176 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Marie Hall [35]Marie Boas Hall [33]Mark A. Hall [32]Michael L. Hall [10]
Melinda C. Hall [6]Manly P. Hall [6]Matthew L. Hall [5]Marshall Hall [5]

Not all matches are shown. Search with initial or firstname to single out others.

See also
Melinda C. Hall
Stetson University
Matthew Hall
Royal Holloway University of London
  1. The Bioethics of Enhancement: Transhumanism, Disability, and Biopolitics.Melinda Hall - 2016 - Lexington Books.
    In a critical intervention into the bioethics debate over human enhancement, philosopher Melinda Hall tackles the claim that the expansion and development of human capacities is a moral obligation. Hall draws on French philosopher Michel Foucault to reveal and challenge the ways disability is central to the conversation. The Bioethics of Enhancement includes a close reading and analysis of the last century of enhancement thinking and contemporary transhumanist thinkers, the strongest promoters of the obligation to pursue enhancement technology. With specific (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  2.  28
    Experiments with Interactional Expertise.Harry Collins, Rob Evans, Rodrigo Ribeiro & Martin Hall - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (4):656-674.
    ‘Interactional expertise’ is developed through linguistic interaction without full scale practical immersion in a culture. Interactional expertise is the medium of communication in peer review in science, in review committees, and in interdisciplinary projects. It is also the medium of specialist journalists and of interpretative methods in the social sciences. We describe imitation game experiments designed to make concrete the idea of interactional expertise. The experiments show that the linguistic performance of those well socialized in the language of a specialist (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  3.  10
    Cognitive Constraints on Constituent Order: Evidence From Elicited Pantomime.Matthew L. Hall, Rachel I. Mayberry & Victor S. Ferreira - 2013 - Cognition 129 (1):1-17.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  4.  7
    The Evolution of Sex: A New Hypothesis Based on Mitochondrial Mutational Erosion.Justin C. Havird, Matthew D. Hall & Damian K. Dowling - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (9):951-958.
    The evolution of sex in eukaryotes represents a paradox, given the “twofold” fitness cost it incurs. We hypothesize that the mutational dynamics of the mitochondrial genome would have favored the evolution of sexual reproduction. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exhibits a high‐mutation rate across most eukaryote taxa, and several lines of evidence suggest that this high rate is an ancestral character. This seems inexplicable given that mtDNA‐encoded genes underlie the expression of life's most salient functions, including energy conversion. We propose that negative (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  5.  31
    Investigating Constituent Order Change With Elicited Pantomime: A Functional Account of SVO Emergence.Matthew L. Hall, Victor S. Ferreira & Rachel I. Mayberry - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (5):943-972.
    One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world's languages, the order of these three constituents (subject [S], verb [V], and object [O]) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation of the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  6.  20
    Beyond “Monologicality”? Exploring Conspiracist Worldviews.Bradley Franks, Adrian Bangerter, Martin W. Bauer, Matthew Hall & Mark C. Noort - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  7.  37
    Continental Approaches in Bioethics.Melinda C. Hall - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (3):161-172.
    Bioethics influences public policy, scientific research, and clinical practice. Thinkers in Continental traditions have increasingly contributed scholarship to this field, and their approaches allow new insights and alternative normative guidance. In this essay, examples of the following Continental approaches in bioethics are presented and considered: phenomenology and existentialism; deconstruction; Foucauldian methodologies; and biopolitical analyses. Also highlighted are Continental feminisms and the philosophy of disability. Continental approaches are importantly diverse, but those I focus upon here reveal embedded models of individualized autonomy (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  8.  26
    Making Medical Spending Decisions: The Law, Ethics, and Economics of Rationing Mechanisms.Mark A. Hall - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    This book explores the making of health care rationing decisions through the analysis of three alternative decision makers: patients paying out of pocket; officials setting limits on treatments and coverage; and physicians at the bedside. Hall develops this analysis along three dimensions: political economics, ethics, and law. The economic dimension addresses the practical feasibility of each method. The ethical dimension discusses the moral aspects of these methods, while the legal dimension traces the most recent developments in jurisprudence and health law.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  9.  24
    The Importance of Trust for Ethics, Law, and Public Policy.Mark A. Hall - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):156-167.
    The importance of preserving trust in physicians and in medical institutions has received widespread attention in recent years. Primarily, this is due to the threats to trust posed by managed care, but there is a general and growing recognition that trust deserves more attention than it traditionally has received in all aspects of medical ethics, law, and public policy. Trust has both intrinsic and instrumental value. Trust is intrinsically important because it is a core characteristic that affects the emotional and (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  10. Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton.Isaac Newton, A. Rupert Hall & Marie Boas Hall - 1963 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (52):344-345.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  11.  33
    Ethical Rationality: A Strategic Approach to Organizational Crisis.Peter Snyder, Molly Hall, Joline Robertson, Tomasz Jasinski & Janice S. Miller - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (4):371-383.
    In this paper, we present an ethical and strategic approach to managing organizational crises. The proposed crisis management model (1) offers a new approach to guide an organization’s strategic and ethical response to crisis, and (2) provides a two-by-two framework for classifying organizational crises. The ethically rational approach to crisis draws upon strategic rationality, crisis, and ethics literature to understand and address organizational crises. Recent examples of corporate crises are employed to illustrate the theoretical claims advanced. Finally, the paper provides (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  12. The Edge of Objectivity: An Essay in the History of Scientific Ideas.Charles Coulston Gillispie, Gerd Buchdahl, M. A. Hoskin, A. Rupert Hall, Marie Boas Hall & Sam Lilley - 1961 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 12 (47):250-255.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  13.  35
    Rethinking Professional Ethics in the Cost-Sharing Era.G. Caleb Alexander, Mark A. Hall & John D. Lantos - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):W17-W22.
    Changes in healthcare financing increasingly rely upon patient cost-sharing to control escalating healthcare expenditures. These changes raise new challenges for physicians that are different from those that arose either under managed care or traditional indemnity insurance. Historically, there have been two distinct bases for arguing that physicians should not consider costs in their clinical decisions?an ?aspirational ethic? that exhorts physicians to treat all patients the same regardless of their ability to pay, and an ?agency ethic? that calls on physicians to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  14.  20
    Consensus on Menopause Research—A Summary of International Opinion. Edited by P. A. Van Keep, R. G. Greenblatt and M. Albeaux-Fernet. Pp. Ix + 183. [REVIEW]Marion H. Hall - 1977 - Journal of Biosocial Science 9 (4):503-504.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  24
    The Impact on Patient Trust of Legalising Physician Aid in Dying.M. Hall - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (12):693-697.
    Objective: Little empirical evidence exists to support either side of the ongoing debate over whether legalising physician aid in dying would undermine patient trust.Design: A random national sample of 1117 US adults were asked about their level of agreement with a statement that they would trust their doctor less if “euthanasia were legal [and] doctors were allowed to help patients die”.Results: There was disagreement by 58% of the participants, and agreement by only 20% that legalising euthanasia would cause them to (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  16.  50
    Horrible Heroes: Liberating Alternative Visions of Disability in Horror.Melinda Hall - 2016 - The Disability Studies Quarterly 36 (1).
    Understanding disability requires understanding its social construction, and social construction can be read in cultural products. In this essay, I look to one major locus for images of persons with disabilities—horror. Horror films and fiction use disability imagery to create and augment horror. I first situate my understanding of disability imagery in the horror genre using a case study read through the work of Julia Kristeva. But, I go on to argue that trademark moves in the horror genre, which typically (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  13
    Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning. A Study in Scientific Methodology.Clark L. Hull, Carl I. Hovland, Robert T. Ross, Marshall Hall, Donald T. Perkins & Frederic B. Fitch - 1940 - Journal of Philosophy 37 (10):277-278.
  18. Attention & Inscrutability.Austen Clark & Manchester Hall - unknown
    We assemble here in this time and place to discuss the thesis that conscious attention can provide knowledge of reference of perceptual demonstratives. I shall focus my commentary on what this claim means, and on the main argument for it found in the first five chapters of Reference and Consciousness. The middle term of that argument is an account of what attention does: what its job or function is. There is much that is admirable in this account, and I am (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  19.  51
    Reconciling the Disability Critique and Reproductive Liberty: The Case of Negative Genetic Selection.Melinda C. Hall - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):121-143.
    The following is dedicated to promoting a version of the disability critique of negative genetic selection while navigating claims that launching such a critique threatens reproductive liberty or is unavoidably antichoice. I highlight problematic conceptual assumptions regarding genetics and choice made by proponents and opponents of selection alike and bring out the underlying ableist values of the prevailing conversation. Ableism is discrimination against persons on the basis of perceived disability. I conclude that the existing social and institutional milieu surrounding genetic (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20.  17
    Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign Vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy.Matthew L. Hall & Daphne Bavelier - 2011 - Cognition 120 (1):54-66.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  21.  20
    The Scope and Limits of Public Health Law.Mark A. Hall - 2003 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (3x):S199-S209.
  22.  18
    Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory.Daphne Bavelier, Elissa L. Newport, Matt Hall, Ted Supalla & Mrim Boutla - 2008 - Cognition 107 (2):433-459.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  23.  49
    Plant Autonomy and Human-Plant Ethics.Matthew Hall - 2009 - Environmental Ethics 31 (2):169-181.
    It has recently been asserted that legislative moves to consider plants as ethical subjects are philosophically foolish because plants lack autonomy. While by no means the sole basis or driving criterion for moral behavior, it is possible to directly challenge skeptical attitudes by constructing a human-plant ethics centered on fundamental notions of autonomy. Autonomous beings are agents who rule themselves, principally for their own purposes. A considerable body of evidence in the plant sciences is increasingly recognizing the capacity of plants (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  10
    The Constitutionality of Mandates to Purchase Health Insurance.Mark A. Hall - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (s2):38-50.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25.  12
    Community Hospital Oversight of Clinical Investigators' Financial Relationships.M. A. Hall, K. P. Weinfurt, J. S. Lawlor, J. Y. Friedman, K. A. Schulman & J. Sugarman - 2008 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 31 (1):7-13.
    The considerable attention to financial interests in clinical research has focused mostly on academic medical centers, even though the majority of clinical research is conducted in community practice settings. To fill this gap, this article maps the practices and policies in 73 community hospitals and several hundred specialized facilities around the country for reviewing clinical investigators’ financial relationships with research sponsors. Community hospitals face a substantially different mix of issues than academic medical centers do because their physician researchers are usually (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  26.  23
    Vile Sovereigns in Bioethical Debate.Melinda Hall - 2013 - Disability Studies Quarterly 33 (4).
    In this paper, I critically assess transhumanist philosophy and its influence in bioethics by turning to resources in the work of Michel Foucault. I begin by outlining transhumanism and drawing out some of the primary goals of transhumanist philosophy. In order to do so, I focus on the work of Nick Bostrom and Julian Savulescu, two prominent contributors to this thinking. I then move to explicate Foucault’s work, in the early iterations of the Abnormal lecture series, on the concept of (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  27.  14
    Disclosing Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research: Views of Institutional Review Boards, Conflict of Interest Committees, and Investigators.Kevin P. Weinfurt, Joëlle Y. Friedman, Michaela A. Dinan, Jennifer S. Allsbrook, Mark A. Hall, Jatinder K. Dhillon & Jeremy Sugarman - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (3):581-591.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  28.  18
    Disclosing Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research: Views of Institutional Review Boards, Conflict of Interest Committees, and Investigators.Kevin P. Weinfurt, Joëlle Y. Friedman, Michaela A. Dinan, Jennifer S. Allsbrook, Mark A. Hall, Jatinder K. Dhillon & Jeremy Sugarman - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (3):581-591.
    Strategies for disclosing investigators' financial interests to potential research participants have been adopted by many research institutions. However, little is known about how decisions are made regarding disclosures of financial interests to potential research participants, including what is disclosed and the rationale for making these determinations. We sought to understand the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of institutional review board chairs, conflict of interest committee chairs, and investigators regarding disclosure of financial interests to potential research participants. Several themes emerged, including general (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  29.  92
    Quantum Mechanics and the Concept of Joint Probability.Michael J. W. Hall - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (2):189-207.
    The concepts of joint probability as implied by the Copenhagen and realist interpretations of quantum mechanics are examined in relation to (a) the rules for manipulation of probabilistic quantities, and (b) the role of the Bell inequalities in assessing the completeness of standard quantum theory. Proponents of completeness of the Copenhagen interpretation are required to accept a modification of the classical laws of probability to provide a mechanism for complementarity. A new formulation of the locality postulate is given, not involving (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  57
    “On Indirect Speech Acts and Linguistic Communication: A Response to Bertolet”.Mary Kate McGowan, Shan Shan Tam & Margaret Hall - 2009 - Philosophy 84 (4):495-513.
    Suppose a diner says, 'Can you pass the salt?' Although her utterance is literally a question (about the physical abilities of the addressee), most would take it as a request (that the addressee pass the salt). In such a case, the request is performed indirectly by way of directly asking a question. Accordingly this utterance is known as an indirect speech act. On the standard account of such speech acts, a single utterance constitutes two distinct speech acts. On this account (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  31.  11
    Oldenburg and the Art of Scientific Communication.Marie Boas Hall - 1965 - British Journal for the History of Science 2 (4):277-290.
    For fifteen years, from 1662 until his death in 1677, Henry Oldenburg served the Royal Society as second Secretary and was charged with almost the entire burden of its correspondence, domestic and foreign. During this time he acted as a centre for the communication of scientific news, searching out new sources of information, encouraging men everywhere to make their work public, acting as an intermediary between scientists and, through the Philosophical Transactions, providing a medium for the publication of short scientific (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  32.  22
    Constitutional Challenges to Compulsory Insurance: A Guide Through the Gauntlet.Mark A. Hall - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):14-15.
    Health care reform is being assaulted from all sides. In January, the House of Representatives voted to repeal The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the "Affordable Care Act"). For now, that effort will not succeed, owing to Democratic control of the Senate and the presidential veto. But conservative lawmakers in the House threaten to withhold key funding for implementation, and we can expect ongoing efforts to enact various partial amendments.Meanwhile, a core component of the reform law is running the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33. Robert Boyle on Natural Philosophy.M. B. Hall - 1965
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  34.  15
    Dialectical Sonority: Walter Benjamin's Acoustics of Profane Illumination.Mirko M. Hall - 2010 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2010 (152):83-102.
    ExcerptIn a letter to his friend and intellectual collaborator Theodor W. Adorno, on December 25, 1935, Walter Benjamin describes music as a field of inquiry “fairly remote” from his own.1 Several years later, in another letter to Max Horkheimer, he writes that the “state of musical affairs … could not be any more remote” for him.2 Yet despite these claims of unfamiliarity with aurality, there are numerous observations on acoustic phenomena throughout Benjamin's oeuvre. From his early essays on language to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  35.  20
    Genetic Privacy Laws and Patients' Fear of Discrimination by Health Insurers: The View From Genetic Counselors.Mark A. Hall & Stephen S. Rich - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (3):245-257.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36.  20
    The Malpractice Standard Under Health Care Cost Containment.Mark A. Hall - 1989 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 17 (4):347-355.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  37.  5
    Dialectical Sonority: Walter Benjamin's Acoustics of Profane Illumination.M. M. Hall - 2010 - Télos 2010 (152):83-102.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  38.  21
    Acceptability Judgments Still Matter: Deafness and Documentation.Matthew L. Hall, Rachel I. Mayberry & Victor S. Ferreira - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  46
    Philosophy: The Cutting Edge.Michael Hall - 1977 - Teaching Philosophy 2 (3/4):358-360.
  40.  13
    Newton's Electric Spirit: Four Oddities.Marie Hall & A. Hall - 1959 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 50:473-476.
  41.  12
    The Constitutionality of Mandates to Purchase Health Insurance.Mark A. Hall - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (s2):38-50.
    Health insurance mandates have been a component of many recent health care reform proposals. Because a federal requirement that individuals transfer money to a private party is unprecedented, a number of legal issues must be examined. This paper analyzes whether Congress can legislate a health insurance mandate and the potential legal challenges that might arise, given such a mandate. The analysis of legal challenges to health insurance mandates applies to federal individual mandates, but can also apply to a federal mandate (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  42.  13
    Eloge: Henry Guerlac, 10 June 1910-29 May 1985.Marie Boas Hall - 1986 - Isis 77 (3):504-506.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  43.  72
    Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility and Social Justice Pedagogy.Marcella Runell Hall - 2011 - Journal of Moral Education 40 (4):537-539.
  44.  16
    The Problems with Rule-Based Rationing.Mark A. Hall - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (4):315-332.
    Centralized, democratic rules are often asserted as a superior basis for rationing than individualized physician discretion. This article counters this prevailing wisdom by exploring the deficiencies of rule-based rationing. Rules are too imprecise to accurately reflect all the nuances of physical and mental impairment and the complexity of medical science, particularly considering the widely varying personal values that different patients attach to medical risk and benefit. Rule-based rationing also suffers from the biasing effects of interest group pressure on political processes (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45.  6
    “Nuclear Consumed Love”: Atomic Threats and Australian Indigenous Activist Poetics.Matthew Hall - 2017 - Angelaki 22 (3):51-62.
    This essay will examine the polemic and poetic means through which three Indigenous Australian writers discuss the repercussions and risks associated with nuclear power, waste and weaponry as an existential and material threat to the mythopoeic creation stories, totemic systems and landforms which sustain Indigenous Australian belief. This essay will follow the establishment of a media ecology through which discourses of technological harm in Oodgeroo Noonuccal's “No More Boomerang” lay the foundation for Australian Indigenous anti-nuclear activist poetics and highlights the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  12
    Genetic Privacy Laws and Patients' Fear of Discrimination by Health Insurers: The View From Genetic Counselors.Mark A. Hall & Stephen S. Rich - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (3):245-257.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  47.  7
    The Malpractice Standard Under Health Care Cost Containment.Mark A. Hall - 1989 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 17 (4):347-355.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  48.  17
    Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Pp. Iv + 297. ISBN 0-521-25858-8. £25, $34.50. [REVIEW]Marie Boas Hall - 1985 - British Journal for the History of Science 18 (1):97-98.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  49. Newton's Theory of Matter.A. Hall & Marie Hall - 1960 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 51:31-144.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  50.  17
    Scepticism and Knowing That One Knows.Michael Hall - 1976 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (4):655 - 663.
    Scepticism does not argue that no one knows to avoid self-referential refutation. It falls back to arguing that no one knows that anyone knows, hence simply that no one knows, in accordance with the principle Kp iff KKp. This principle, however, is not available to the sceptic. He is stuck with -KKp without access to -Kp. The sceptic is thus no threat to the sort of knowledge that like Moore we all claim to have.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
1 — 50 / 176