintadas, también guía su destreza compositiva sea en piezas narrativas o dialógicas. (shrink)
The usual way to try to ground knowing according to contemporary theory of knowledge is: We know something if (1) it’s true, (2) we believe it, and (3) we believe it for the “right” reasons. Floridi proposes a better way. His grounding is based partly on probability theory, and partly on a question/answer network of verbal and behavioural interactions evolving in time. This is rather like modeling the data-exchange between a data-seeker who needs to know which button to press on (...) a food-dispenser and a data-knower who already knows the correct number. The success criterion, hence the grounding, is whether the seeker’s probability of lunch is indeed increasing (hence uncertainty is decreasing) as a result of the interaction. Floridi also suggests that his philosophy of information casts some light on the problem of consciousness. I’m not so sure. (shrink)
Abstract: The core aim of this special issue is to present the philosophy of information as a way of doing philosophy, to focus on the contributions of Luciano Floridi to that area, and most important, to stimulate the debate on the most distinctive and controversial views he has defended in that context. This introduction contains a description of the philosophy of information, a discussion of two common misconceptions about the scope and the ambition of the philosophy of information, and (...) a brief overview of the essays in the issue. (shrink)
In the fourteenth chapter of The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi puts forth a criticism of ‘digital ontology’ as a step toward the articulation of an ‘informational structural realism’. Based on the claims made in the chapter, the present paper seeks to evaluate the distinctly Kantian scope of the chapter from a rather unconventional viewpoint: while in sympathy with the author’s doubts ‘against’ digital philosophy, we follow a different route. We turn our attention to the concept of construction as (...) used in the book with the hope of raising some additional questions that might contribute to a better understanding of what is at stake in Floridi’s experimental epistemological response to digital ontology. (shrink)
This special issue of Minds and Machines contains a number of responses to Luciano Floridi’s groundbreaking Philosophy of Information (Oxford 2011). The essays contained here have been grouped by topic; essays 1–5 concern epistemological features of Floridi’s approach, and essays 6–8 address his metaphysics.In “On Floridi’s Method of Levels ofion”, Jan van Leeuwen addresses Floridi’s operational definition of a level of abstraction. Emphasizing the link between Floridi’s notion of abstraction and that used in computer science, van Leeuven notes that (...) the method of levels of abstraction may require supplementation in the form of annotation. Annotations, which exist “outside” the formal limits of the levels of abstraction to which they are attached, specify what perspective should be taken towards those levels. Annotations so understood both facilitate the expression of semantic information and elucidate the relationship between levels of abstraction. van Leeuwen then uses a case. (shrink)
El presente artículo expone brevemente las circunstancias del "redescubrimiento" de la obra de Luciano en la Italia renacentista y el movimiento renovador en las letras que esto trajo consigo en el caso específico del Momus de Leon Battista Alberti. Para tal objetivo, me concentraré en el rol de Manuel Crisoloras; en los aspectos de género literario que Luciano plantea, sobre todo, en el Prometheus es in verbis, y finalmente, en cómo estos son retomados en el Momus, donde Alberti (...) se presenta como innovador de las letras latinas, pero al mismo tiempo como indirecto continuador del quehacer luciánico. (shrink)
In The Onlife Manifesto: Being Human in a Hyperconnected Era Luciano Floridi and his associates examine various aspects of the contemporary meaning of humanity. Yet, their insights give less thought to the political economy of techno-capitalism that in large measure creates ICTs and leads to their further innovation, development and commercialization. This article responses to Floridi’s work and examines political economy of the blurred distinction between human, machine and nature in the postdigital context. Taking lessons from early history of (...) the Internet across the Eastern and the Western Bloc, it examines ideological underpinnings of development of information and communication technologies. The paper points towards the postdigital challenge of the rising importance of biological sciences, their mutual connection with information sciences, and the society at large. It introduces the concept of bio-informational capitalism, and closely examines the relationships between biology and information... (shrink)
El artículo plantea la actualidad y pertinencia de la Filosofía de la información de Luciano Floridi, considerada a la luz de las revoluciones científicas de Occidente y de la instauración de nuevos paradigmas, tanto en las ciencias como en la filosofía. La analogía con el “giro matemático” de la Modernidad permite establecer el alcance revolucionario de la obra de Floridi, cuya aceptación implicará superar el obstáculo epistemológico del escolasticismo, en función del dinamismo histórico inherente al progreso científico.
ExcerptIntroduction In his polemic against revealed religion, Luciano Pellicani makes two fundamental claims that are historically and philosophically misguided. First, he asserts that the Puritans sought to establish a medieval collectivist theocracy, not a modern market democracy. Second, he maintains that the U.S. “culture war” between enlightened secular liberalism and reactionary religious conservatism ultimately rests on the perpetual battle between Athenian reason and the faith of Jerusalem. Accordingly, Pellicani argues that America's commitment to principles such as individual freedom, religious (...) tolerance, or the constitutionally enshrined separation of Church from State represented Enlightenment emancipation from the constricting…. (shrink)
This article deals with the aesthetics of the art documentary of the 1940s and 1950s, which can be considered as the Golden Age of the genre. Prior to the breakthrough of television in Europe, which would usurp and standardize the art documentary, cinematic reproductions of artworks resulted in experimental shorts that were highly self-reflexive. These films became visual laboratories to investigate the tensions between movement and stasis, the two- and three-dimensional, and the real and the artificial—a film on art was (...) self-consciously presented as an art film. Focusing on La Leggenda di Sant’Orsola by Luciano Emmer and Le Monde de Paul Delvaux by Henri Storck, this article also investigates how the animation of the static image by the film medium relates to Surrealist practices. (shrink)
El marco y los personajes de las descripciones del más allá que encontramos en las obras de Luciano, que ponen un énfasis especial en las decisiones de Radamantis como juez de los seres humanos, muestra un tipo de moralidad que puede analizarse tanto desde la perspectiva de los modelos grecoromanos tradicionales como desde el enfoque de otros contextos religiosos nuevos del Imperio Romano. Los apologistas cristianos, por otro lado, entre otros Taciano en su Oratio ad Graecos, insisten en distinguir (...) claramente entre el juicio de Radamantis y el del propio Dios. Tanto uno como otro enfoque reciben la influencia del mito griego y de la manipulación de Platón de este mito. La pérdida de la antigua función del mito entre los paganos y la existencia de ideas cristianas propias relativas a la vida después de la muerte pueden haber provocado que un escritor como Luciano haya encontrado en la vida en el más allá uno de sus temas favoritos. The framework and the characters of Lucian's descriptions of the afterlife, focusing in particular on the decisions of Rhadamanthys as a judge of human beings, show a kind of morality which can be analyzed both from the perspective of traditional Graeco-Roman standards and from that of the new religious contexts of the Roman Empire. Christian apologists, on the other hand, like Tatian in Oratio ad Graecos, insist on distinguishing clearly between the judgment of Rhadamanthys and that of God himself. Both views of the afterlife are influenced by Greek myth and by Plato's manipulation of it. The loss of the ancient function of myth among the pagans and the real presence of Christian issues regarding the afterlife may have caused a writer like Lucian to reflect on the real sense of the afterlife. (shrink)
Luciano Floridi’s Philosophy and Computing: An Introduction is a survey of some important ideas that ground the newly emerging area of philosophy known, thanks to Floridi, as the philosophy of information. It was written as a textbook for philosophy students interested in the digital age, but is probably more useful for postgraduates who want to investigate intersections between philosophy and computer science, information theory and ICT (information and communications technology). The book is divided into five independent chapters followed by (...) a worthy, though impressionistic, afterthought under the title of the conclusion. Chapter One, “Divide et Computa: Philosophy and the Digital Environment,” begins by outlining four topics to consider when examining the significance of the digital revolution: 1) computation, 2) automatic control, 3) modeling and virtual reality, and 4) information management. This preliminary outline is followed by a brief historical consideration of the transition from analogue to digital information processing and the importance of “digitization” for developing mechanical means to manage information. According to Floridi, this digitization has occurred in three main areas. Regarding the scope of digitized content, we have moved from numerical data to sounds and images. At the same time, our interfaces to the computer have become less digital and more humane. Graphical user interfaces and WYSIWYG software have quickly replaced punch cards. In the area of connectivity, we have moved from the mainframe to the Internet, hence, to the possibility of a global information network. Together these transformations are accelerating the evolution of the infosphere and consequently its dramatic effect on the shape of society. These changes are of world historical significance, thus worthy of philosophical investigation, as the last part of the chapter shows.. (shrink)
Luciano Berio apre il suo testamento poetico, Un ricordo al futuro, con un esplicito rinvio alla tripartizione della musica operata da Boezio e durante la discussione di specifiche tematiche della musica contemporanea vi torna a più riprese. Il presente lavoro intende indagare i motivi per un tale coinvolgimento dell’autore medievale nella ricerca poetica ed estetica di uno dei più importanti rappresentanti del mondo musicale novecentesco nonché il modo in cui la teoria di Boezio viene attualizzata da Berio. Si scoprirà (...) che i problemi della musica del Novecento richiedono una profonda riflessione filosofica la quale però non può limitarsi alla sola componente teoretica e astratta, se non vuole perdere di vista la musica, e che non può limitarsi alle sole pratiche musicali se non vuole rinunciare alla propria autocoscienza. In questo senso Berio reinterpreta i tre tipi di musica, mundana, humana ed intrumentalis nella concezione boeziana per confrontarsi non solo con il grande problema del rapporto tra teoria e pratica musicale, ma anche per discutere specifiche tematiche musicali del Novecento. Luciano Berio begins his poetical testament, Remembering the future, with an explicit link to the three types of music conceived by Boezio and during the discussion of specific themes of contemporary music he returns on this item several times. The present work intends to investigate the motivation of a similar confrontation with this medieval philosopher within the poetic and aesthetic research of one of the most important representatives of nineteenth century music; on the other hand the intention is to make clear in which way he proceeds by actualizing Boezio’s theory. It will become clear that the problems of nineteenth century music necessitate a profound philosophical reflection, which can not be limited to its mere theoretical and abstract component, if it doesn’t want to miss music in itself and, on the other hand, it can not be limited to the only musical practice, if it doesn’t want to renounce on its own consciousness. In this sense Berio reinterprets the three types of music, mundana, humana and intrumentalis, in their boezian conception in order to cope not only with the one big problem of the relationship between musical theory and practice, but also in order to discuss specific musical themes of the nineteenth century. (shrink)
I describe the emergence of Floridi’s philosophy of information (PI) and information ethics (IE) against the larger backdrop of Information and Computer Ethics (ICE). Among their many strengths, PI and IE offer promising metaphysical and ethical frameworks for a global ICE that holds together globally shared norms with the irreducible differences that define local cultural and ethical traditions. I then review the major defenses and critiques of PI and IE offered by contributors to this special issue, and highlight Floridi’s responses (...) to especially two central problems – the charge of relativism and the meaning of ‹entropy’ in IE. These responses, conjoined with several elaborations of PI and IE offered here by diverse contributors, including important connections with the naturalistic philosophies of Spinoza and other major Western and Eastern figures, thus issue in an expanded and more refined version of PI and IE – one still facing important questions as well as possibilities for further development. (shrink)