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  1.  17
    Paradoxes of Democratic Accountability: Polarized Parties, Hard Decisions, and No Despot to Veto.Michael H. Murakami - 2008 - Critical Review 20 (1-2):91-113.
    Parties are back, and many are cheering. Party polarization has voters seeing stark differences between Democrats and Republicans and demonstrating more ideological constraint than previous generations. But these signs of a more “responsible” electorate are an illusion, because the public is no more knowledgeable than ever about the type of “information” it needs if it is to exercise effective control over the public‐policy outcomes it cares the most about. Indeed, polarization has produced a political environment where both voters and policy (...)
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  2. Spontaneous Decisions and Free Will: Empirical Results and Philosophical Considerations.Joana Rigato, Masayoshi Murakami & Zachary Mainen - 2014 - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 79:177-184.
    Spontaneous actions are preceded by brain signals that may sometimes be detected hundreds of milliseconds in advance of a subject's conscious intention to act. These signals have been claimed to reflect prior unconscious decisions, raising doubts about the causal role of conscious will. Murakami et al. (2014. Nat Neurosci 17: 1574–1582) have recently argued for a different interpretation. During a task in which rats spontaneously decided when to abort waiting, the authors recorded neurons in the secondary motor cortex. The neural (...)
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  3.  18
    Sources of Mass Political Disagreement: Rejoinder to Marietta.Michael H. Murakami - 2010 - Critical Review 22 (2-3):331-354.
    Do people tend to disagree over political issues because of conflicting values? Or do they disagree about which policies will most effectively promote shared values? In a previous article, I argued that the issues most people think are most important tend to fall into the latter category. On the issues of greatest importance to the mass public, most citizens agree about the ends that are desirable, but disagree about which policy means would best effectuate those ends. Consequently, disputes about facts—disputes (...)
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  4.  36
    Respecting Autonomy in Difficult Medical Settings: A Questionnaire Study in Japan.Toshinori Kitamura, Hisao Katoh, Mika Takeuchi, Masaaki Murakami, Fusako Kitamura, Chieko Hasui & Miki Hayashi - 2000 - Ethics and Behavior 10 (1):51-63.
    Some people in Japan are still comfortable with the paternalistic role of doctors, but others wish that their own decisions would receive a greater amount of respect. A total of 747 students of universities and colleges and 114 parents of these students participated in a questionnaire survey. Most of the participants thought that autonomy should be respected in situations involving death with dignity and euthanasia, whereas it should not be respected in attempted suicide and involuntary admission of individuals with mental (...)
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  5.  16
    Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Ethical Guidelines: An International Study of Physicians. [REVIEW]D. C. Malloy, P. Sevigny, T. Hadjistavropoulos, M. Jeyaraj, E. Fahey McCarthy, M. Murakami, S. Paholpak, Y. Lee & I. Park - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):373-383.
    The intent of ethics is to establish a set of standards that will provide a framework to modify, regulate, and possibly enhance moral behaviour. Eleven focus groups were conducted with physicians from six culturally distinct countries to explore their perception of formalized, written ethical guidelines (i.e., codes of ethics, credos, value and mission statements) that attempt to direct their ethical practice. Six themes emerged from the data: lack of awareness, no impact, marginal impact, other codes or value statements supersede, personal (...)
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  6.  17
    Ethical Decision-Making About Older Adults and Moral Intensity: An International Study of Physicians.D. C. Malloy, J. Williams, T. Hadjistavropoulos, B. Krishnan, M. Jeyaraj, E. F. McCarthy, M. Murakami, S. Paholpak, J. Mafukidze & B. Hillis - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (4):285-296.
    Through discourse with international groups of physicians, we conducted a cross-cultural analysis of the types of ethical dilemmas physicians face. Qualitative analysis was used to categorise the dilemmas into seven themes, which we compared among the physicians by country of practice. These themes were a-theoretically-driven and grounded heavily within the text. We then subjected the dilemmas to an analysis of moral intensity, which represents an important theoretical perspective of ethical decision making. These constructs represent salient determinants of ethical behaviour and (...)
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  7.  36
    Roundtable 3: Political Ignorance, Empirical Realities.Samuel DeCanio, Jeffrey Friedman, David R. Mayhew, Michael H. Murakami & Nick Weller - 2008 - Critical Review 20 (4):463-480.
  8.  7
    The Dissolution of Spherical G.P. Zones in a Binary A1-6.8 At. % Zn Alloy.M. Morinaga, M. Murakami, O. Kawano & Y. Murakami - 1971 - Philosophical Magazine 24 (189):527-538.
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  9.  6
    The Effect of Plastic Deformation at −196°C on Pre-Precipitation in a Quenched Al-6.8 At. % Zn Alloy.M. Murakami, O. Kawano, T. Uyeda & Y. Murakami - 1970 - Philosophical Magazine 21 (174):1119-1126.
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  10.  7
    Expanding the Additive Reduct of a Model of Peano Arithmetic.Masahiko Murakami & Akito Tsuboi - 2003 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (4):363-368.
    Let M be a model of first order Peano arithmetic and I an initial segment of M that is closed under multiplication. LetM0 be the {0, 1,+}-reduct ofM. We show that there is another model N of PA that is also an expansion of M0 such that a · Ma = a · Na if and only if a ∈ I for all a ∈ M.
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  11.  5
    Effect of Small Amounts of the Third element57Fe on the Growth of G.P. Zones in an A1-6.8 At. % Zn Alloy.M. Murakami, S. Nasu, M. Morinaga, O. Kawano & Y. Murakami - 1971 - Philosophical Magazine 24 (189):719-725.
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  12.  7
    Discourse on Medicine: Meditative and Calculative Approaches to Ethics From an International Perspective.David C. Malloy, Ronald Martin, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Peilai Liu, Elizabeth F. McCarthy, Ilhyeok Park, N. Shalani, Masaaki Murakami & Suchat Paholpak - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:18.
    Heidegger’s two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries . Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers (...)
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  13.  10
    Standardization Principle of Nonstandard Universes.Masahiko Murakami - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (4):1645-1655.
    A bounded ultrasheaf is a nonstandard universe constructed from a superstructure in a Boolean valued model of set theory. We consider the bounded elementary embeddings between bounded ultrasheaves. Then the standardization principle is true if and only if the ultrafilters are comparable by the Rudin-Frolik order. The base concept is that the bounded elementary embeddings correspond to the complete Boolean homomorphisms. We represent this by the Rudin-Keisler order of ultrafilters of Boolean algebras.
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