The ethical and legal challenges posed by assisted reproduction techniques are both profound and breathtaking, with most societies unable to fully comprehend one technique before another one, even more daring, emerges. The wrongful implantation of embryos in two women undergoing in vitro fertilisation treatments at two separate clinics in the UK seriously vitiates the traditional concept of who is a parent. In one case, a patient’s embryos were wrongly implanted into another woman seeking similar treatment, and in the second, a (...) woman’s eggs were fertilised using sperm from a man other than her husband.In the first mix-up, neither member of the recipient couple was the genetic parent of the child, while in the second case, the recipient mother was the genetic mother and her husband was not the genetic father. The mix-ups resulted in litigation to determine who the rightful parents were. First, I will show in this paper that, although the outcome of the application of English law in both cases was in agreement with the outcome prescribed by basic principles of Islamic law and bioethics, that agreement is based on different reasoning in the two traditions. Next, I will show that the profound ethical implications of reproductive technologies begs for a more pluralistic bioethical discourse than the one-dimensional analysis applied by secular Western societies that currently dominates the enquiry, particularly as most Western societies are more or less multicultural and multireligious. (shrink)
From the beginning of the 20th Century to the present day, it has rarely been doubted that whenever formal aesthetic methods meet their iconological counterparts, the two approaches appear to be mutually exclusive. In reality, though, an ahistorical concept is challenging a historical analysis of art. It is especially Susanne K. Langer´s long-overlooked system of analogies between perceptions of the world and of artistic creations that are dependent on feelings which today allows a rapprochement of these positions. Krois’s insistence on (...) a similar point supports this analysis. Their perspectives are grounded in the concept that the feelings within perception are elicited by analogue formal structures in the world and in the arts. This leads to the conclusion that – dependent on the logical and carefully designed formal structure of an artist´s composition and its living interpretation by its recipient – the artistic creation can be identified as a meaningful statement of the creator, which generates an affirmative or critical reply of his consumer. In such a way, on the basis of formal aesthetics and iconology the arts can be affirmed to be relevant for cultural processes: they form parts of the communicative processes that constitute life. (shrink)
When Wittgenstein moved from Manchester to Cambridge he was following a path from the study of the natural sciences to the study of philosophy which was then not unusual, and has since become increasingly common. Russell had preceded him in that intellectual emigration and many more were to follow. Of the three philosophy departments I have been in, two were headed by natural scientists. Both my research supervisors in philosophy were natural scientists. Less surprising, but still significant, a considerable proportion (...) of Presidents of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science were originally trained as natural scientists. Yet it is a subject still unrecognized by the Royal Society. The editors of both the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science and the journal Analysis were both originally natural scientists. Eminent scientists seem to feel impelled to discuss there own subjects in a wider context of philosophy. Bohr, Schrodinger, Kilmister, Hoyle, Hawking and Penrose, are but a few from a long list. (shrink)
Q. Sept. Florent. Tertulliani Opera ex recensione Aug. Reifferscheid et Georg Wissowa. Pars I. Vienna, Tempsky, 1890. Mk. 15.60. Patristische Studien I. II. III. IV. By Dr. Wilhelm von Hartel. Vienna, Tempsky, 1890. Mk. 5.80. Studia Ecclesiastica. Tertullianus. I. Critica et Interpretatoria scripsit DR. J. Van Der Vliet. Leyden, Brill, 1891. 2s. 6d. Gai Vetti Aquiliai Juvenci Evangeliorum Libri Quattuor. Ed. J. Huemer, Vienna, 1891. Mk. 7. 20. Ueber das Evangelienbuch des Juvencus in seinem Verhältniss zum Bibeltext. By K. Marold. (...) [Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliclie Theologie, 1890, pp. 329–341.] Geschichte der Christlich-lateinisehen Poesie. By M. Manitius. Stuttgart, 1891. 12 Mk. (shrink)
Abstract Daniel H. H. Ingalls referred to Gaudap?da's M?nd?kya K?rik?, a very early Advaita text, as ? ... the most puzzling perhaps, of all Sanskrit philosophical texts?. This article shows that some of the philosophical quandaries associated with this text are the result of inappropriately imposing a graphic and prose model of textuality upon a text composed in the k?rik? (memorial verse) genre and in an oral cultural context. Developing a model of textuality consistent with the literary genre and cultural (...) context, the article is not only able to resolve some of the philosophical problems associated with the text, but also raises the possibility that this inappropriate hermeneutical process has contributed to mislabelling Gaudap?da as an idealist. (shrink)
The comparative analysis of the approaches to philosophy and philosophizing by the two prominent Russian thinkers of the Soviet era: Evald V. Ilyenkov and Merab K. Mamardashvili. The author discusses specific methodological and conceptual features of Ilyenkov's dialectic and Mamardashvili's phenomenology, showing their theoretical and topical affinity.