Dans le présent article, il s’agit de reconsidérer le rapport entre pyrrhonisme et scepticisme académicien dans Les Essais de Montaigne, en posant l’hypothèse que le philosophe aurait, dès le début de sa réflexion, perçu ces deux tendances sceptiques comme des philosophies très proches, voire compatibles, malgré leurs divergences importantes. Son intérêt croissant pour les Academica de Cicéron, dans les versions postérieures des Essais, le conduirait donc non seulement à transformer son propre scepticisme (qu’il découvre de plus en plus proche de (...) celui de Cicéron), mais aussi à affiner son jugement sur les rapports entre les deux philosophies. En conclusion, l’article évoque brièvement ce qu’apportent ces éléments dans la perspective d’une nouvelle vision des relations entre Montaigne et Cicéron. (shrink)
Este artigo examina a concepção de História Natural de Francis Bacon a partir de sua relação com literatura cética discutida no século XVI. Mais exatamente, procura mostrar que essa obra representa uma radicalização de uma tendência naturalista presente no tratamento cético da noção de “milagre”, tal como reconhecível no De Divinatione, de Cícero, e nos Ensaios de Montaigne, dentre outras obras.
Neste artigo nos apoiamos em testemunhos diversos de Francis Bacon a respeito da relação entre sua filosofia e o ceticismo filosófico para estender o exame desse ponto ao âmbito de sua ?Doutrina dos Ídolos?. Pretendemos mostrar que, se por um lado as semelhanças revelam-se aí significativas , pode-se também observar, de outra parte, que já nessa Doutrina Bacon prepara uma via diversa da que atribui aos céticos, tanto em vista do modo como compreende a noção de natureza humana, como do (...) encadeamento metódico a que ele submete o material que toma dos céticos. (shrink)
Neste artigo, propomos uma leitura do argumento cartesiano do sonho segundo a qual ele deveria ser analisado como um entimema, isto é, como um argumento retórico portador de premissas elípticas. Mais precisamente, o princípio da dúvida hiperbólica, embora formulado no início das Meditações, desempenharia um papel crucial na inferência contida nesse argumento, que o leitor comum que Descartes teria em mente tende a desconsiderar. Tentamos mostrar que este ponto poderia nos propiciar não apenas uma melhor compreensão do papel do argumento (...) nas Meditações, mas uma diferente compreensão da relação entre a filosofia cartesiana e a tradição cética. (shrink)
Richard Popkin’s seminal study on the revival of skepticism from the late Renaissance onwards gave a prominent role to Pyrrhonism, rediscovered through the translation of Sextus Empiricus’s writings into Latin and their usage in Michel de Montaigne’s Essais, among other works. Maia Neto’s new book aims to reassess this interpretation, claiming that Montaigne’s disciple, Pierre Charron, in his La sagesse, displayed a distinctively Academic skeptical wisdom that became central in the philosophical debate of the period. Such wisdom, according to Maia (...) Neto, is conceived as refraining from “opinion” as a way of avoiding error, and thereby arriving at “intellectual integrity,” that is, human perfection insofar... (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é examinar como Montaigne retoma, na sua crítica das filosofias morais e, especialmente, da existência de leis naturais, a proposta por Sexto Empírico acerca do mesmo tema ao final das Hipotiposes Pirronianas. Pretendo mostrar que, para além das consideráveis similaridades, o modo como Montaigne relaciona razão, natureza e costume, confere um perfil próprio à sua reconstrução do pirronismo, particularmente visível na sua compreensão da oposição entre critério de verdade e critério de ação. Igualmente, sustento que essa (...) distinção, proveniente do pirronismo, ocupará um lugar central na sua reflexão moral. The aim of this paper is to investigate how Montaigne adopts, in his own discussion of moral philosophies (and, in particular, of the proponents of natural laws), Sextus Empiricus' criticism on the same topic, as exposed in his Outlines of Pyrrhonism. I want to show that, besides the deep similarities we can find between them, Montaigne's peculiarities show themselves throughout his way of dealing with relations between reason, costume and nature, as well as in his interpretation of the opposition between a criterion of truth and a practical criterion. I maintain also that this Pyrrhonism notion occupies a prominent place in his moral reflections. (shrink)
First published in 1968. Aesthetics is a living debate of issues concerning the concepts involved in speaking about the arts and the appreciation and creation of art works. But contemporary aesthetics is seriously impoverished if it forgets to take issue or come to terms with its own past. Discovering how problems first arose, and tracing their subsequent careers, can suggest perspectives for contemporary analysis in aesthetics. This book by Eva Schaper examines the views of Plato and Aristotle at the very (...) beginning of philosophical reflection on the nature and purpose of art. Both thinkers, in raising questions and offering solutions, contributed formative ideas which are still an essential part of our common stock of aesthetic notions. This title will be of interest to students of philosophy. (shrink)
The idea of narrative has been widely discussed in the recent health care literature, including nursing, and has been portrayed as a resource for both clinical work and research studies. However, the use of the term 'narrative' is inconsistent, and various assumptions are made about the nature (and functions) of narrative: narrative as a naive account of events; narrative as the source of 'subjective truth'; narrative as intrinsically fictional; and narrative as a mode of explanation. All these assumptions have left (...) their mark on the nursing literature, and all of them (in our view) are misconceived. Here, we argue that a failure to distinguish between 'narrative' and 'story' is partly responsible for these misconceptions, and we offer an analysis that shows why the distinction between them is essential. In doing so, we borrow the concept of 'narrativity' from literary criticism. Narrativity is something that a text has degrees of, and our proposal is that the elements of narrativity can be 'sorted' roughly into a continuum, at the 'high narrativity' end of which we find 'story'. On our account, 'story' is an interweaving of plot and character, whose organization is designed to elicit a certain emotional response from the reader, while 'narrative' refers to the sequence of events and the (claimed) causal connections between them. We suggest that it is important not to confuse the emotional persuasiveness of the 'story' with the objective accuracy of the 'narrative', and to this end we recommend what might be called 'narrative vigilance'. There is nothing intrinsically authentic, or sacrosanct, or emancipatory, or paradigmatic about narrative itself, even though the recent health care literature has had a marked tendency to romanticize it. (shrink)
A decomposition model of Net Final Values (NFV), named Systemic Value Added (SVA), is proposed for decision-making purposes, based on a systemic approach introduced in Magni [Magni, C. A. (2003), Bulletin of Economic Research 55(2), 149–176; Magni, C. A. (2004) Economic Modelling 21, 595–617]. The model translates the notion of excess profit giving formal expression to a counterfactual alternative available to the decision maker. Relations with other decomposition models are studied, among which Stewart’s [Stewart, G.B. (1991), The Quest for Value: (...) The EVA™ Management Guide, Harper Collins, Publishers Inc]. The index here introduced differs from Stewart’s Economic Value Added (EVA) in that it rests on a different interpretation of the notion of excess profit and is formally connected with the EVA model by means of a shadow project. The SVA is formally and conceptually threefold, in that it is economic, financial, accounting-flavoured. Some results are offered, providing sufficient and necessary conditions for decomposing NFV. Relations between a project’s SVA and its shadow project’s EVA are shown, all results of Pressacco and Stucchi [Pressacco, F. and Stucchi, P. (1997), Rivista di Matematica per le Scienze Economiche e Sociali 20, 165–185] are proved by making use of the systemic approach and the shadow counterparts of those results are also shown. (shrink)
This article studies the etiquette diffusion and the reform of behavior during the pastoral visit of D. Carlos Luiz D'Amour, south of the Diocese of Cuiabá, in 1886. The source is the diary written by the private secretary Canon Bento Severiano da Luz. In such diary, the paths of the party were narrated as well as its major events and achievements, having the bishop as the central character. One of the objectives of the trip was to spread new patterns (...) of behavior, feelings and etiquette, civilize Mato Grosso and establish a good Catholic society. The public appearances of the bishop had symbolic functions, i.e, the political and religious affirmation of the episcopal power in society, creating a sacred sphere embodied in his person. D. Carlos, in the game of power relations, sees himself compelled to submit to the etiquette as well as to pressure the diocesans to do the same. Every detail of the etiquette and the ceremonial has fulfilled the function of ostentatious self-representation. His suppression has abolished distances, the social distinctions and obliterated his authority and power. (shrink)
This article questions the continued use and application of EVA® (economic value added) because it is epistemologically a non-sequitur, fails to satisfy the requirements of sound research methodology in terms of being a reliable and valid metric, and is unlikely to satisfy the requirements of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. In the light of these insufficiencies, the continued use of EVA® is ethically questionable, and moreover in time is likely to result in class actions.
Explorando possibilidades de interpretação da obra do sociólogo Gilberto Freyre (1900-1987) e do comunicólogo Luiz Beltrão de Andrade e Lima (1918-1986) e inspirados pelos princípios da sociologia da ciência, pretendemos indicar pontos em que a obra e o pensamento dos dois autores se aproximam e/ou se distanciam.
This paper offers a comparative study of the decisive moment in the biblical and quranic story of Eve, generally perceived as having been the violation of the covenant made with the Creator. According to it, Adam and Eve were forbidden to approach the tree or to eat from its fruit, a fact that is generally perceived as having been meant to establish common and different structural elements. The violation of the divine order did not come out of nowhere; it had (...) its causes and consequences. The triple T divides the violation into three stages. In the first one, which is the temptation, we encounter the incitement and the initiation to the transgressor incident. Then, in the transgression, we find out, how the disobedience happened. Finally, comes the tragedy, which includes the results and the consequences. (shrink)
Eva Feder Kittay combines a philosopher’s appeal to logic and an advocate’s call for action. Over the years she has written cogently about theories of caregiving and dependence, shared her experiences as a parent of a disabled child, and now adds what she has learned about caring for elderly relatives. In this commentary I want to clarify a few points in her far-ranging essay. I also want to suggest broadening her focus on paying for long-term care to include reforming the (...) long-term care system. Finally, I have reservations about the high standards she sets for reciprocity between caregivers and care recipients. While Kittay sees similarities (as well as differences) in the needs of children and young adults .. (shrink)
How do we theorize the experiences of caregivers abused by their children with autism without intensifying stigma toward disability? Eva Kittay emphasizes examples of extreme vulnerability to overturn myths of independence, but she ignores the possibility that dependents with disabilities may be vulnerable and aggressive. Instead, her work over-emphasizes caregivers' capabilities and the constancy of disabled dependents' vulnerability. I turn to Judith Butler's ethics and her conception of the self as opaque to rethink care amid conflict. Person-centered planning approaches, pioneered (...) by disability rights activists, merge Butler's analysis of opacity with Kittay's work on embodied care, while also inviting a broader network of people to both interpret needs and change communities. By expanding our conceptions of dependency, feminist disability studies can continue the aim of both Kittay and Butler: to humanize unintelligible lives. (shrink)
According to a testimony of Sextus Empiricus's Against the Physicists, Epicurus began to study philosophy because his grammar teacher, dealing with the birth of Chaos in Hesiod's Theogony, was not able to explain what the cause and origin of Chaos were. If this evidence is reliable, the question of disorder was extremely significant for Epicurean philosophy. Usually, ancient pagan and Christian critics of materialistic philosophies accused Democritus and Epicurus of denying the power of providence. To Dante, Democritus is the philosopher (...) who 'l mondo a caso pone in the sense that, according to the Atomist, the world derives from chance.Eva Marie Noller's book—specifically devoted... (shrink)
The body of Eva in Thomas Aquinas The constitution of the first female body or the body of Eva presents several physical and metaphysical problems, problems that have gone through the centuries and reach the present, generating social and cultural consequences for women. The non-existence of parents demands from Aquino answers that go beyond the anthropological and biological and lead to the search of philosophical answers intertwined with the theological ones. Thomas Aquinas provides rational answers although the background is of (...) faith, and even, with literal interpretations of the Sacred Scriptures now abandoned. The Aquinate makes an intellectual effort to find answers in a rational field because the matter of the body of the first woman brings difficulties for its elucidation and understanding. As in other parts of his extensive work, Thomas Aquinas, follows the biological and physical works of Aristotle. Although the Aristotelian background is in line with Christian thought, Aquinas shows his extraordinary capacity for synthesis between the faith received and reason argued, between revelation and the principles of reason. (shrink)
We address problems (that have since been addressed) in a proofs-version of a paper by Eva, Hartmann and Rad, who where attempting to justify the Kullback-Leibler divergence minimization solution to van Fraassen’s Judy Benjamin problem.
: In this commentary on Eva Feder Kittay's Love's Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency, I focus on Kittay's dependency theory. I apply this theory to an analysis of women's inadequate access to high-quality, cost-effective healthcare. I conclude that while quandaries remain unresolved, including getting men to do their share of dependency work, Kittay's book is an important and original contribution to feminist healthcare ethics and the development of a normative feminist ethic of care.
The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the different ways in which the young Max Horkheimer received Schopenhauer’s philosophy in his early writings Aus der Pubertät. The text analysis reveals that the young Horkheimer adopted during the 1914-1916 period a romantic perspective and a more illuministic one in the 1917-1918 period. This paper specifically focuses on a novel from the first period, Eva, from which it appears that Horkheimer subscribed to Schopenhauer’s doctrine of the aesthetical genius in an (...) original way. (shrink)
Déjà des questions d'actualité avaient conduit Eva Cantarella à mener des enquêtes sur l'histoire des femmes, sur le statut de l'homosexualité dans l'Antiquité gréco-romaine. La démarche est la même dans ce dernier ouvrage écrit au début des années 1990 et provoqué par l'énigme de la société nord-américaine qui, tenue pour un des pays les plus démocratiques de la planète, n'en pratique pas moins encore de nos jours la peine de mort. Non que le passé explique de manière univoque le prés..
Eva Buddeberg: Verantwortung im Diskurs: Grundlinien einer rekonstruktiv-hermeneutischen Konzeption moralischer Verantwortung im Anschluss an Hans Jonas, Karl-Otto Apel und Emmanuel Lévinas Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s10677-012-9366-3 Authors Norbert Anwander, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Philosophie, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany Journal Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Online ISSN 1572-8447 Print ISSN 1386-2820.
On 29 March 2017, the United Kingdom Government notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the European Union legal order. On 31 January 2020, the UK entered a transition period, during which it remains bound to the EU Treaty Framework. This review essay examines the near three-year period of the UK’s attempted cessation from the EU. It argues that what is most striking about the Brexit case is that it reveals the extent to which EU member states (...) remain bound by ideologies and tropes developed during the era of European colonisation—even in their relationship with each other. The review essay draws upon Brenna Bhandar’s Colonial lives of property: Law, Land and racial regimes of ownership, Danny Dorling and Sally Tomlinson’s Rule Britannia: Brexit and the end of empire, and Eva Mackey’s Unsettled expectations: Uncertainty, land and settler decolonization to show how Brexit bears upon themes that have long preoccupied postcolonial scholars working in a variety of contexts and geographical locations. From the Brexit example, the review article highlights the persistence of colonial projects of invention and the appropriative techniques and tropes that attend these and, above all, it highlights the necessity of decolonial violence. (shrink)
O artigo propõe abordar a construção da imagem de Isabel, a Católica aproximando Luiz de França foi um dos mais significativos mestres de maracatu nação. Dirigiu e articulou o maracatu Nação Leão Coroado, entre os anos de 1950 até sua morte, em 1997. Ainda hoje a sua memória é reivindicada por grupos de maracatus existentes no Recife. Tal questão indica diferentes aspectos nos processos de construção das memórias, e da forma como estas são usadas no presente. Este artigo objetiva (...) discutir e analisar as performances de Luiz de França, bem como suas estratégias cotidianas a partir das memórias dos maracatuzeiros pernambucanos. Entendendo a memória como fruto dos processos históricos, também é objetivo deste trabalho analisar as diferentes formas como a memória é construída, trazendo à tona questões de ordem teórico-epistemológica a respeito da cultura negra, dos maracatus e dos maracatuzeiros recifenses. (shrink)
As Eva Schaper herself suggests, since linguistic analysis opted against the possibility of aesthetic theory some years ago, there has been a significant neglect of discussions of aesthetics. This collection does much to reverse the trend and in doing so, I think, makes a definite move toward conciliation with the speculative tradition. Many fundamental metaphysical issues are raised here. For this reason the book is important for both the analytical and speculative traditions.
This article examines the relationship between the philosophical marginalisation of pessimism in Joshua Foa Dienstag's Pessimism: Philosophy, Ethic, Spirit (2006) and the concept of mimesis in the work of Luiz Costa Lima, particularly in his Control of the Imaginary (1988). My aim is threefold: (1) to compare the shared background and peripheral contexts of Dienstag's and Costa Lima's work; (2) to discuss the significance of Cervantes's Don Quixote in this comparative analysis; and (3) to characterise Costa Lima's thinking vis-à-vis (...) conventional institutional thinking. The nature of my subject requires a narrative approach in which the writer remains on the margin of the material, bringing the reader into the same position; to proceed otherwise, as articles conventionally do, would be to adopt a position of authority, institutionality, and hierarchy that is at odds with the material. It is a position that avers conclusions and prefers ongoing questioning. (shrink)
All'origine di questo scritto vi è un'immagine: l'idea di Eva come traduzione di Adamo. Per creare Eva è necessario tradurre Adamo. Intraducibilità e irriducibilità come condizione stessa, e non limite, della parola umana declinata nei suoi diversi e innumerevoli linguaggi.
This paper investigates the assertions that EVA is more highly associated with shareholder wealth and firm values than are traditional performance measures. Two commonly used value-based performance metrics namely, Total Shareholder Return (TSR) and Tobin's Q were also considered to highlight the value-relevance of EVA vis-a-vis these measures in predicting shareholder wealth. Using a panel sample of about 1000 American firms over the period 1990 2002, the study found compelling evidence consistent with the notion that EVA outperforms other traditional performance (...) measures in explaining shareholder wealth. Value-relevance tests reveal EVA to be more highly associated with shareholder wealth than TSR and Tobin's Q. The incremental value-relevance tests have also suggested that EVA possesses the largest explanatory power over TSR and Tobin's Q. These results conclusively support the claims made by EVA proponents and further support the potential usefulness of EVA metric for internal and external performance measurement. (shrink)
In §1 I explain that my rejection of possible states of affairs as a basis for an account of falsity is not part of a general rejection of modal notions but is a rejection of possible and impossible entities of any sort. I then show that my account of senses and of propositions is indeed a modal account. In §2 I examine some of Wittgenstein’s ideas about falsity, as presented by Luiz Carlos, in relation to my account of falsity (...) and negation. In §3 I discuss the modal aspects of identification for propositions. (shrink)
The theory PA(aa), which is Peano Arithmetic in the context of stationary logic, is shown to be consistent. Moreover, the first-order theory of the class of finitely determinate models of PA(aa) is characterized.
The essays in this collection, though ranging in their keys from the teacherly to the scholarly, are united by their search for the deepest questions Plato gives us. The title essay on the Republic is a paradigm case, exploring with a mix of speculative daring and Socratic pleasure in aporia the ring structure of the dialogue, the emergent perspective of a "knowing soul," dianoetic eikasia, and the implicit presence of the One and the Dyad in the metaphysical figures of the (...) central books. See also, especially, the two essays on the Phaedo's legacy of questions and the Minotaurs that threaten it. (shrink)
Let us start with a Chicago story. Recently it was announced that the Chicago Public School System, which services some 435,000 students, will have iis budger cut next year by $600 million. This will require, among other things, increasing class sizes in the elementary schools to thirty five students, and making major cuts in non-varsity sports, kindergartens, after-school programs, summer programs, and magnet, Montessori and gifted schools.