Los estudiosos suelen concordar actualmente en que la “escuela eleática”, tal como se nos presenta por primera vez en los diálogos de Platón, tiene más de ficción que de realidad histórica. En este artículo trato de dilucidar el origen de esa ficción, empezando por examinar las hipótesis de que el comentario de Platón acerca de la “tribu eleática” iniciada por Jenófanes es una broma o bien refleja una interpretación previa debida a Hipias o a Antístenes. Argüiré que la “eleatización” de (...) Jenófanes fue introducida –junto a la lectura de Parménides y Zenón como filósofos monistas, a la manera de Meliso– por la escuela megárica de Euclides (lo cual me obliga a defender, contra Von Fritz y Döring, el carácter neo-eleático de la filosofía megárica), y sugeriré que una huella precisa de tal interpretación megárica puede encontrarse en la sección dedicada a Jenófanes del tratado pseudo-aristotélico De Melisso Xenophane Gorgia. (shrink)
El presente libro constituye una interesante propuesta para enfrentar el estudio del pasado de una manera distinta a la historiografía tradicional, a la cual se la ha criticado muchas veces por su escritura compleja y por la escasa empatía que las investigaciones generan con el lector que no es especialista en este tipo de conocimientos. Es por esto que, y al igual que lo realizado en XIX Historias del siglo diecinueve chileno, los autores del texto presentan una serie de artículos (...) en los que.. (shrink)
Entre os temas kantianos discutidos por Nietzsche, o tradicional problema do estatuto da coisa em si é particularmente relevante para a formulação de sua própria filosofia. Por esse motivo, a compreensão de Nietzsche desse problema também se tornou um dos assuntos mais debatidos e controversos entre seus intérpretes. De forma geral, tende-se a identificar na filosofia de Nietzsche uma trajetória que o levaria da admissão de um conceito de coisa em si em sua juventude até uma negação, em sua filosofia (...) madura, da coisa em si, considerada como uma concepção contraditória. A discordância entre os comentadores surge quando se pergunta se o conceito de coisa em si que Nietzsche nega é exatamente aquilo que Kant entendia por coisa em si. Nosso trabalho pretende discutir essa questão a partir do estudo de três objeções de Nietzsche ao conceito de coisa em si, levando em consideração os aspectos históricos do problema e as soluções oferecidas pela literatura secundária. Among the Kantian issues discussed by Nietzsche, the traditional problem of the status of the thing-in-itself is particularly relevant to the formulation of his own philosophy. For this reason, Nietzsche's comprehension of this problem has also become one of the most debated and controversial subjects among his interpreters. There is a general trend among them to identify in Nietzsche's philosophy a path that would lead him from the assumption of a concept of thing-in-itself in his youth to a denial of the thing-in-itself, in his late philosophy, what is regarded as a contradictory conception. The disagreement among them takes place when it is called into question if the concept of thing-in-itself that Nietzsche denies is exactly what Kant meant by thing-in-itself. My purpose is to discuss this issue by means of a study of three objections made by Nietzsche to the concept of thing-in-itself, taking the historical aspects of the problem, as well as the solutions offered by the secondary literature, into consideration. (shrink)
We study whether the probabilistic postulate could be derived from basic principles. Through the analysis of the Strong Law of Large Numbers and its formulation in quantum mechanics, we show, contrary to the claim of the many-worlds interpretation defenders and the arguments of some other authors, the impossibility of obtaining the probabilistic postulate by means of the frequency analysis of an ensemble of infinite copies of a single system. It is shown, though, how the standard form of the probability as (...) the square of the scalar product follows from Gleason's theorem. (shrink)
This volume has 41 chapters written to honor the 100th birthday of Mario Bunge. It celebrates the work of this influential Argentine/Canadian physicist and philosopher. Contributions show the value of Bunge’s science-informed philosophy and his systematic approach to philosophical problems. The chapters explore the exceptionally wide spectrum of Bunge’s contributions to: metaphysics, methodology and philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of physics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of social science, philosophy of biology, philosophy of technology, moral philosophy, social and political (...) philosophy, medical philosophy, and education. The contributors include scholars from 16 countries. Bunge combines ontological realism with epistemological fallibilism. He believes that science provides the best and most warranted knowledge of the natural and social world, and that such knowledge is the only sound basis for moral decision making and social and political reform. Bunge argues for the unity of knowledge. In his eyes, science and philosophy constitute a fruitful and necessary partnership. Readers will discover the wisdom of this approach and will gain insight into the utility of cross-disciplinary scholarship. This anthology will appeal to researchers, students, and teachers in philosophy of science, social science, and liberal education programmes. 1. Introduction Section I. An Academic Vocation Section II. Philosophy Section III. Physics and Philosophy of Physics Section IV. Cognitive Science and Philosophy of Mind Section V. Sociology and Social Theory Section VI. Ethics and Political Philosophy Section VII. Biology and Philosophy of Biology Section VIII. Mathematics Section IX. Education Section X. Varia Section XI. Bibliography. (shrink)
Resumo: O artigo investiga as origens biológicas das teorias do impulso de Nietzsche e Freud, extraindo as consequências que delas podemos tirar. Assim, realizaremos inicialmente uma exposição das teorias dos impulsos de Freud e Nietzsche, para depois compará-las a partir das seguintes questões: A gênese dos conceitos e a relação entre psicologia e biologia; Os aspectos dinâmicos e econômicos dos impulsos; 3) O lugar da teoria dos impulsos no contexto de suas obras.: The paper investigates the biological origins of Nietzsche’s (...) and Freud’s theories of drives, drawing their consequences. First, I will expose both theories and later I will compare them, based on the following issues: The genesis of the concepts and the relationship between psychology and biology; The dynamical and economical aspects of drives; The place of the theory of drives in the context of their oevres. (shrink)
The chapters collected in Henry Burnett’s Nietzsche, Adorno e um pouquinho de Brasil (Nietzsche, Adorno and a Little Brazil) focus on investigating various cultural tendencies in Europe and Brazil in terms of popular music, or Volkslied. This is Burnett’s focus not only because he wants to analyze Nietzsche’s failed alliance with Wagnerian art regarding the “rebirth of tragedy”—the concern of the first part of the book—but also because he wishes to reflect on music’s role as a guiding thread in debates (...) in early twentieth-century Western culture. In particular, in the second part of the book, Burnett considers the role of popular music as the modus operandi of cultural edification in Western capitalism. .. (shrink)
O presente artigo tem por objetivo, na primeira parte, explorar algumas teses gerais apresentadas por recente pesquisa de Josef Simon acerca do estatuto da linguagem na filosofia de Kant, em especial no que tange ao modo de significar e comunicar presente nas reivindicações de verdade dos juízos. Em segundo lugar, pretende-se pontuar a crítica de Nietzsche a um modo de significar e comunicar ao qual denomina "gregário", contrapondo-o a uma comunicação e significação "individualizada". Como apontamos no final, a visada interlocução (...) entre Kant e Nietzsche acerca do significar e comunicar se dará segundo um aspecto central: o fator subjetivo presente em qualquer reivindicação discursiva da razão. The present article aims, in the first part, to explore some general theses presented by recent research of Josef Simon concerning the status of language in Kant's philosophy, especially regarding the mode of signification and communication present in the claims for truth of judgment. In the second part, it is intended to point out Nietzsche's critique of a mode of meaning and communication, which he calls "gregarious", confronting it to "individualized" communication and meaning. As it is pointed out in the conclusion, the intended dialogue between Kant and Nietzsche on this theme occurs according to a central aspect: the subjective factor present in any discursive claim of human reason. (shrink)
Resumen Me propongo aclarar la noción de “fenómeno” de Jean-Luc Marion y su relación con la categoría de “fenómeno saturado”. Para ello discutiré las interpretaciones de algunos comentaristas que advierten tensiones entre la primera y la segunda tópica del fenómeno.I aim to clarify Jean-Luc Marion’s notion of “phenomenon” and its relationship with the category of “saturated phenomenon”. To this end I discuss the interpretations of some commentators who point out tensions between the first and the second topic of the phenomenon (...) presented. (shrink)
RésuméCet article expose et analyse la notion de référentielà laquelle Gonseth avail consacré son dernier livre. II distingue un référentiel personnel qui comporte deux aspects et un référentiel de groupe qui lui aussi présente diverses modalités . Entre les référentiels personnels et les référentiels de groupe s'établit une symbiose existentielle favorisant les interactions. Cette notion de référentiel peut être utilisée avec profit pour décrire et interpréter les relations que ľhomme entretient avec ses semblables, avec les collectivités dont il fait partie (...) et avec le milieu naturel dans lequel il se trouve engagé.SummaryThis article presents and analyses the notion of reference frame, to which Gonseth devoted his last book. A personal reference frame involving two aspects is distinguished from a group reference frame which also takes various forms . Personal and group reference frames are in an existential symbiosis fostering interactions. This notion of reference frame may be used to advantage in describing and interpreting the relations between man and his fellow man, his organizations, and his natural environment. (shrink)
On regroupe ici trois textes de la grotte 4 publiés en 1982 par Maurice Baillet dans le tome VII des Discoveries in the Judaean Desert et qui semblent avoir été destinés à un usage liturgique. Ils s'adressent à Dieu pour l'implorer en lui rappelant sa prédilection pour Israël et en déplorant les mésaventures de celui-ci, ou ils parlent de Dieu pour le bénir ou inviter à le glorifier. Ces textes s'apparentent aux Hymnes et aux pièces lyriques dont quelques échantillons ont (...) déjà été traduits dans cette revue . This contribution includes three texts from cave 4 published in 1982 by Maurice Baillet in Discoveries in the Judean Desert, Volume 7. They seem to be intended for liturgical use and are directed to God in order to implore him by reminding him of his predilection for Israel and by deploring its misadventures, or they speak about God in order to bless or to glorify him. These texts are related to the Hymns and to the lyrical pieces of which some samples have already been translated in this journal. (shrink)
L’enquête, qui a porté sur tous les emplois du mot prophètès et des termes apparentés dans la littérature et dans les inscriptions, des origines à la fin du IVe s. av. J.-C., fait apparaître plusieurs types de personnages ainsi nommés, les plus souvent représentés étant les prophètes attachés aux sanctuaires oraculaires. Mais il est aussi des personnages appelés prophètes qui procèdent à l’accomplissement de teletai, des poètes qui se donnent à eux-mêmes ce titre et, désigné ainsi dans un unique emploi, (...) le philosophe Socrate. Il sera question enfin de prophètes de second rang, mais participant à ce qu’on peut appeler la « chaîne prophétique »; c’est le cas notamment des exégètes d’oracles écrits dont Aristophane donne un bel exemple. Il s’avère que le mot prophètès s’applique de préférence à des personnages censés bénéficier d’une intervention intérieure de la divinité. Peut-être l’usage de ce vocabulaire, qui n’apparaît pas avant le Ve siècle, a-t-il répondu à un besoin de marquer cette distinction, par rapport à mantis qui s’applique quant à lui à toute espèce de mantique et dont l’emploi, depuis Homère, est beaucoup plus commun.An investigation was carried out into all the occurrences of the word prophetes and similar terms in the literature and in inscriptions, from their first use to the end of the fourth century. Several types of people are referred to as prophets, the most frequently represented being the prophets linked to the oracular sanctuaries. However, there are also prophets who have achieved teletai, poets who called themselves prophets and the philosopher Socrates, who was identified as a prophet in a unique occurrence. Finally, there are the lower level prophets, who nevertheless still take part in what we could call the “prophetic chain”; this is particularly true in the case of the exegetes of written oracles, of which Aristophanes provides a good example. It turns out that the word prophetes is rarely applied, except to those expected to enjoy an inner intervention from the divinity. The use of this word, which does not appear until the fifth century, might correspond to the need to make a distinction in comparison with the word mantis, which is applied to all kinds of divination and which has been widely used since the time of Homer. (shrink)
La présence de la francophonie dans la culture chilienne s'est manifestée, à travers le temps, en réponse aux nécessités de genèse, d'organisation, de consolidation et d'insertion internationale de l'État-nation. L'intellectuel, acteur fondamental dans l'organisation de la culture, se révèle être l'agent décisif pour la sélection réalisée dans le large spectre des valeurs de la culture française. Avec pour axe l'action de ce médiateur, une périodisation de l'histoire culturelle met en relief les moments significatifs de l'influence du modèle francophone dans la (...) formation, au Chili, d'une culture nationale de contenu américain, telle que la postule Andrés Bello, dès l'étape de l'organisation de la République. L'examen de la particularité chilienne permet de dévoiler les noyaux importants de la fonction qu'a exercée dans le passé, et qu'exerce à l'heure de la globalisation, la francophonie dans le développement de la variante de la culture européenne née en territoire américainIn Chilean culture, Francophony has grown in reaction to the genesis, organisation and international position of the nation. As fundamental actors in the process of cultural organisation, intellectuals have proved essential to help select useful French cultural values from the extensive range that exist. A study of the specific case of Chile reveals the important core factors of the role Francophony played in the development of a variant of European culture in Latin America. The paper shows the distinctive stages of Chilean development with a particular emphasis on globalisation. (shrink)
In what is probably the most arresting of all the textual developments of the Saturnalian dialogues, the reader’s emotional identification with the voice of rage and thwarted rebellion is ever more thoroughly compelled by the structure and tone of succeeding works, at the same time that the dangers of that role, both for its bearer and for others, are ever more explicitly argued. Readers of Le Neveau de Rameau are not forced by the inner logic of the text to choose (...) between Moi and Lui, and they can find in each a welcome counterbalance to and relief from the demands of the other. But in Notes from Underground the “gentlemen-readers” have nothing left to offer us, and the novel makes it impossible to feel anything less than the same contempt for their platitudes that the Underground Man himself flaunts. The clearest index of the development I am tracing is the formal shift from Diderot’s dialogue proper to Dostoyevski’s first-person novel, but this mutation is itself already a consequence of a more indirect and disturbing cause. Dostoyevski, in the famous cry of The Possessed, was certain that “‘the fire is in the minds of men and not in the roofs of houses’”;9 he believed that only the prior corruption of Russia’s intelligentsia, their eager surrender to the lure of conspiracy and violence, could have led so many of them to the acts of senseless catastrophe, fueled by ressentiment, false pride, and incoherent utopian fantasies, marks all of his most important post-Siberia political and cultural writings.10 9. Dostoyevski, The Possessed, trans. Garnett , p. 533.10. In The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoyevski explicitly states that the future revolution will be made by the Smerdyakovs. In the chapter “Over the Brandy,” for example, Ivan tells his father that Smerdyakov is “a prime candidate” to initiate a revolutionary uprising . Michael André Bernstein is professor of English and comparative literature at the University of California, Berkeley. He is the author of The Tale of the Tribe: Ezra Pound and the Modern Verse Epic and a book of poetry. His most recent contribution to Critical Inquiry is “‘O Totiens Servus’: Saturnalia and Servitude in Augustan Rome”. (shrink)
This article examines four characters from the novel Hombres by Eugenio González in order to reveal the identities of those people who were an inspiration for the narrator to shape the fiction in novel. Since Hombres is placed temporarily in Carlos Ibáñez’s dictatorship, the narrator decides to hide the poet Gómez Rojas, the union leader Luis Triviño, Dr. Juan Gandulfo and the lawyer Carlos Vicuña between the pages of the book. This narrative procedure keeps these people’s identities safe; considering (...) that, making these names and activities evident would have represented a problem for the state security apparatus. (shrink)
There are some recurring symbols in the literature of Jorge Luis Borges, and once those symbols are understood, authors are admitted into the labyrinthine terrain of Borges’s mind and writing. The symbols are the labyrinth, the book, the mirror, the tiger, the courage of irony, words that are music, and the friend. The first four symbols are tools that the author uses to confuse the reader (the labyrinth), a curiosity that can never be satisfied (the book), the awareness of (...) multiple selves (the mirror), and the anticipation of death (the tiger). The other three symbols provide a certain palliative for the melancholic pessimism inspired by the first four symbols. The courage of irony and words that are music give room for a certain individual joy inside the Borgesian universe. Finally, for those who long to escape from isolation, the friend depicts a possible metaphysical opening to intimacy with other human beings. (shrink)
Il s’agira d’aborder dans cette contribution l’œuvre de Carl Andre en tant qu’arrangement de pièces combinatoires, selon des ensembles minimaux qui se parcourent, dont l’expérience et littéralement la compréhension ne peuvent se faire qu’à partir du déplacement physique du visiteur. Un déplacement qui prend son impulsion à partir du sol, départ de la sculpture mais aussi plan selon lequel la plus existentielle des dimensions se donne, condition fondatrice de l’habiter humain. Si l’installation a souvent été considérée comme une extension des (...) pratiques de l’assemblage et du collage, c’est-à-dire en fonctionnant selon des principes d’association, de contamination et de télescopage, le travail de Carl Andre pose de manière très radicale et rigoureuse les conditions mêmes qui rendent possible toute installation : la mise en tension sans cesse renouvelée d’une proximité et d’un lointain qui fonde l’horizon d’un spectateur toujours dessaisi de ce qui ad-vient, l’avènement de la corporéité en tant que mouvement, des prises sensori-motrices sans cesse reconduites et indexées sur la perception des objets qui occupent l’espace et le redistribuent, enfin la nature éminemment trajective de cette catégorie d’œuvre que l’on tente de définir par le terme d’installation. Les environnements sculpturaux proposés par l’artiste américain donnent lieu, ils instituent l’espace et l’ouvrent, ils sont autant de places à investir. In this contribution, we will deal with the works by Carl Andre as an arrangement of combinatory parts, according to minimal sets you can go by whose experience and literally the understanding can only be made from the visitor’s physical moves. A movement that origins from the ground, the start of the sculpture but also a map according to which the most existential of dimensions emerges, the founding condition of human beings. If the installation has often been considered an extension of assembly and collage habits, that is to say functioning according to association, contamination and going back and forth principles, the works by Carl Andre set the very conditions which make any kind of installation possible in an extremely radical and strict way: the forever renewed focus of a proximity and a distance which founds the horizon for a spectator who keeps being deprived of what will come, the surge of corporeality as a movement, of forever renewed sensorimotor grips indexed to the perception of objects which fill space and redistribute it, and at last the trajective nature of this kind of works one tends to define by the word of installation. The sculptural environment offered by the American artist gives place, they institute space and widen it, they are as many places to invest. (shrink)
Célebre pintor do século XVIII, Joshua Reynolds apresentou ao longo dos anos 1769-1790 discursos para Royal Academy of Arts. Neles, expõe uma concepção de pintura que privilegia os quadros históricos. No entanto, o próprio Reynolds pratica a pintura de retratos. Analisar em que medida a feitura de retratos não entra em contradição com o argumento segundo o qual os quadros históricos são aqueles que melhor representam o gênero pictórico é o que se busca problematizar neste texto.
It's been 41 years since the publication of Ernst Mayr's Cause and Effect in Biology wherein Mayr most clearly develops his version of the influential distinction between ultimate and proximate causes in biology. In critically assessing Mayr's essay I uncover false statements and red-herrings about biological explanation. Nevertheless, I argue to uphold an analogue of the ultimate/proximate distinction as it refers to two different kinds of explanations, one dynamical the other statistical.
In my article "berkeley's master argument" I attempt to show that an argument berkeley uses in the 'dialogues' and 'principles' to support his contention that whatever is perceivable is perceived can be seen as an illuminating attempt to relate conceptualizing, Imaging and perceiving. In consequence it cannot be dismissed as resting on an elementary fallacy, But reflects on the conditions for the self ascription of experience.
This paper is part of a series in which we had worked in the last 6 months, and, specifically, intend to investigate the notion of timbre through the ecological perspective proposed by James Gibson in his Theory of Direct Perception. First of all, we discussed the traditional approach to timbre, mainly as developed in acoustics and psychoacoustics. Later, we proposed a new conception of timbre that was born in concepts of ecological approach. The ecological approach to perception proposed by Gibson (...) (1966, 1979) presupposes a level of analysis of perceptual stimulated that includes, but is quite broader than the usual physical aspect. Gibson suggests as focus the relationship between the perceiver and his environment. At the core of this approach, is the notion of affordances, invariant combinations of properties at the ecological level, taken with reference to the anatomy and action systems of species or individual, and also with reference to its biological and social needs. Objects and events are understood as relates to a perceiving organism by the meaning of structured information, thus affording possibilities of action by the organism. Event perception aims at identifying properties of events to specify changes of the environment that are relevant to the organism. The perception of form is understood as a special instance of event perception, which is the identity of an object depends on the nature of the events in which is involved and what remains invariant over time. From this perspective, perception is not in any sense created by the brain, but is a part of the world where information can be found. Consequently, an ecological approach represents a form of direct realism that opposes the indirect realist based on predominant approaches to perception borrowed from psychoacoustics and computational approach. (shrink)
En este artículo exploramos desde la literatura, por medio de Suenan timbres de Luis Vidales, la dinámica de las nacientes urbes colombianas que inician un proceso acelerado de modernización, carente de un desarrollo adecuado del pensamiento moderno, a la par con los nuevos avances materiales, lo que imposibilita debatir la pertinencia y el proceso de este tipo de transformaciones. Circunstancia que lleva a Colombia a experimentar los idiotismos de la modernización sin modernidad, impidiéndoles a los hombres entender las necesidades (...) y conflictos que genera el progreso. Estas aldeas de principios del siglo XX se convierten rápidamente en proyectos de ciudades determinadas por la aparición de nuevos objetos, creando una atmósfera móvil y ruidosa por oposición a la pasividad de las aldeas, realidad que nos recrea Vidales desde una poética comprometida con los cambios sociales y políticos como poeta de la crítica en Colombia. In this paper, from the literature of Luis Vidales’s Suenan timbres, we explore the dynamics of Colombian rising cities that initiate an accelerated modernization process, deprived of an appropriate development of modern thinking, along with the new material advances, which makes it impossible to debate the relevance and the process followed by these types of transformations. This situation leads Colombia to experience the idiotism of modernization without modernity, impeding men to understand the needs and conflicts generated by progress. These villages from twentieth century beginnings quickly turn into city projects determined by the arrival of new objects, creating a mobile and noisy atmosphere, opposed to villages’ passivity. From poetics committed to social and political change, Vidales recreates reality as a poet of criticism in Colombia. (shrink)
A. Newell and H. A. Simon were two of the most influential scientists in the emerging field of artificial intelligence (AI) in the late 1950s through to the early 1990s. This paper reviews their crucial contribution to this field, namely to symbolic AI. This contribution was constituted mostly by their quest for the implementation of general intelligence and (commonsense) knowledge in artificial thinking or reasoning artifacts, a project they shared with many other scientists but that in their case was theoretically (...) based on the idiosyncratic notions of symbol systems and the representational abilities they give rise to, in particular with respect to knowledge. While focusing on the period 1956-1982, this review cites both earlier and later literature and it attempts to make visible their potential relevance to today's greatest unifying AI challenge, to wit, the design of wholly autonomous artificial agents (a.k.a. robots) that are not only rational and ethical, but also self-conscious. (shrink)
The book forms a balanced structure in which the three conceptual pillars of Spinoza's natural law theory (individuality, natural laws, and power) are first analyzed from the viewpoint of his ontology and then from the viewpoint of his ...
In Who's Afraid of Idealism? the philosophical concept of idealism, the extent to which reality is mind-made, is examined in new light. Author Luis M. Augusto explores epistemological idealism, at the source of all other kinds of idealism, from the viewpoints of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche, two philosophers who spent a large part of their lives denigrating the very concept. Working from Kant and Nietzsche's viewpoints that idealism was a scandal to philosophy and the cause of nihilism, Augusto (...) evaluates these philosophers and their role in shaping epistemological idealism. Using textual evidence from their writings and their reactions to western philosophers such as Plato, Descartes, and Hegel, Who's Afraid of Idealism? argues that in fact Kant and Nietzsche were really idealists at heart. In accessible prose, this text puts forward a theory that goes against current scholarly opinion, and even Kant and Nietzsche's opinions of themselves. (shrink)
This article studies perceptual differences of three social robots by elementary school children of ages 6–13 years at research fairs. The autonomous humanoid robot Pepper, an advanced social robot primarily designed as a personal assistant with movement and mobility, is compared to the teleoperated AV1 robot—designed to help elementary school children who cannot attend school to have a telepresence through the robot—and the flowerpot robot Tessa, used in the eWare system as an avatar for a home sensor system and dedicated (...) to people with dementia living alone. These three robots were shown at the Norwegian national research fair, held in every major Norwegian city annually, where children were able to interact with the robots. Our analysis is based on quantitative survey data of the school children concerning the robots and qualitative discussions with them. By comparing three different types of social robots, we found that presence can be differently understood and conceptualized with different robots, especially relating to their function and “aliveness.” Additionally, we found a strong difference when relating robots to personal relations to one’s own grandparents versus older adults in general. We found children’s perceptions of robots to be relatively positive, curious and exploratory and that they were quite reflective on their own grandparent having a robot. (shrink)