Results for 'Lucy Forsyth Townsend'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  10
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Norma Jackson, Peter Jackson, David E. Purpel, Maureen A. Reynolds, Ignacio L. Götz, Jeffrey Roth, Lucy Forsyth Townsend, Sharon D. Brendzel, Linda Irwin-Devitis & J. Preston Prather - 1995 - Educational Studies 26 (3):211-293.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  12
    Articles.Douglas J. Simpson, Lucy F. Townsend & Constance Hanson - 2001 - Educational Studies 32 (1):4-52.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  7
    International Research on Women's Education.Lucy F. Townsend - 2009 - Educational Studies: A Jrnl of the American Educ. Studies Assoc 45 (5):418-421.
  4.  13
    Book Review Section 2. [REVIEW]Jan Price Greenough, Donald Vandenberg, Thalia M. Mulvihill, Richard Guarasci, Thomas V. O'brien, Frances O'neill, Lucy F. Townsend & Chigozie Achebe - 1999 - Educational Studies 30 (1):69-98.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. How to Overcome Lockdown: Selective Isolation Versus Contact Tracing.Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (11):724-725.
    At this stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, two policy aims are imperative: avoiding the need for a general lockdown of the population, with all its economic, social and health costs, and preventing the healthcare system from being overwhelmed by the unchecked spread of infection. Achieving these two aims requires the consideration of unpalatable measures. Julian Savulescu and James Cameron argue that mandatory isolation of the elderly is justified under these circumstances, as they are at increased risk of becoming severely ill (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  6.  56
    Book Symposium on Lucy Allais' Manifest Reality: Kant's Idealism and His Realism An Overview.Lucy Allais - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):235-240.
  7.  18
    The Woman Question in Plato’s Republic.Mary Townsend - 2017 - Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.
    In this book, Mary Townsend proposes that, contrary to the current scholarship on Plato's Republic, Socrates does not in fact set out to prove the weakness of women. Rather, she argues that close attention to the drama of the Republic reveals that Plato dramatizes the reluctance of men to allow women into the public sphere and offers a deeply aporetic vision of women’s nature and political position—a vision full of concern not only for the human community, but for the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  8.  17
    Cancer Stem Cells: Philosophy and Therapies.Lucie Laplane - 2016 - Cambridge (Massachusetts): Harvard University Press.
    A new therapeutic strategy could break the stalemate in the war on cancer by targeting not all cancerous cells but the small fraction that lie at the root of cancers. Lucie Laplane offers a comprehensive analysis of cancer stem cell theory, based on an original interdisciplinary approach that combines biology, biomedical history, and philosophy.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  9.  35
    Manifest Reality: Kant's Idealism and His Realism.Lucy Allais - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Lucy Allais presents an original interpretation of Kant's transcendental idealism. She argues that his distinction between things in themselves and things as they appear to us has both epistemological and metaphysical components. Kant is committed to a genuine idealism about things as they appear to us, but this is not a phenomenalist idealism. He is committed to the claim that there is an aspect of reality that grounds mind-dependent spatio-temporal objects, and which we cannot cognize, but he does not (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   61 citations  
  10.  6
    Human Genome Editing: How to Prevent Rogue Actors.Beverley A. Townsend - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundHuman genome editing technologies offer much potential benefit. However, central to any conversation relating to the application of such technologies are certain ethical, legal, and social difficulties around their application. The recent misuse, or inappropriate use, by certain Chinese actors of the application of genome editing technologies has been, of late, well noted and described. Consequently, caution is expressed by various policy experts, scientists, bioethicists, and members of the public with regard to the appropriate use of human germline genome editing (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  11. Bodily Saturation and Social Disconnectedness in Depression.Lucy Osler - 2021 - Phenomenology and Mind 21:48-61.
    Individuals suffering from depression consistently report experiencing a lack of connectedness with others. David Karp (2017, 73), in his memoir and study of depression, has gone so far to describe depression as “an illness of isolation, a disease of disconnectedness”. It has become common, in phenomenological circles, to attribute this social impairment to the depressed individual experiencing their body as corporealized, acting as a barrier between them and the world around them (Fuchs 2005, 2016). In this paper, I offer an (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  12. Privacy Versus Public Health? A Reassessment of Centralised and Decentralised Digital Contact Tracing.Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-13.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were placed on digital contact tracing. Digital contact tracing apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as further waves of COVID-19 tear through much of the northern hemisphere, these apps are playing a less important role in interrupting chains of infection than anticipated. We argue that one of the reasons for this is that most countries have opted for decentralised apps, which cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  13.  31
    Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce: Vol. III, Exact Logic.H. G. Townsend - 1935 - Philosophical Review 44 (1):85-87.
  14. Taking Empathy Online.Lucy Osler - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Despite its long history of investigating sociality, phenomenology has, to date, said little about online sociality. The phenomenological tradition typically claims that empathy is the fundamental way in which we experience others and their experiences. While empathy is discussed almost exclusively in the context of face-to-face interaction, I claim that we can empathetically perceive others and their experiences in certain online situations. Drawing upon the phenomenological distinction between the physical, objective body and the expressive, lived body, I: (i) highlight that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  15.  19
    The Century of Taste: The Philosophical Odyssey of Taste in the Eighteenth Century.Dabney Townsend - 1998 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (4):417-419.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  16.  7
    Using a Student Authentication and Authorship Checking System as a Catalyst for Developing an Academic Integrity Culture: a Bulgarian Case Study.Roumiana Peytcheva-Forsyth, Harvey Mellar & Lyubka Aleksieva - 2019 - Journal of Academic Ethics 17 (3):245-269.
    This paper presents a case study carried out at Sofia University in Bulgaria, describing the relationship between two developments, firstly an expanding involvement with online learning and e-assessment, and secondly the development of institutional approaches to academic integrity. The two developments interact, the widening use of e-learning and e-assessment raising new issues for academic integrity, and the technology providing new tools to support academic integrity, with the involvement in technological developments acting as a catalyst for changes in approaches to academic (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  32
    Decision Field Theory: A Dynamic-Cognitive Approach to Decision Making in an Uncertain Environment.Jerome R. Busemeyer & James T. Townsend - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (3):432-459.
  18.  17
    Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Vol. I, Principles of Philosophy.H. G. Townsend - 1932 - Philosophical Review 41 (6):621-623.
  19. The Epistemology of Collective Testimony.Leo Townsend - 2021 - Journal of Social Ontology.
    In this paper, I explore what gives collective testimony its epistemic credentials, through a critical discussion of three competing accounts of the epistemology of collective testimony. According to the first view, collective testimony inherits its epistemic credentials from the beliefs the testimony expresses— where this can be seen either as the beliefs of all or some of the group’s members, or as the beliefs of group itself. The second view denies any necessary connection to belief, claiming instead that the epistemic (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Without a Trace: Why Did Corona Apps Fail?Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):1-4.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were put on digital contact tracing, using mobile phone apps to record and immediately notify contacts when a user reports as infected. Such apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as second waves of COVID-19 are raging, these apps are playing a less important role than anticipated. We argue that this is because most countries have opted for app configurations that cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  21.  37
    Social Ontology: Collective Intentionality and Group Agents. [REVIEW]Leo Townsend - 2015 - Journal of Social Ontology 1 (1):183–187.
  22.  14
    Dementia and the Paradigm of the Camp: Thinking Beyond Giorgio Agamben’s Concept of “Bare Life”.Lucy Burke - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (2):195-205.
    This essay discusses the use of analogies drawn from the Holocaust in cultural representations and critical scholarship on dementia. The paper starts with a discussion of references to the death camp in cultural narratives about dementia, specifically Annie Ernaux’s account of her mother’s dementia in I Remain in Darkness. It goes on to develop a critique of Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben’s work on biopolitics and “bare life,” focusing specifically on the linguistic foundations of his thinking. This underpins a consideration of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  23.  9
    The Child’s Right to Genital Integrity.Kate Goldie Townsend - 2019 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 46 (7):878-898.
    People in liberal societies tend to feel a little uncomfortable talking about male genital cutting, but generally do not think it is morally abhorrent. But female genital cutting is widely consider...
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24. Please Like This Paper.Lucy McDonald - forthcoming - Philosophy.
    In this paper I offer a philosophical analysis of the act of ‘liking’ a post on social media. First, I consider what it means to ‘like’ something. I argue that ‘liking’ is best understood as a phatic gesture; it signals uptake and anoints the poster’s positive face. Next, I consider how best to theorise the power that comes with amassing many ‘likes’. I suggest that ‘like’ tallies alongside posts institute and record a form of digital social capital. Finally, I consider (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25. Feeling togetherness online: a phenomenological sketch of online communal experiences.Lucy Osler - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (3):569-588.
    The internet provides us with a multitude of ways of interacting with one another. In discussions about how technological innovations impact and shape our interpersonal interactions, there is a tendency to assume that encountering people online is essentially different to encountering people offline. Yet, individuals report feeling a sense of togetherness with one another online that echoes offline descriptions. I consider how we can understand people’s experiences of being together with others online, at least in certain instances, as arising out (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  26. The Political Classics: Hamilton to Mill.Murray Forsyth, Maurice Keens-Soper & John Hoffman (eds.) - 1993 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Spanning a critical period--from the turbulent era of the American and French Revolutions through to the calmer waters of the nineteenth centuries, this book will help all students of political ideas to gain a fuller appreciation of the great works which form the foundation of the subject. Seven classic texts have been chosen for analysis: Hamilton's The Federalist, Sieyes' What is the Third Estate?, Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France, Hegel's The Philosophy of Right, de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  11
    The Political Classics: A Guide to the Essential Texts From Plato to Rousseau.Murray Forsyth & Maurice Keens-Soper (eds.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    This is a lively and accessible introduction to some of the greatest works of political thought. Written by a team of specialist contributors, there are chapters on Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, Augustine's City of God, Machiavelli's Discourses and The Prince, Hobbes's Leviathan, and Locke's Second Treatise on Government. Concentrating on the ideas contained in the texts themselves, the guide also helps readers understand why these classics remain indispensable today.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. The Technique of Psycho-Analysis.David Forsyth - 1999 - Routledge.
    First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Luci Ed Ombre Del Giusnaturalismo Ed Altri Studi di Filosofia Giuridica E Politica.Vittorio Mathieu - 1989 - G. Giappichelli.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  22
    Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce: Vol. II, Elements of Logic.H. G. Townsend - 1934 - Philosophical Review 43 (2):209-212.
  31.  22
    The Author, Art, and the Market: Rereading the History of Aesthetics.Dabney Townsend - 1995 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 53 (1):85-87.
  32.  1
    Dreaming the Myth Onwards: New Directions in Jungian Therapy and Thought.Lucy Huskinson (ed.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    _Dreaming the Myth Onwards_ shows how a revised appreciation of myth can enrich our daily lives, our psychological awareness, and our human relationships. Lucy Huskinson and her contributors explore the interplay between myth, and Jungian thought and practice, demonstrating the philosophical and psychological principles that underlie our experience of psyche and world. Contributors from multi-disciplinary backgrounds throughout the world come together to assess the contemporary relevance of myth, in terms of its utility, its effectual position within Jungian theory and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33. Kant, Non-Conceptual Content and the Representation of Space.Lucy Allais - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 383-413.
    :Space is not an empirical concept that has been drawn from outer experiences. For in order for certain sensations to be related to something outside me , thus in order for me to represent them as outside and next to one another, thus not merely different but as in different places, the representation of space must already be their ground. Thus the representation of space cannot be obtained from the relations of outer appearance through experience, but this outer experience is (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   100 citations  
  34. Your Word Against Mine: The Power of Uptake.Lucy McDonald - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):3505-3526.
    Uptake is typically understood as the hearer’s recognition of the speaker’s communicative intention. According to one theory of uptake, the hearer’s role is merely as a ratifier. The speaker, by expressing a particular communicative intention, predetermines what kind of illocutionary act she might perform. Her hearer can then render this act a success or a failure. Thus the hearer has no power over which act could be performed, but she does have some power over whether it is performed. Call this (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  35.  26
    Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self in the Union of Opposites.Lucy Huskinson - 2004 - Brunner-Routledge.
    This book considers the thought and personalities of two popular icons of twentieth century philosophical and psychological thought - Nietzsche and Jung - and reveals the extraordinary connections between them. Through a thorough examination of their work, Nietzsche and Jung succeeds in illuminating complex areas of Nietzsche's thought and resolving ambiguities in Jung's reception of these theories. This demonstration of how our understanding of analytical psychology can be enriched by investigating its philosophical roots will be of great interest to students (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  36.  14
    Lucy Allais, Manifest Reality: Kant’s Idealism and His Realism. Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Nathaniel Goldberg - 2016 - Philosophy in Review 36 (6):238-240.
  37.  33
    A New Perspective on Time and Physical Laws.Lucy Margaret Ellen James - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Callender claims that `time is the great informer', meaning that the direction in which our `best' physical theories inform are temporal. This is intended to be a metaphysical claim, and as such expresses a relationship between the physical world and information-gathering systems such as ourselves. This paper gives two counterexamples to this claim, illustrating the fact that time and informative strength doubly dissociate, so the claim cannot be about physical theories in general. The first is a case where physical theories (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38. The Need for Authenticity-Based Autonomy in Medical Ethics.Lucie White - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (3):191-209.
    The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of “authenticity”, the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  39. Can One Both Contribute to and Benefit From Herd Immunity?Lucie White - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (2).
    In a recent article, Ethan Bradley and Mark Navin (2021) argue that vaccine refusal is not akin to free riding. Here, I defend one connection between vaccine refusal and free riding and suggest that, when viewed in conjunction with their other arguments, this might constitute a reason to mandate Covid-19 vaccination.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  40. ProAna Worlds: Affectivity and Echo Chambers Online.Lucy Osler & Joel Krueger - forthcoming - Topoi:1-11.
    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterised by self-starvation. Accounts of AN typically frame the disorder in individualistic terms: e.g., genetic predisposition, perceptual disturbances of body size and shape, experiential bodily disturbances. Without disputing the role these factors may play in developing AN, we instead draw attention to the way disordered eating practices in AN are actively supported by others. Specifically, we consider how Pro-Anorexia (ProAna) websites — which provide support and solidarity, tips, motivational content, a sense of community, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  41.  40
    On Anscombe on Practical Knowledge and Practical Truth.Lucy Campbell - forthcoming - In R. Teichmann (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Elizabeth Anscombe.
    A central idea in Anscombe's philosophy of action is that of practical knowledge, the formally distinctive knowledge a person has of what she is intentionally doing. Anscombe also discusses 'practical truth', an idea she borrows from Aristotle, and which on her interpretation is a kind of truth whose bearer is not thought or language, but action. What is the relationship between practical knowledge and practical truth? What we might call the 'Simple View' of this relationship holds that practical knowledge is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Wiping the Slate Clean: The Heart of Forgiveness.Lucy Allais - 2008 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 36 (1):33–68.
  43. Controlling the Noise: A Phenomenological Account of Anorexia Nervosa and the Threatening Body.Lucy Osler - 2021 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 28 (1):41-58.
    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a complex disorder characterised by self-starvation, an act of self-destruction. It is often described as a disorder marked by paradoxes and, despite extensive research attention, is still not well understood. Much AN research focuses upon the distorted body image that individuals with AN supposedly experience. However, based upon reports from individuals describing their own experience of AN, I argue that their bodily experience is much more complex than this focus might lead us to believe. Such research (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  44. An Epistemology for Practical Knowledge.Lucy Campbell - 2018 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 48 (2):159-177.
    Anscombe thought that practical knowledge – a person’s knowledge of what she is intentionally doing – displays formal differences to ordinary empirical, or ‘speculative’, knowledge. I suggest these differences rest on the fact that practical knowledge involves intention analogously to how speculative knowledge involves belief. But this claim conflicts with the standard conception of knowledge, according to which knowledge is an inherently belief-involving phenomenon. Building on John Hyman’s account of knowledge as the ability to use a fact as a reason, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  45.  63
    A Case for a Duty to Feed the Hungry: GM Plants and the Third World.Lucy Carter - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):69-82.
    This article is concerned with a discussion of the plausibility of the claim that GM technology has the potential to provide the hungry with sufficient food for subsistence. Following a brief outline of the potential applications of GM in this context, a history of the green revolution and its impact will be discussed in relation to the current developing world agriculture situation. Following a contemporary analysis of malnutrition, the claim that GM technology has the potential to provide the hungry with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   55 citations  
  46. Taking Watsuji Online: Betweenness and Expression in Online Spaces.Lucy Osler & Joel Krueger - 2021 - Continental Philosophy Review (1):1-23.
    In this paper, we introduce the Japanese philosopher Tetsurō Watsuji’s phenomenology of aidagara (“betweenness”) and use his analysis in the contemporary context of online space. We argue that Watsuji develops a prescient analysis anticipating modern technologically-mediated forms of expression and engagement. More precisely, we show that instead of adopting a traditional phenomenological focus on face-to-face interaction, Watsuji argues that communication technologies — which now include Internet-enabled technologies and spaces — are expressive vehicles enabling new forms of emotional expression, shared experiences, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  47.  8
    The Secret of Happiness; or, Salvation Through Growth.H. G. Townsend & Edmond Holmes - 1919 - Duke University Press.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  4
    The Dark Side of Technology.Peter Townsend - 2017 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The Dark Side of Technology is aimed at a mass market of intelligent people who are concerned about human progress, interested or amused by many of the unexpected consequences of technological advance, and probably unaware of the dangers which we are accruing for ourselves. Although the book spans a very wide spectrum of ideas, no previous scientific knowledge is required. Other books have focussed on different topic areas, but none have previously presented the generality of the patterns across medicine to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  23
    The Collaborative Care Model: Realizing Healthcare Values and Increasing Responsiveness in the Pharmacy Workforce.Barry Maguire & Paul Forsyth - forthcoming - Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.
    Abstract The values of the healthcare sector are fairly ubiquitous across the globe, focusing on caring and respect, patient health, excellence in care delivery, and multi-stakeholder collaboration. Many individual pharmacists embrace these core values. But their ability to honor these values is significantly determined by the nature of the system they work in. -/- The paper starts with a model of the prevailing pharmacist workforce model in Scotland, in which core roles are predominantly separated into hierarchically disaggregated jobs focused on (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  36
    Symbiotic Empirical Ethics: A Practical Methodology.Lucy Frith - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):198-206.
    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This ‘empirical turn’ has provoked extensive debate over how such ‘descriptive’ research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000