A brief, systematic exposition of the positions of seven classical thinkers on the subject of the logical and/or methodological unity of human knowledge. McRae writes methodically and accurately on a difficult subject.--R. G. M.
Background: The magnitude of bullying and harassment among psychiatrists is reportedly high, yet no peer-review published studies addressing this issue could be found. Therefore, it was decided to conduct a pilot study to assess the degree of the problem, the types of bullying/harassment and to provide some insights into the situation.Methods and Principal Findings: Following multiple focus group meetings, a yes/no response type questionnaire was developed to assess the degree and type of bullying and harassment experienced by psychiatrists. Over a (...) 3-month period the questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 60 psychiatrists. 57 out of the 60 psychiatrists reported harassment and bullying. Frequencies of the following response variables are presented in descending order: rumours 40% ; defamation 20% ; passing remarks 20% ; false accusations 15% ; threats 13.3% ; verbal abuse 13.3% ; unjustified complaints 13.3% ; promotion blocked 13.3% ; humiliation 13% ; bad reference given 10% ; credentials questioned 8.3% ; physical attacks 5% ; termination 5% ; derogatory remarks 1.7% and 1.7% were subjected to personal work. As a result of being subjected to harassment, 66.7% of the psychiatrists did not take any action, whereas 33.3% confronted the person they believed responsible. Asked whether the bullying and harassment caused distress, 18.3% of the psychiatrists did not report any effect, 30% reported mild distress, 40% moderate distress and severe distress was reported by 11.7%.Conclusions: It was concluded that the magnitude of bullying and harassment among psychiatrists may be quite high, as evidenced by this pilot study. There is a need for extensive systematic studies on this subject and to establish strategies to prevent and address this issue at a national and regulatory level. (shrink)
In this important work, Professor Walter M. Elsasser attempts to evaluate the status of one of the most puzzling scientific and philosophic problems of our time: How the basic ideas or categories of biology relate to the fundamental concepts of physics. In particular: "Is biology reducible to physics?" In turn: "Are social and mental phenomena reducible to biology?," as some of the new school of sociobiologists contend.
Three themes dominate here: 1) traditional logical atomism implies a false theory of the distinction between particulars and universals; 2) the Bergmannian transformation of logical atomism cannot offer an adequate account of that distinction without covertly assuming a theory which it expressly repudiates; and 3) classical realism, the repudiated theory, can solve the problem which logical atomism unsuccessfully addresses by a doctrine of absolute natures.
The puritanism of this text is that of mid-seventeenth century England which, faced with the opportunity and awesome responsibility of establishing a new social order, struggled with practical and theoretical difficulties of political life in open debates and published tracts. Questions about political liberty were particularly difficult for them since their shared theological convictions led to no unanimity about how to provide for both social unity and individuality in one political structure. Alternative positions were vigorously supported, and the documents of (...) the struggle are provided here in a fashion that enables a modern reader to experience the dynamism of the struggle without the interference of summaries provided by commentators. (shrink)
The author has convinced himself that philosophy is essentially mysterious. "Mystery," we are told, "is clearly [sic!] the outcome of indeterminateness, in knowledge and in being. But it is equally a function of determinateness, since complete indeterminateness is unintelligible, not mysterious at all". The definition is both internally contradictory and circular. Internally contradictory, because two incompatible predicates are being ascribed to one subject of predication. Circular, because the reason given for the presence of one of them in the definition is (...) that its absence would remove what is mysterious--which is just the adjectival form of the definiendum. (shrink)
The bulk of this massive collection is comprised of selections from about twenty medieval, modern, and contemporary writers, on legal philosophy. These selections cover the traditions of natural law, positivism, and realism on the problem of the nature of law. It would be impossible to fault Professor Christie on the pieces he has included. Each one, old or new, is an acknowledged classic or standard. The omission of Lon L. Fuller who represents a notable variety of non-Thomistic natural law should, (...) however, be mentioned. In the very last part of the book, covering the topic of legal reasoning, the philosopher will be pleased to find extensive extracts from Aristotle and Francis Bacon. (shrink)
Listening to someone from some distance in a crowded room you may experience the following phenomenon: when looking at them speak, you may both hear and see where the source of the sounds is; but when your eyes are turned elsewhere, you may no longer be able to detect exactly where the voice must be coming from. With your eyes again fixed on the speaker, and the movement of her lips a clear sense of the source of the sound will (...) return. This ‘ventriloquist’ effect reflects the ways in which visual cognition can dominate auditory perception. And this phenomenological observation is one what you can verify or disconfirm in your own case just by the slightest reflection on what it is like for you to listen to someone with or without visual contact with them. (shrink)