Results for 'Lyle S. Maynard'

999 found
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  1.  30
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Brian J. Spittle, Samuel M. Vinocur, Virginia Underwood, Robert L. Leight, L. Glenn Smith, Harold M. Bergsma, Robert H. Graham, William M. Bart, George D. Dalin, Lyle S. Maynard, Fred Drewe, Theodore Hutchcroft, Francesco Cordasco, Frank Andrews Stone, Roy R. Nasstrom, Edward B. Goellner, Margaret Gillett, Robert E. Belding, Kenneth V. Lottich & Arden W. Holland - 1981 - Educational Studies 12 (4):431-459.
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  2.  24
    An Investigation of Pupil Perceptions of Mixed-Ability Grouping to Enhance Literacy in Children Aged 9-10.S. Lyle - 1999 - Educational Studies 25 (3):283-296.
    This study is based on interviews with two groups of primary school children after they had completed a project in which children were taught in mixed-ability and mixed-gender groups with the purpose of improving their literacy. It examines the organisation of the children and the collaborative style of learning they were engaged in. Presentation of findings take the form of transcribed extracts from the group interviews. In analysing the children's comments, it is argued that mixed-ability teaching provides a setting in (...)
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  3.  51
    John Maynard Smith’s Notion of Animal Signals.Ulrich E. Stegmann - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):1011-1025.
    This paper explores John Maynard Smith’s conceptual work on animal signals. Maynard Smith defined animal signals as traits that (1) change another organism’s behaviour while benefiting the sender, that (2) are evolved for this function, and that (3) have their effects through the evolved response of the receiver. Like many ethologists, Maynard Smith assumed that animal signals convey semantic information. Yet his definition of animal signals remains silent on the nature of semantic information and on the conditions (...)
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  4.  18
    Explanation in Biology: Explanation in Biology: John Maynard Smith.John Maynard Smith - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 27:65-72.
    During the war, I worked in aircraft design. About a year after D-day, an exhibition was arranged at Farnborough of the mass of German equipment that had been captured, including the doodlebug and the V2 rocket. I and a friend spent a fascinating two days wandering round the exhibits. The questions that kept arising were ‘Why did they make it like that?’, or, equivalently ‘I wonder what that is for?’ We were particularly puzzled by a gyroscope in the control system (...)
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  5.  48
    The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art From Brunelleschi to SeuratPerspective as Symbolic Form.Patrick Maynard, Martin Kemp, Erwin Panofsky & Christopher S. Wood - 1994 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 52 (2):243.
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  6.  15
    The Faunistic Diversity of Spiders of the Savanna Biome in South Africa.S. F. Foord, A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman, C. R. Haddad, L. N. Lotz & R. Lyle - 2011 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 66 (3):170-201.
  7.  31
    The Genetics of Language.Lyle Jenkins - 1979 - Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (1):105 - 119.
    Within the context of the study of the genetics of language, Chomskian laws of grammar, such as theStructure-dependence Condition and theA over A Condition, may be usefully regarded to have a status similar to that of Mendelian Laws in classical genetics. In both the case of Chomsky's Laws and Mendel's Laws, formal genetic principles are postulated which abstract away from the physical mechanisms involved and in both cases certain apparent counterexamples mirror a more complex underlying genetic organisation.
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  8.  35
    John Maynard Smith’s Typology of Animal Signals: A View From Semiotics.Timo Maran - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (3/4):477-495.
    Approaches to animal communication have for the most part been quite different in semiotics and evolutionary biology. In this context the writings of a leading evolutionary biologist who has also been attracted to semiotics — John Maynard Smith — are an interesting exception and object of study. The present article focuses on the use and adaptation of semiotic terminology in Maynard Smith’s works with reference to general theoretical premises both in semiotics and evolutionary biology. In developing a typology (...)
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  9. John Maynard Smith and the Natural Philosophy of␣Adaptation.Alirio Rosales - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):1027-1040.
    One of the most remarkable aspects of John Maynard Smith’s work was the fact that he devoted time both to doing science and to reflecting philosophically upon its methods and concepts. In this paper I offer a philosophical analysis of Maynard Smith’s approach to modelling phenotypic evolution in relation to three main themes. The first concerns the type of scientific understanding that ESS and optimality models give us. The second concerns the causal–historical aspect of stability analyses of adaptation. (...)
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  10.  77
    Maynard Smith on the Levels of Selection Question.Samir Okasha - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):989-1010.
    The levels of selection problem was central to Maynard Smith’s work throughout his career. This paper traces Maynard Smith’s views on the levels of selection, from his objections to group selection in the 1960s to his concern with the major evolutionary transitions in the 1990s. The relations between Maynard Smith’s position and those of Hamilton and G.C. Williams are explored, as is Maynard Smith’s dislike of the Price equation approach to multi-level selection. Maynard Smith’s account (...)
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  11.  17
    Perspective's Places.Patrick Maynard - 1996 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 54 (1):23-40.
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  12.  49
    Maynard Smith, Optimization, and Evolution.Sahotra Sarkar - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):951-966.
    Maynard Smith’s defenses of adaptationism and of the value of optimization theory in evolutionary biology are both criticized. His defense does not adequately respond to the criticism of adaptationism by Gould and Lewontin. It is also argued here that natural selection cannot be interpreted as an optimization process if the objective function to be optimized is either (i) interpretable as a fitness, or (ii) correlated with the mean population fitness. This result holds even if fitnesses are frequency-independent; the problem (...)
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  13.  24
    Game Theory and the Evolution of Behaviour.J. Maynard Smith - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):95.
  14. Framing Cruelty: The Construction of Duck Shooting as a Social Problem.Lyle Munro - 1997 - Society and Animals 5 (2):137-154.
    Australia's Coalition Against Duck Shooting sees duck-shooting as a social problem and as an injustice with moral, legal and environmental consequences. The small animal liberationist group has succeeded in dramatically reducing the numbers of duck shooters in Victoria, which is the home of duck-shooting in Australia. The Coalition's framing work with the public via the electronic media involves three parts: a diagnosis , a prognosis and a motivational frame , all of which construct hunting as a cruel, antisocial blood sport (...)
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  15. Everett's “Many-Worlds” Proposal.Brett Maynard Bevers - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):3-12.
    Hugh Everett III proposed that a quantum measurement can be treated as an interaction that correlates microscopic and macroscopic systems—particularly when the experimenter herself is included among those macroscopic systems. It has been difficult, however, to determine precisely what this proposal amounts to. Almost without exception, commentators have held that there are ambiguities in Everett’s theory of measurement that result from significant—even embarrassing—omissions. In the present paper, we resist the conclusion that Everett’s proposal is incomplete, and we develop a close (...)
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  16.  15
    South African National Survey of Arachnida : Review of Current Knowledge, Constraints and Future Needs for Documenting Spider Diversity. [REVIEW]A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman, C. R. Haddad, S. H. Foord, R. Lyle, L. N. Lotz & P. Marais - 2015 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 70 (3):245-275.
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  17.  22
    Offering and Soliciting Collaboration in Multi-Party Disputes Among Children (and Other Humans).Douglas W. Maynard - 1986 - Human Studies 9 (2-3):261 - 285.
    This paper has aimed to remedy a neglect of multi-party disputes by addressing how those involved in a two-party argument may collaborate with others who are co-present. Collaboration is a complex phenomenon. In the first place, we have seen that disputes, although initially produced by two parties, do not consist simply of two sides. Rather, given one party's displayed position, stance, or claim, another party can produce opposition by simply aligning against that position or by aligning with a counterposition. This (...)
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  18.  11
    Beethoven's Ninth Symphony: The Sense of an Ending.Maynard Solomon - 1991 - Critical Inquiry 17 (2):289-305.
    The question of what constitutes a finished work is thrown open, reminding us that in certain of his completed autographs Beethoven continued the process that he normally reserved for the earlier stages of composition, setting out further choices, possibilities, and interchangeabilities, including radical alterations in goal as well as detail. In particular, the revision of movement endings was one of his long-standing preoccupations. In works of his middle period, Emil Platen observed, Beethoven continued to make essential alterations in the closing (...)
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  19.  26
    ‘Neuroaesthetics’, Gombrich, and Depiction.Patrick Maynard - 2016 - British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (2):191-201.
    For philosophical readers, a review of biology Nobel laureate Eric R. Kandel’s Age of Insight historical thesis, that today’s ‘neuroaesthetics’ is a continuation of Vienna’s great contributions to modernism from 1900 on, becomes a ‘critical study’, by closely examining Kandel’s valuable account of E.H. Gombrich’s psychology, then, broadly, his own case for the validity of ‘neuroaesthetics’. The article much credits Kandel for recognising and explaining—unlike most philosophers, with their epistemological and metaphysical perspectives—why Gombrich’s Art and Illusion is subtitled ‘Psychology’, since (...)
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  20.  24
    From Vilification to Accommodation: Making a Common Cause Movement.Lyle Munro - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (1):46-57.
    The history of the vivisection debate is a case study in the use of vilification not unlike its rhetorical use by adversaries in the pro-life/pro-choice controversy. According to Vanderford, vilification in that debate serves a number of functions: to identify adversaries as ; to cast opponents in an exclusively negative light; to attribute diabolical motives to one's adversaries; and to magnify the opposition's power as an enemy capable of doing great evil. In the vivisection debate, both sides have attempted to (...)
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  21.  13
    Caring About Blood, Flesh, and Pain:Women's Standing in the Animal Protection Movement.Lyle Munro - 2001 - Society and Animals 9 (1):43-61.
    Using the results of a survey of animal rights activists, advocates, and supporters, the paper reveals much more convergence than divergence of attitudes and actions by male and female animal protectionists. Analysis of the divergence suggests that the differences between men and women in the movement are contingent upon such things as early socialization, gendered work and leisure patterns, affinity with companion animals, ambivalence about science, and a history of opposition to nonhuman animal abuse by generations of female activists and (...)
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  22.  42
    Talbot's Technologies: Photographic Depiction, Detection, and Reproduction.Patrick Maynard - 1989 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47 (3):263-276.
    Philosophy's only celebration of photography's 150th, the long-neglected philosophical job of clarification: drawing basic distinctions and defining basic conceptions, including photographic depiction, photographic detection, 'photograph of', 'documentary'. More than a lexicon, it explains why photography is important, by historically characterizing it through its uses for depiction, detection, reproduction, all of which have shaped the modern world. By consideration of it as 'mechanical', the paper explains photography's differences from practices with which it shares these functions. Happy birthday, photography.
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  23. Contesting Moral Capital in Campaigns Against Animal Liberation.Lyle Munro - 1999 - Society and Animals 7 (1):35-53.
    This article addresses a countermovement to the animal liberation movement and its campaigns against vivisection, factory farming, and recreational hunting in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. As moderate welfarists, pragmatic animal liberationists , and radical abolitionists who advocate animal rights, animal protectionists campaign for animals. The countermovement defends acts that animal protectionists decry. Meanwhile, sociologists accord little study to interplay between the movements . In Buechler's and Cylke's collection of 34 papers on social movements , only one (...)
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  24.  7
    Making Meaning: The Voices of Children Talking About a Dramatised Story.Susan Lyle - 1996 - Educational Studies 22 (1):83-97.
    This study is drawn from nine case‐studies of Years 5 and 6 children engaged in classroom discussion following a dramatised story. It examines the organisation of the discussions and the role of the teacher in facilitating them. Presentation of classroom transcripts provides an insight into the complex process of meaning‐building which children engage in through dialogue with each other. The teaching strategy used is a Community of Inquiry, which aims to help children think both critically and creatively. In describing the (...)
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  25.  5
    IBM's Early Computers. Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, Emerson W. Pugh.Michael S. Mahoney - 1987 - Isis 78 (1):114-115.
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  26.  24
    Should We Reject Supervenience Analyses of Laws, Chance, and Causation?Lyle Zynda - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (4):587-592.
    Essay review of John Carroll's book, _Laws of Nature_.
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  27.  11
    How Conservative Are Evolutionary Anthropologists?Henry F. Lyle Iii & Eric A. Smith - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (3):306-322.
    The application of evolutionary theory to human behavior has elicited a variety of critiques, some of which charge that this approach expresses or encourages conservative or reactionary political agendas. In a survey of graduate students in psychology, Tybur, Miller, and Gangestad (Human Nature, 18, 313–328, 2007) found that the political attitudes of those who use an evolutionary approach did not differ from those of other psychology grad students. Here, we present results from a directed online survey of a broad sample (...)
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  28.  6
    Everett's “Many-Worlds” Proposal.Brett Maynard Bevers - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):3-12.
    Hugh Everett III proposed that a quantum measurement can be treated as an interaction that correlates microscopic and macroscopic systems—particularly when the experimenter herself is included among those macroscopic systems. It has been difficult, however, to determine precisely what this proposal amounts to. Almost without exception, commentators have held that there are ambiguities in Everett’s theory of measurement that result from significant—even embarrassing—omissions. In the present paper, we resist the conclusion that Everett’s proposal is incomplete, and we develop a close (...)
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  29.  27
    Policing Transnational Commerce: Global Awareness in the Margins of Morality. [REVIEW]Michael L. Maynard - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (1):17-27.
    Transnationals operate in what may be called the margins of morality because the historical, cultural, and governmental mores of the world''s nation-states are not uniform. There is a gray area of ethical judgment where the standards of the transnational''s home country differ substantially from those of the host country. Following the argument of institutional theory in providing stability and meaning to social behavior, in matters of moral conduct the transnational is likely to yield to at least four policing authorities: itself, (...)
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  30.  26
    `What Will Surprise You Most': Self-Regulating Systems and Problems of Correct Use in Plato's..Patrick Maynard - 2000 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (1):1.
  31.  17
    Current Knowledge of Spiders in South African Agroecosystems.A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman, A. M. Van den Berg, C. R. Haddad & R. Lyle - 2013 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 68 (1):57-74.
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  32.  88
    The Secular Icon: Photography and the Functions of Images.Patrick Maynard - 1983 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 42 (2):155-169.
    'Photo-credit: David Hume': a dialogue showing how application of Hume's three vivacity principles of resemblance, contiguity and causation--even his illustrations of them--not only immediately clarify the main sources of interest in photography, but locate photography in the broad and fascinating history of various functions that images serve us, thereby dispelling ongoing mystification about it. (In the dialogue, Veronica represents our contiguity and causal interests, Miranda [named for a Japanese camera company] our depictive ('resemblance') interests, while Clara serves as philosophical moderator.).
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  33.  36
    The Animal Activism of Henry Spira (1927-1998).Lyle Munro - 2002 - Society and Animals 10 (2):173-191.
    This paper profiles the animal activism of the late American animal activist Henry Spira, whose campaign strategies and tactics suggest a number of links with the nineteenth century pioneers of animal protection as well as with approaches favored by contemporary animal activists. However, the article argues that Spira's style of animal advocacy differed from conventional approaches in the mainstream animal movement in that he preferred to work with, rather than against, animal user industries. To this end, he pioneered the use (...)
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  34.  19
    Heidegger's Critique of Rilke: On the Venture and the Leap.Virginia Lyle Jennings - 2005 - Heidegger Studies 21:17-34.
  35.  7
    Ibm's Early Computers By Charles J. Bashe; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh. [REVIEW]Michael Mahoney - 1987 - Isis 78:114-115.
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  36.  22
    A ten-Year Follow-Up of a Study of Memory for the Attack of September 11, 2001: Flashbulb Memories and Memories for Flashbulb Events. [REVIEW]William Hirst, Elizabeth A. Phelps, Robert Meksin, Chandan J. Vaidya, Marcia K. Johnson, Karen J. Mitchell, Randy L. Buckner, Andrew E. Budson, John D. E. Gabrieli, Cindy Lustig, Mara Mather, Kevin N. Ochsner, Daniel Schacter, Jon S. Simons, Keith B. Lyle, Alexandru F. Cuc & Andreas Olsson - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (3):604-623.
  37.  37
    Golly G: Interpreting Spearman's General Factor.Lyle V. Jones - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):233-233.
  38.  26
    Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors That Influence Their Retention.William Hirst, Elizabeth A. Phelps, Randy L. Buckner, Andrew E. Budson, Alexandru Cuc, John D. E. Gabrieli, Marcia K. Johnson, Cindy Lustig, Keith B. Lyle, Mara Mather, Robert Meksin, Karen J. Mitchell, Kevin N. Ochsner, Daniel L. Schacter, Jon S. Simons & Chandan J. Vaidya - 2009 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 138 (2):161-176.
  39.  5
    Divine but Not Sacred: A Girardian Answer to Agamben's The Kingdom and the Glory.Lyle Enright - 2019 - Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 26 (1):237-249.
    Though the literature on the topic has been slim, several recent commentators have identified a close affinity between the philosophical project of Giorgio Agamben, as articulated in his Homo Sacer series, and René Girard's theory of mimetic rivalry with its resolution through sacrificial scapegoating.1 Both are theories of social unity made possible through highly ritualized forms of exclusion. Girard's work posits desire and its conflictual consequences as the ultimate ground for all social systems, while Agamben views the same systems with (...)
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  40.  84
    “Collective and Individual Rationality: Maynard Keynes's Methodological Standpoint and Policy Prescription”.Andy Denis - 2002 - Research in Political Economy 20:187-215.
    In a world of partially overlapping and partially conflicting interests there is good reason to doubt that self-seeking behaviour at the micro-level will spontaneously lead to desirable social outcomes at the macro-level. Nevertheless, some sophisticated economic writers advocating a laissez-faire policy prescription have proposed various 'invisible hand' mechanisms which can supposedly be relied upon to 'educe good from ill'. Smith defended the 'simple system of natural liberty' as giving the greatest scope to the unfolding of God's will and the working (...)
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  41.  69
    Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field.Leili Fatehi, Susan M. Wolf, Jeffrey McCullough, Ralph Hall, Frances Lawrenz, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Cortney Jones, Stephen A. Campbell, Rebecca S. Dresser, Arthur G. Erdman, Christy L. Haynes, Robert A. Hoerr, Linda F. Hogle, Moira A. Keane, George Khushf, Nancy M. P. King, Efrosini Kokkoli, Gary Marchant, Andrew D. Maynard, Martin Philbert, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ronald A. Siegel & Samuel Wickline - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):716-750.
    The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, “active,” and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an (...)
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  42.  14
    The Faunistic Diversity of Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of the South African Grassland Biome.C. R. Haddad, A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman, S. H. Foord, L. N. Lotz & R. Lyle - 2013 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 68 (2):97-122.
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  43.  12
    Whitehead's Radically Different Postmodern Philosophy: An Argument for Its Contemporary Relevance (Review).James Maynard - 2007 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 43 (4):802-809.
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  44.  4
    Complicating the Story of Popular Science: John Maynard Smith’s “Little Penguin” on The Theory of Evolution.Helen Piel - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (3):371-390.
    Popular science writing has received increasing interest, especially in its relation to professional science. I extend the current scholarly focus from the nineteenth to the twentieth century by providing a microhistory of the early popular writings of evolutionary biologist John Maynard Smith. Linking them to the state of evolutionary biology as a professional science as well as Maynard Smith’s own professional standing, I examine the interplay between author, text and audiences. In particular, I focus on Maynard Smith’s (...)
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  45.  9
    Maynard Keynes: An Economist's Biography, D. E. Moggridge. London and New York: Routledge, 1992, Xxxi + 941 Pages. [REVIEW]John Davis - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):359.
  46.  18
    Expressive Japanese: A Reference Guide for Sharing Emotion and Empathy.Senko K. Maynard, S. Nancy, Paul R. Goldin, Eun-Joo Lee, Duk-Soo Park, Jaehoon Yeon, J. Marshall Unger, Ho-min Sohn, Heisoon Yang & Precy Espiritu - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (2).
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  47.  13
    Shakespeare's Georgic Nationalism.Katherine Maynard - 1993 - History of European Ideas 16 (4-6):981-987.
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  48. What's So Funny? Comic Content in Depiction.Patrick Maynard - 2012 - In Cook Meskin (ed.), The Art of Comics: A Philosophical Approach. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This paper addresses standard questions regarding comics and the arts (comics and fine arts, image and word combinations), then poses and addresses the neglected, but deeper and wider--thus philosophical--question, of how depictions, not just words, can have mental contents at all, including light, funny, scathing, comic ones.
     
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  49.  60
    Radical Probabilism Revisited.Lyle Zynda - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):969-980.
    In this essay, I analyze and critique Richard Jeffrey's radical probabilism. The basic theses defining it are examined, particularly the idea that probabilistic coherence involves a kind of "consistency." The main challenges to Jeffrey's view are (1) that there is an inconsistency between regarding probabilities as subjective and some probabilistic judgments as better than others, and (2) that decision theory so conceived has no normative import. I argue that both of these challenges can be met.
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  50.  64
    Arts, Agents, Artifacts: Photography's Automatisms.Patrick Maynard - 2012 - Critical Inquiry 38 (4):727-745.
    Recent advances in paleoarchaeology show why nothing in the Tate Modern, where a conference on "Agency & Automatism" took place, challenges the roots of 'the idea of the fine arts' (Kristeller) as high levels of craft, aesthetics, mimesis and mental expression, as exemplifying cultures: it is by them that we define our species. This paper identifies and deals with resistances, early and late, to photographic fine art as based on concerns about automatism reducing human agency--that is, mental expression--then offers the (...)
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