It is shown that in a linearly ordered MV-algebra A , the implication is unique if and only if the identity function is the unique De Morgan automorphism on A . Modulo categorical equivalence, our uniqueness criterion recalls Ohkuma's rigidness condition for totally ordered abelian groups. We also show that, if A is an Archimedean totally ordered MV-algebra, then each non-trivial De Morgan automorphism of the underlying involutive lattice of A yields a new implication on A , which is not (...) isomorphic to the original implication. (shrink)
Interest in republicanism as a political theory has burgeoned in recent years, but its implications for the understanding of law have remained largely unexplored. Legal Republicanism is the first book to offer a comprehensive, critical survey of the potential for creating republican accounts of fundamental issues in law and legal theory.
ANDREO, Igor Luis. Teologia da libertação e cultura política maia chiapaneca: O Congresso Indígena de 1974 e as raízes do Exército Zapatista de Libertação Nacional. São Paulo: Alameda, 2013, 313p. ISBN: 978 85 7216 618-8.
La ampulosidad que caracteriza los nombres de los trabajos filosóficos de nuestra época está ausente en el libro Esperanza y Utopía. Ernst Bloch desde América Latina; acertado título que recoge seis artículos de estudiosos de la obra del filósofo de Ludwigshafen. Título además programático que nos introduce convenientemente a lo que pretenden sus páginas: una visita al pensamiento del autor del Principio Esperanza desde la óptica latinoamericana. Se abre el libro con un prólogo de Michael Löwy, gran conocedor de la (...) filosofía del último judaísmo alemán, a la que ha dedicado varios libros. El profesor francés, además de narrar la forma en que conoció al viejo Bloch en Tubinga, ve en la obra de este pensador un intento de explorar filosóficamente el territorio ignoto del futuro. Sin embargo, contra una futurología ilustrada que intentaba predecir el curso de los acontecimientos históricos como un progreso constante hacia el bien y la felicidad, de un lado, y contra la ciencia ficción que se imagina estados ora ideales ora catastróficos por venir, por otro, Bloch viaja al pasado para descubrir, en la historia de la humanidad, los signos de las nobles esperanzas de una vida mejor. Descubrir el futuro en el pasado a través de las “promesas no cumplidas”2, es el gran mérito de su obra, según Löwy. (shrink)
Resumen La sociología de lo religioso se encarga de buscar los signos y los símbolos que se encuentran en constante pulsión en la realidad social. Su tarea consiste en explicar las diversas manifestaciones y dinámicas del fenómeno religioso que se expresan a través de las prácticas sociales y cómo dicho fenómeno está participando en la construcción y en la transformación de los distintos discursos . La religión, el lenguaje y la visión de mundo no escapan a los conflictos políticos, sociales (...) y culturales. En ese sentido proponemos un análisis del discurso profético del movimiento neo-zapatista y sus características globales en relación a la construcción de una sociedad más democrática, justa e igualitaria. El Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional es un referente importante dentro de los movimientos anti-sistémicos no sólo por sus planteamientos sociales y políticos sino por sus referencias simbólicas, utópicas, mesiánicas y milenaristas de ahí que sea necesario realizar una hermenéutica profunda de sus imágenes proféticas: lenguaje y performance . Palabras clave: modernidad; consciencia planetaria; emancipación; religiosidad Resumo A sociologia da Religião se encarrega de buscar os signos e símbolos que se encontram em constante pulsão na realidade social. Sua tarefa consiste em explicar as diversas manifestações e dinâmicas do fenômeno religioso que se expressam através de práticas sociais e como tal fenômeno está participando na construção e transformação dos distintos discursos. A religião, a linguagem e a visão do mundo não escapam dos conflitos políticos, sociais e culturais. Nesse sentido propomos uma análise do discurso profético do movimento neo-zapatista e suas características globais em relação à construção de uma sociedade mas democrática, justa e igualitária. O Éxercito Zapatista de Libertação Nacional é um referente importante dentro dos movimentos anti-sistêmicos não somente por seus planejamentos sociais e políticos senão por suas referências simbólicas, utópicas, messiânicas e milenaristas portanto, é necessário realizar uma hermenêutica profunda de suas imagens proféticas: linguagem e performance . Palavras-chave : modernidade; consciência planetária; emancipaç ã o; religiosidade.The main task of religious sociology is to look at signs and symbols that are in constant pulsation with social reality. The primary task of the above consists primarily of explaining diverse and dynamic manifestations of religious phenomena which are expressed through social practices and how such phenomena participate in the construction and transformation of the different political and cultural discourses. Religion, language and world-vision do not escape from political, social and cultural conflicts. It is in this sense that we propose an analysis of the global neo-Zapatista prophetic discourse and its global characteristics in regards to the construction of a more democratic society, righteous and egalitarian. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is an important referring within the anti-systemic movements not only its social and political expositions but also their symbolic, utopian, messianic and millenaries references; it is necessary to realize a deep hermeneutic of his prophetic images: language and performance. Key words : modernity, global consciousness, emancipation, religiousness. (shrink)
Presalt reservoirs of the Santos Basin accounted for more than 50% of Brazilian hydrocarbon production in the first two months of 2019. Its most important reservoirs are found in the Barra Velha Formation; thus understanding its genesis and geologic history is essential. This formation is composed of carbonates deposited in an alkaline lacustrine environment with a multiplicity of facies from boundstones and grainstones to mudstones. We have performed a sedimentary analysis based on the integration of sidewall core samples and well (...) logs from two wells coupled with seismic patterns discrimination to characterize the tectonic and depositional evolution of the Barra Velha Formation in a sector of the Outer High of the Santos Basin in this study. Our method initially consisted of the evaluation of well logs, aiming to identify shallowing and flooding upward cycles of the second and third orders for the paleoenvironmental conceptualization upper rift and sag phases. Then, we defined electrofacies through the integration of SWCs, gamma ray, and acoustic impedance logs using the crossplot approach. Finally, we described seismic patterns throughout the study area and correlated with results from well data analysis. Therefore, the Barra Velha Formation was subdivided into three zones: the lower, intermediate, and upper zones. Well 1 has a facies association characteristic of a proximal and stable environment during deposition, whereas well 2 initially presents in a distal environment sedimentation that evolves to a more proximal setting. This fact evidenced differences with respect to base-level variations indicating compartmentalization within the lacustrine environment of the upper rift and sag phase that corroborated with the detailed seismic pattern interpretation of the study area. (shrink)
Paunang Salita Ang kasalukuyang aklat ay produkto ng masigasig na pagsusumikap ng mga mag-aaral ng BA Kasaysayan sa Politeknikong Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, Sta. Mesa sa ilalim ng klase na Historiograpiya ni Dr. Zeus A. Salazar. Tinatangka nitong maitala para sa salinlahi ang mga kaganapan sa kanilang suplemental na klase tuwing Martes sa Bahay Escaler, ang tahanan ng kanilang Guro.
This article studies the mathematical properties of two systems that model Aristotle's original syllogistic and the relationship obtaining between them. These systems are Corcoran's natural deduction syllogistic and ?ukasiewicz's axiomatization of the syllogistic. We show that by translating the former into a first-order theory, which we call T RD, we can establish a precise relationship between the two systems. We prove within the framework of first-order logic a number of logical properties about T RD that bear upon the same properties (...) of the natural deduction counterpart ? that is, Corcoran's system. Moreover, the first-order logic framework that we work with allows us to understand how complicated the semantics of the syllogistic is in providing us with examples of bizarre, unexpected interpretations of the syllogistic rules. Finally, we provide a first attempt at finding the structure of that semantics, reducing the search to the characterization of the class of models of T RD. (shrink)
This paper examines the Hans Blumeberg’s philosophical program: the metaphorology. My intention is to show the importance of Blumenberg’s ideas into the current debate on the relations between philosophy and metaphor.
El objeto de este artículo es doble. Por una parte, examina el uso que Vives hace de la lengua y del lenguaje, y, por otra parte, indica sus aportaciones al campo de la traducción e interpretación. La diversidad temática presente en su obra hace que su persona sea un punto de referencia para diferentes campos científicos, entre ellos la Filología. Para Vives, tanto el acercamiento filológico, como el aprendizaje de la lengua no sólo deben tener en cuenta la lengua desde (...) un punto teórico, sino también sociocultural. Su especial interés por las lenguas le llevó a realizar un considerable esfuerzo filológico haciendo lecturas e introducciones de varios textos clásicos latinos y también griegos, y transmitiendo su opinión acerca de la forma de realizar versiones o interpretaciones. (shrink)
Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative deterministic sequences (e.g., (...) Lewicki, Hill & Bizot, 1988; Stadler, 1989), or by following the output of a probabilistic set of rules such as instantiated by noisy finite-state grammars (Cleeremans & McClelland, 1991; Jiménez, Mendéz & Cleeremans, 1996). Next, we focus on the processes involved in sequence representation and acquisition. We suggest that the sensitivity to the sequential structure observed in the probabilistic subparadigm can only be a result of the acquisition of a representation of the statistical constraints of the material, and that this sensitivity emerges through the operation of mechanisms that are well instantiated by connectionist models such as the Simple Recurrent Network (Elman, 1990; Cleeremans, 1993b). We present new simulation work meant to explore to what extent the model can also account for specific data obtained in a paradigmatic instance of deterministic, rule-based sequence learning task: Lewicki et al. (1988)'s situation. Finally, we report on the results of an experiment that compares learning on otherwise similar deterministic and probabilistic structures, and we show that learning of both types of structures is equivalent only under conditions that maximally hinder explicit acquisition. Taken together, these simulation and experimental data lend support to the claim that implicit learning in all three sequence learning subparadigms can amount to a form of statistical sequence learning. They also suggest that distinguishing among several theories of sequence representation and acquisition may require us to analize the data in great detail. Hopefully, however, some truth can be found in such details.. (shrink)
El comentario se concentra en la práctica del voto como mecanismo de decisión y en las estrategias de disolución de las fuerzas antidemocráticas. El que las prácticas efectivas en ambos casos no difieran parece redundar en un déficit para el deliberacionismo, el cual, a diferencia del agonismo, no puede justificar claramente dichas prácticas. A su vez, se detiene en las diferencias epistemológicas que ambas posiciones presentan. The discussion concentrates on two aspects: the practice of voting as a decision mechanism and (...) the strategies for the dissolution of the anti-democratic forces. The fact that effective practices in both cases do not differ leads to a deficit for deliberationism, which, unlike agonism, seems to not be able to clearly justify such practices from its theoretical position. The discussion also pays attention to the differences between the epistemological assumptions that sustain both positions. (shrink)
Deontological evidentialism is the claim that we ought to form and maintain our beliefs in accordance with our evidence. In this paper, I criticize two arguments in its defense. I begin by discussing Berit Broogard’s use of the distinction between narrow-scope and wide-scope requirements against W.K. Clifford’s moral defense of. I then use this very distinction against a defense of inspired by Stephen Grimm’s more recent claims about the moral source of epistemic normativity. I use this distinction once again to (...) argue that Hilary Kornblith’s criticism of Richard Feldman’s defense of is incomplete. Finally, I argue that Feldman’s defense is insensitive to the relation between normative requirements and privileged values: values that have normative authority over us. (shrink)
In this paper I explore alternative ways of addressing the infinite regress problem of inference, as it was depicted in Lewis Carroll’s ‘What the Tortoise said to Achilles’. Roughly put, the problem is that if a claim to the effect that one’s premises give support to one’s conclusion must itself be part of one’s premises, then an infinite regress of reasons ensues. I discuss some recent attempts to solve that problem, but I find all of them to be wanting. Those (...) attempts either require the reasoner to believe that her premises give support to her conclusion, or to take her premises to give support to her conclusion, where taking is not a doxastic attitude. I conclude that, on the face of the failure of those attempts to solve the problem, there is a strong prima facie case for allowing inference to be blind. (shrink)
There is a death by suicide in the world every 40 seconds, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for 15–29-year-olds. Experts say that one of the best ways to prevent suicide is for those in distress to hear from people who care about them. Facebook is in a unique position—through its support for networks and friendships on the site—to help connect a person in these difficult situations with people who can support them. Connecting people with the resources (...) they need is part of Facebook’s ongoing efforts to help build a safe community inside and outside of Facebook. This article provides a brief overview of how Facebook’s work to develop suicide prevention tools started and evolved, and the ethical considerations which surfaced during the process in the form of concrete product decisions around the implementation of these tools. This article is structured into three sections. Section 1 reviews what has been done in this space and lists and briefly describes other suicide prevention apps and tools. Section 2 describes Facebook’s overall approach to suicide prevention. Here, we’ll delve first into how that approach originated and how it was influenced by the external community’s proactive interactions with Facebook, highlighting our unique position to help address the problem. Afterwards, we’ll explain how that approach evolved, describing its various stages and iterations: understanding, reactive reporting, queue prioritization, and proactive reporting. This section describes the tools and resources Facebook has developed for people who may be at risk. Particular attention is devoted to the use of ArtificiaI Intelligence and Machine Learning to detect posts or live videos where someone might be expressing thoughts of suicide. Section 3 will elaborate on the ethical questions addressed when developing our approach and when making concrete product decisions to implement our suicide prevention tools. In this last section, we’ll expound the competing values and interests that were at stake during the product development process, and how we reached ethical balances between them. (shrink)
Bribery has previously been viewed as a two-party transaction between the bribe-offerer and the bribe-taker. But there is a third party: the one who has a prior claim on the bribe-taker's loyalty. Breaking the first contract in response to the offer of a bribe is alienation of agency (a category that strictly includes bribes): alienation of agency is the additional immorality of bribery beyond any immorality of the act solicited by the bribe.
Deontological evidentialism is the claim that S ought to form or maintain S’s beliefs in accordance with S’s evidence. A promising argument for this view turns on the premise that consideration c is a normative reason for S to form or maintain a belief that p only if c is evidence that p is true. In this paper, I discuss the surprising relation between a recently influential argument for this key premise and the principle that ought implies can. I argue (...) that anyone who antecedently accepts or rejects this principle already has a reason to resist either this argument’s premises or its role in support of deontological evidentialism. (shrink)