The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Spanish nurses in relation to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In an online questionnaire completed by 390 nurses from Andalusia, 59.1% adequately identified a euthanasia situation and 64.1% a situation involving physician-assisted suicide. Around 69% were aware that both practices were illegal in Spain, while 21.4% had received requests for euthanasia and a further 7.8% for assisted suicide. A total of 22.6% believed that cases of euthanasia had (...) occurred in Spain and 11.4% believed the same for assisted suicide. There was greater support (70%) for legalisation of euthanasia than for assisted suicide (65%), combined with a greater predisposition towards carrying out euthanasia (54%), if it were to be legalised, than participating in assisted suicide (47.3%). Nurses in Andalusia should be offered more education about issues pertaining to the end of life, and extensive research into this area should be undertaken. (shrink)
This work tries to give the possible most suitable vision of the Generation of 98 regarding the purposes and interest of the main authors: Azorín, Pío Baroja, Miguel Unamuno, Antonio Machado and José Ortega y Gasset.
El sacrificio humano es una imagen frecuente en las religiones antiguas, concretamente en la griega, y su estudio ha levantado numerosos enfrentamientos entre corrientes historiográficas distintas. Uno de los casos más sobresalientes es del culto a Zeus en el Monte Liceo, que aquí analizamos. Las fuentes literarias reflejan la creencia de los griegos en estos sacrificios humanos, así que podemos decir que los sacrificios fueron reales porque fueron usados para construir paisaje y, por lo tanto, realidad.
The geometric system of deduction called N-Graphs was introduced by de Oliveira in 2001. The proofs in this system are represented by means of digraphs and, while its derivations are mostly based on Gentzen's sequent calculus, the system gets its inspiration from geometrically based systems, such as the Kneales' tables of development, Statman's proofs-as-graphs, Buss' logical flow graphs, and Girard's proof-nets. Given that all these geometric systems appeal to the classical symmetry between premises and conclusions, providing an intuitionistic version of (...) any of these is an interesting exercise in extending the range of applicability of the geometric system in question. In this article we produce an intuitionistic version of N-Graphs, based on Maehara's LJ' system, as described by Takeuti. Recall that LJ' has multiple conclusions in all but the essential intuitionistic rules, e.g., implication right and negation right. We show soundness and completeness of our intuitionistic N-Graphs with respect to LJ'. We also discuss how we expect to extend this work to a version of N-Graphs corresponding to the intuitionistic logic system FIL (Full Intuitionistic Logic) of de Paiva and Pereira and sketch future developments. (shrink)
What is the simulation theory? Arguments for simulation theory Simulation theory versus theory theory Simulation theory and cognitive science Versions of simulation theory A possible test of the simulation theory.
In this paper we defend structural representations, more specifically neural structural representation. We are not alone in this, many are currently engaged in this endeavor. The direction we take, however, diverges from the main road, a road paved by the mathematical theory of measure that, in the 1970s, established homomorphism as the way to map empirical domains of things in the world to the codomain of numbers. By adopting the mind as codomain, this mapping became a boon for all those (...) convinced that a representation system should bear similarities with what was being represented, but struggled to find a precise account of what such similarities mean. The euforia was brief, however, and soon homomorphism revealed itself to be affected by serious weaknesses, the primary one being that it included systems embarrassingly alien to representations. We find that the defense attempts that have followed, adopt strategies that share a common format: valid structural representations come as “homomorphism plus X”, with various “X”, provided in descriptive format only. Our alternative direction stems from the observation of the overlooked departure from homomorphism as used in the theory of measure and its later use in mental representations. In the former case, the codomain or the realm of numbers, is the most suited for developing theorems detailing the existence and uniqueness of homomorphism for a wide range of empirical domains. In the latter case, the codomain is the realm of the mind, possibly more vague and more ill-defined than the empirical domain itself. The time is ripe for articulating the mapping between represented domains and the mind in formal terms, by exploiting what is currently known about coding mechanisms in the brain. We provide a sketch of a possible development in this direction, one that adopts the theory of neural population coding as codomain. We will show that our framework is not only not in disagreement with the “plus X” proposals, but can lead to natural derivation of several of the “X”. (shrink)
It is widely believed that the semantic function of an ordinary proper name (e.g. 'Aristotle') is inexplicable in terms of the semantic function of an ordinary definite description (e.g. 'the last great ancient philosopher'), given a Russellian analysis of the latter. This paper questions this belief by suggesting a possible semantic explication. In brief, I propose that an ordinary proper name is a mere placeholder for an arbitrary ordinary definite description true of a given individual. The proposal is set out (...) and justified in detail, as well as compared with both traditional description theories of ordinary proper names and the theory that an ordinary proper name just means its referent. I contend that the proposed theory is better than the former sort of theory, and at least as good as the latter one. (shrink)
Plagiarism is a prevalent form of academic dishonesty in the undergraduate instructional context. Although students engage in plagiarism with some frequency, instructors often do little to help students understand the significance of plagiarism or to create assignments that reduce its likelihood. This study reports survey, coding, and TurnItIn software results from an evaluation of an instructional activity designed to help students improve their understanding of plagiarism, the consequences of plagiarizing, strategies to help them engage in ethical writing, and key citation (...) elements. Results indicate students had a greater understanding of plagiarism, increased efficacy, and fewer instances of plagiarism as determined by TurnItIn plagiarism software after exposure to an instructional activity on plagiarism. Not surprisingly, when instructors prioritize academic honesty in their classrooms, train students on how to integrate others’ works, cite sources appropriately, and use plagiarism detection software, students are less likely to plagiarize. The discussion includes suggestions for instructors to help them create a plagiarism-free environment. (shrink)
Rationalization in the sense of biased self-justification is very familiar. It's not cheating because everyone else is doing it too. I didn't report the abuse because it wasn't my place. I understated my income this year because I paid too much in tax last year. I'm only a social smoker, so I won't get cancer. The mental mechanisms subserving rationalization have been studied closely by psychologists. However, when viewed against the backdrop of philosophical accounts of the regulative role of truth (...) in doxastic deliberation , rationalization can look very puzzling. Almost all contemporary philosophers endorse a version of the thesis of deliberative exclusivity—a thinker cannot in full consciousness decide whether to believe that p in a way that issues directly in forming a belief by adducing anything other than considerations that he or she regards as relevant to the truth of p. But, as I argue, rationalization involves the weighing of considerations that the thinker kn.. (shrink)
Objective: To measure the stability of life-sustaining treatment preferences amongst older people and analyse the factors that influence stability. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Primary care centres, Granada (Spain). Eighty-five persons age 65 years or older. Participants filled out a questionnaire with six contexts of illness (LSPQ-e). They had to decide whether or not to receive treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline and 18 months later. Results: 86 percent of the patients did not change preferences. Sex, age, marital status, (...) hospitalisation, and self-perception of health and pain did not affect preferences. Morbidity and the death of a relative did. Conclusion: Stability of preferences of older persons in relation to end-of-life decisions seems to be more probable than instability. Some factors, such as the death of a relative or the increase in morbidity, can change preferences. These findings have implications for advance directives (ADs) and advance care planning. (shrink)
El propósito de este artículo es prestar atención a la evolución de la lectura que hace Adorno de la fenomenología husserliana para abordar algunos de los problemas fundamentales que determinarán la formación materialista de su filosofía. Se pretende trazar la génesis de su pensamiento materialista desde su temprana afinidad con la obra de Cornelius, hasta los aspectos fundamentales de su filosofía de los años treinta.
Large-scale data systems are increasingly envisioned as tools for justice, with big data analytics offering a key opportunity to advance health equity. Health systems face growing public pressure to collect data on patient “social factors,” and advocates and public officials seek to leverage such data sources as a means of system transformation. Despite the promise of this “data-driven” strategy, there is little empirical work that examines big data in action directly within the sites of care expected to transform. In this (...) article, I present a case study on one such initiative, focusing on a large public safety-net health system’s initiation of sexual orientation and gender identity data collection within the clinical setting. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with providers, staff, and administrators, I highlight three main challenges that elude big data’s grasp on inequality: provider and staff’s limited understanding of the social significance of data collection; patient perception of the cultural insensitivity of data items; and clinic need to balance data requests with competing priorities within a constrained time window. These issues reflect structural challenges within safety-net care that big data alone are unable to address in advancing social justice. I discuss these findings by considering the present data-driven strategy alongside two complementary courses of action: diversifying the health professions workforce and clinical education reform. To truly advance justice, we need more than “just data”: we need to confront the fundamental conditions of social inequality. (shrink)
RESUMENEl propósito de este artículo es investigar la evolución de la lectura que hace Adorno de Kierkegaard para presentarla como un tema central en la formación de su filosofía materialista. Kierkegaard, la construcción de lo estético anticipa en buena medida algunas de las ideas importantes de sus obras posteriores. Y es que si bien critica la ruptura de la dialéctica entre sujeto-objeto que tiene lugar en Kierkegaard, ambos van a coincidir en su ataque al idealismo a través de la crítica (...) inmanente.PALABRAS CLAVECRÍTICA INMANENTE, DIALÉCTICA, COMUNICACIÓN, MATERIALISMOABSTRACTThe main goal of this article is to investigate the evolution of Adorno’s reading of Kierkegaard to present it as a central theme for the formation of his own materialistic philosophy. His work Kierkegaard: Construction of Aesthetic anticipates a good deal of his later work. While he criticizes Kierkegaard for breaking off the subject-object dialectic, they converge in their attacks on the concept of idealism through the immanent critique.KEY WORDSIMMANENT CRITIQUE, DIALECTIC, COMMUNICATION, MATERIALISM. (shrink)
In recent years, a number of different disciplines have begun to investigate the fundamental role context appears to play in a number of cognitive phenomena. Traditionally, linguistics, and the fields of communication and pragmatics in particular, have been the areas that have focused the most on contextual effects. Context has increasingly been studied for its role in influencing mental concepts, for some scholars being considered constitutive for most – if not all – concepts. Cognitive neuroscience is now starting to consider (...) in a systematic way how context interacts with neural responses, although this research is still scattered and concentrated in a small number of specific cases only. In this chapter, we attempt to tie these three levels together, since only from their integration can a comprehensive explanation of how context affects cognition be constructed. The way context drives language comprehension depends on the effects of context on the conceptual scaffolding of the listener, which in turn, is the result of his neural responses in combination to context. These neural responses derive from learning throughout the history of experiences of the individual, and the association between possible contexts and heard utterances. The road we take to accomplishing the multi-level integration between what appear to be distant domains, is a computational one. This approach meets with the mechanistic framework of explanation, which is currently held as the most appropriate way of approaching cognitive phenomena that is often characterized by a multiplicity of levels, as is the case with context. The core underlying concept of the neurocomputational framework here proposed, is an account of neural representation, based on structural similarity. Structural representations are still the best option on the market in cognitive science, but in their traditional form, derived from classical measurement theory, are affected by a number of serious drawbacks, including not being able to account for context. We suggest a different account of structural similarity, one informed by current neuroscience, where the homomorphic relations required for structural similarity are derived from neural population coding. In a preliminary mathematical sketch, we indicate how this approach can construct neural aggegations that are sensitive to context. (shrink)
El objetivo de este trabajo es teorizar el andamiaje integrado por las categorías de modos de apropiación de lo real, formas de la conciencia y contemplación estética, construida con referentes kantianos, hegelianos y marxistas. Con base en un esquema de investigación, los escritos más representativos fueron revisados y fichados en una base de datos; el fichero fue codificado y redactado el texto final. Se encontró que la conciencia individual se constituye con referentes de diferentes modos de apropiación de lo real (...) adquiriendo una forma determinada: empírica, mágico-religiosa, artística o teórica. A cada modo de apropiación corresponde una forma de conciencia y un determinado tipo de experiencia plena pero, la presencia de referentes de distintos modos de apropiación, permite que el mismo sujeto establezca experiencias de distinto tipo. (shrink)
If the opening sequence of a film is a microscopic 'event' that achieves far more than setting the tone and whetting the appetite for what we are about to see, then Todd Haynes' I'm Not There is exemplary. This paper works its way through the conceptually dense and intricately woven textual layers of the film's opening to stage a three-way dialogue between Haynes, Bob Dylan and Jacques Derrida: three mavericks who defy simple categorisation, by transgressing the boundaries of their respective (...) fields (song writing, cinema and philosophy). By introducing Derrida's deconstructive logic of hauntology as a strategy for reading Haynes' biopic on Dylan, the figure of the ghost is called upon to situate the quest for an identity's authenticity as a perennial, irresolvable problem in song, cinema and philosophy. Belonging to a time that is neither past nor present, a place that is neither here nor there, the ghost offers the perfect medium to join Haynes, Dylan and Derrida in (re)thinking identity in terms that respond to a call (in the name of art, justice and truth, among other things) that is not based on an unyielding conception of authenticity. (shrink)
Based on the literature on stakeholder management and family firm dynamics, this research analyses the relationship between three constructs: the identification of business families with their family firms, FFs’ orientation toward key non-family stakeholders, and the achievement of better economic performance. Data analyses from 374 family and non-family members of 173 Spanish FFs show that a high level of family identification with their firms affects the orientation of FFs toward key non-family stakeholders in setting corporate goals and that this orientation (...) will lead to higher economic performance only when it is built on family identification with the firm. Our results also show that the significance of both relationships changes with the degree of family involvement in the management of the FF. (shrink)
Religious and Ethical Perspectives on Global Migration examines the complicated social ethics of migration in today's world. Editors Elizabeth W. Collier and Charles R. Strain bring the perspectives of an international group of scholars toward a theory of justice and ethical understanding for the nearly two hundred million migrants who have left their homes seeking asylum from political persecution, greater freedom and safety, economic opportunity, or reunion with family members.