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  1.  16
    Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Ross Upshur, Beatriz Thome, Michael Parker, Aaron Glickman, Cathy Zhang & Connor Boyle - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine 45:10.1056/NEJMsb2005114.
    Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
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  2.  14
    Ethics of instantaneous contact tracing using mobile phone apps in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic.Michael J. Parker, Christophe Fraser, Lucie Abeler-Dörner & David Bonsall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):427-431.
    In this paper we discuss ethical implications of the use of mobile phone apps in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Contact tracing is a well-established feature of public health practice during infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics. However, the high proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission in COVID-19 means that standard contact tracing methods are too slow to stop the progression of infection through the population. To address this problem, many countries around the world have deployed or are developing mobile phone apps (...)
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  3. The importance of getting the ethics right in a pandemic treaty.G. Owen Schaefer, Caesar A. Atuire, Sharon Kaur, Michael Parker, Govind Persad, Maxwell J. Smith, Ross Upshur & Ezekiel Emanuel - 2023 - The Lancet Infectious Diseases 23 (11):e489 - e496.
    The COVID-19 pandemic revealed numerous weaknesses in pandemic preparedness and response, including underfunding, inadequate surveillance, and inequitable distribution of countermeasures. To overcome these weaknesses for future pandemics, WHO released a zero draft of a pandemic treaty in February, 2023, and subsequently a revised bureau's text in May, 2023. COVID-19 made clear that pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response reflect choices and value judgements. These decisions are therefore not a purely scientific or technical exercise, but are fundamentally grounded in ethics. The latest (...)
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  4.  21
    Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries.Jantina de Vries, Susan J. Bull, Ogobara Doumbo, Muntaser Ibrahim, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Dominic Kwiatkowski & Michael Parker - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):5.
    BackgroundGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania.DiscussionWe explore ethical (...)
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  5.  22
    Toward Methodological Innovation in Empirical Ethics Research.Michael Dunn, Mark Sheehan, Tony Hope & Michael Parker - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (4):466-480.
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  6.  20
    Psychiatric Genomics and Mental Health Treatment: Setting the Ethical Agenda.Michael Parker, Michael Dunn & Camillia Kong - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (4):3-12.
    Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making. First, the genetic essentialism that is commonly associated with the genomics (...)
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  7.  8
    Ethical preparedness in genomic medicine: how NHS clinical scientists navigate ethical issues.Kate Sahan, Kate Lyle, Helena Carley, Nina Hallowell, Michael J. Parker & Anneke M. Lucassen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Much has been published about the ethical issues encountered by clinicians in genetics/genomics, but those experienced by clinical laboratory scientists are less well described. Clinical laboratory scientists now frequently face navigating ethical problems in their work, but how they should be best supported to do this is underexplored. This lack of attention is also reflected in the ethics tools available to clinical laboratory scientists such as guidance and deliberative ethics forums, developed primarily to manage issues arising within the clinic.We explore (...)
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  8.  22
    Public involvement in the governance of population-level biomedical research: unresolved questions and future directions.Sonja Erikainen, Phoebe Friesen, Leah Rand, Karin Jongsma, Michael Dunn, Annie Sorbie, Matthew McCoy, Jessica Bell, Michael Burgess, Haidan Chen, Vicky Chico, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Julie Darbyshire, Rebecca Dawson, Andrew Evans, Nick Fahy, Teresa Finlay, Lucy Frith, Aaron Goldenberg, Lisa Hinton, Nils Hoppe, Nigel Hughes, Barbara Koenig, Sapfo Lignou, Michelle McGowan, Michael Parker, Barbara Prainsack, Mahsa Shabani, Ciara Staunton, Rachel Thompson, Kinga Varnai, Effy Vayena, Oli Williams, Max Williamson, Sarah Chan & Mark Sheehan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):522-525.
    Population-level biomedical research offers new opportunities to improve population health, but also raises new challenges to traditional systems of research governance and ethical oversight. Partly in response to these challenges, various models of public involvement in research are being introduced. Yet, the ways in which public involvement should meet governance challenges are not well understood. We conducted a qualitative study with 36 experts and stakeholders using the World Café method to identify key governance challenges and explore how public involvement can (...)
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  9. Symmetry arguments against regular probability: A reply to recent objections.Matthew W. Parker - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (1):1-21.
    A probability distribution is regular if it does not assign probability zero to any possible event. While some hold that probabilities should always be regular, three counter-arguments have been posed based on examples where, if regularity holds, then perfectly similar events must have different probabilities. Howson and Benci et al. have raised technical objections to these symmetry arguments, but we see here that their objections fail. Howson says that Williamson’s “isomorphic” events are not in fact isomorphic, but Howson is speaking (...)
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  10.  30
    What constitutes good ethical practice in genomic research in Africa? Perspectives of participants in a genomic research study in Uganda.Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Jantina de Vries, Michael Parker, Paulina Tindana, Oliver Mweemba & Janet Seeley - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):169-183.
    ABSTRACT Previous research has consistently highlighted the importance of stakeholder engagement in identifying and developing solutions to ethical challenges in genomic research, especially in Africa where such research is relatively new. In this paper, we examine what constitutes good ethical practice in research, from the perspectives of genomic research participants in Uganda. Our study was part of a multi-site qualitative study exploring these issues in Uganda, Ghana and Zambia. We purposively sampled various stakeholders including genomic research participants, researchers, research ethics (...)
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  11.  22
    The best possible child.M. Parker - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (5):279-283.
    Julian Savulescu argues for two principles of reproductive ethics: reproductive autonomy and procreative beneficence, where the principle of procreative beneficence is conceptualised in terms of a duty to have the child, of the possible children that could be had, who will have the best opportunity of the best life. Were it to be accepted, this principle would have significant implications for the ethics of reproductive choice and, in particular, for the use of prenatal testing and other reproductive technologies for the (...)
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  12. Set Size and the Part–Whole Principle.Matthew W. Parker - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic (4):1-24.
    Recent work has defended “Euclidean” theories of set size, in which Cantor’s Principle (two sets have equally many elements if and only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between them) is abandoned in favor of the Part-Whole Principle (if A is a proper subset of B then A is smaller than B). It has also been suggested that Gödel’s argument for the unique correctness of Cantor’s Principle is inadequate. Here we see from simple examples, not that Euclidean theories of set (...)
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  13.  19
    An Infinite Lottery Paradox.John D. Norton & Matthew W. Parker - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (1):1-6.
    In a fair, infinite lottery, it is possible to conclude that drawing a number divisible by four is strictly less likely than drawing an even number; and, with apparently equal cogency, that drawing a number divisible by four is equally as likely as drawing an even number.
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  14. Symmetry arguments against regular probability: A reply to recent objections.Matthew W. Parker - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (1):8.
    A probability distribution is regular if no possible event is assigned probability zero. While some hold that probabilities should always be regular, three counter-arguments have been posed based on examples where, if regularity holds, then perfectly similar events must have different probabilities. Howson (2017) and Benci et al. (2016) have raised technical objections to these symmetry arguments, but we see here that their objections fail. Howson says that Williamson’s (2007) “isomorphic” events are not in fact isomorphic, but Howson is speaking (...)
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  15.  26
    Informed consent in genomic research and biobanking: taking feedback of findings seriously.Paulina Tindana, Cornelius Depuur, Jantina de Vries, Janet Seeley & Michael Parker - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):200-215.
    Genomic research and biobanking present several ethical, social and cultural challenges, particularly when conducted in settings with limited scientific research capacity. One of these challenges is determining the model of consent that should support the sharing of human biological samples and data in the context of international collaborative research. In this paper, we report on the views of key research stakeholders in Ghana on what should count as good ethical practice when seeking consent for genomic research and biobanking in Africa. (...)
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  16.  39
    Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research.V. M. Marsh, D. K. Kamuya, M. J. Parker & C. S. Molyneux - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (1):26-39.
    The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term ‘community’ and its specific normative contribution. We argue that ‘community’ is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that (...)
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  17.  29
    Informed consent in genomic research and biobanking: taking feedback of findings seriously.Paulina Tindana, Cornelius Depuur, Jantina de Vries, Janet Seeley & Michael Parker - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):200-215.
    ABSTRACT Genomic research and biobanking present several ethical, social and cultural challenges, particularly when conducted in settings with limited scientific research capacity. One of these challenges is determining the model of consent that should support the sharing of human biological samples and data in the context of international collaborative research. In this paper, we report on the views of key research stakeholders in Ghana on what should count as good ethical practice when seeking consent for genomic research and biobanking in (...)
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  18.  30
    ‘It is an entrustment’: Broad consent for genomic research and biobanks in sub‐Saharan Africa.Paulina Tindana, Sassy Molyneux, Susan Bull & Michael Parker - 2019 - Developing World Bioethics 19 (1):9-17.
    In recent years, there has been an increase in the establishment of biobanks for genetic and genomic studies around the globe. One example of this is the Human Heredity and Health in Africa Initiative (H3Africa), which has established biobanks in the sub‐region to facilitate future indigenous genomic studies. The concept of ‘broad consent’ has been proposed as a mechanism to enable potential research participants in biobanks to give permission for their samples to be used in future research studies. However, questions (...)
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  19.  24
    What constitutes good ethical practice in genomic research in Africa? Perspectives of participants in a genomic research study in Uganda.Janet Seeley, Oliver Mweemba, Paulina Tindana, Michael Parker, Jantina de Vries & Rwamahe Rutakumwa - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):169-183.
    ABSTRACT Previous research has consistently highlighted the importance of stakeholder engagement in identifying and developing solutions to ethical challenges in genomic research, especially in Africa where such research is relatively new. In this paper, we examine what constitutes good ethical practice in research, from the perspectives of genomic research participants in Uganda. Our study was part of a multi-site qualitative study exploring these issues in Uganda, Ghana and Zambia. We purposively sampled various stakeholders including genomic research participants, researchers, research ethics (...)
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  20.  16
    Understandings of genomic research in developing countries: a qualitative study of the views of MalariaGEN participants in Mali.Karim Traore, Susan Bull, Alassane Niare, Salimata Konate, Mahamadou A. Thera, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Michael Parker & Ogobara K. Doumbo - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundObtaining informed consent for participation in genomic research in low-income settings presents specific ethical issues requiring attention. These include the challenges that arise when providing information about unfamiliar and technical research methods, the implications of complicated infrastructure and data sharing requirements, and the potential consequences of future research with samples and data. This study investigated researchers’ and participants’ parents’ experiences of a consent process and understandings of a genome-wide association study of malaria involving children aged five and under in Mali. (...)
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  21.  12
    Motivations and perceptions of community advisory boards in the ethics of medical research: the case of the Thai-Myanmar border.Khin Maung Lwin, Phaik Y. Cheah, Phaik K. Cheah, Nicholas J. White, Nicholas P. J. Day, Francois Nosten & Michael Parker - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):12.
    Community engagement is increasingly promoted as a marker of good, ethical practice in the context of international collaborative research in low-income countries. There is, however, no widely agreed definition of community engagement or of approaches adopted. Justifications given for its use also vary. Community engagement is, for example, variously seen to be of value in: the development of more effective and appropriate consent processes; improved understanding of the aims and forms of research; higher recruitment rates; the identification of important ethical (...)
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  22.  18
    Motivations and perceptions of community advisory boards in the ethics of medical research: the case of the Thai-Myanmar border.Michael Parker, Francois Nosten, Nicholas P. J. Day, Nicholas J. White, Phaik Kin Cheah, Phaik Yeong Cheah & Khin Maung Lwin - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1).
    BackgroundCommunity engagement is increasingly promoted as a marker of good, ethical practice in the context of international collaborative research in low-income countries. There is, however, no widely agreed definition of community engagement or of approaches adopted. Justifications given for its use also vary. Community engagement is, for example, variously seen to be of value in: the development of more effective and appropriate consent processes; improved understanding of the aims and forms of research; higher recruitment rates; the identification of important ethical (...)
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  23.  40
    Use of broad consent and related procedures in genomics research: Perspectives from research participants in the Genetics of Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHDGen) study in a University Teaching Hospital in Zambia.Oliver Mweemba, John Musuku, Bongani M. Mayosi, Michael Parker, Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Janet Seeley, Paulina Tindana & Jantina De Vries - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):184-199.
    ABSTRACT The use of broad consent for genomics research raises important ethical questions for the conduct of genomics research, including relating to its acceptability to research participants and comprehension of difficult scientific concepts. To explore these and other challenges, we conducted a study using qualitative methods with participants enrolled in an H3Africa Rheumatic Heart Disease genomics study (the RHDGen network) in Zambia to explore their views on broad consent, sample and data sharing and secondary use. In-depth interviews were conducted with (...)
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  24.  15
    SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies: ethics and risk minimisation.Susan Bull, Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Ariella Binik & Michael J. Parker - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e79-e79.
    COVID-19 poses an exceptional threat to global public health and well-being. Recognition of the need to develop effective vaccines at unprecedented speed has led to calls to accelerate research pathways ethically, including by conducting challenge studies ) with SARS-CoV-2. Such research is controversial, with concerns being raised about the social, legal, ethical and clinical implications of infecting healthy volunteers with SARS-CoV-2 for research purposes. Systematic risk evaluations are critical to inform assessments of the ethics of any proposed SARS-CoV-2 CHIs. Such (...)
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  25.  20
    Consent and assent in paediatric research in low-income settings.Phaik Y. Cheah & Michael Parker - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):22.
    In order to involve children in the decision-making process about participation in medical research it is widely recommended that the child’s assent be sought in addition to parental consent. However, the concept of assent is fraught with difficulties, resulting in confusion among researchers and ethics committees alike.
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  26.  9
    Doctors’ perceptions of how resource limitations relate to futility in end-of-life decision making: a qualitative analysis.Eliana Close, Ben P. White, Lindy Willmott, Cindy Gallois, Malcolm Parker, Nicholas Graves & Sarah Winch - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (6):373-379.
    ObjectiveTo increase knowledge of how doctors perceive futile treatments and scarcity of resources at the end of life. In particular, their perceptions about whether and how resource limitations influence end-of-life decision making. This study builds on previous work that found some doctors include resource limitations in their understanding of the concept of futility.SettingThree tertiary hospitals in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia.DesignQualitative study using in-depth, semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Ninety-six doctors were interviewed in 11 medical specialties. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using thematic (...)
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  27.  20
    “When they see us, it’s like they have seen the benefits!”: experiences of study benefits negotiations in community-based studies on the Kenyan Coast.Dorcas M. Kamuya, Vicki Marsh, Patricia Njuguna, Patrick Munywoki, Michael Parker & Sassy Molyneux - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):90.
    Benefit sharing in health research has been the focus of international debates for many years, particularly in developing countries. Whilst increasing attention is being given to frameworks that can guide researchers to determine levels of benefits to participants, there is little empirical research from developing countries on the practical application of these frameworks, including in situations of extreme poverty and vulnerability. In addition, the voices of those who often negotiate and face issues related to benefits in practice - frontline researchers (...)
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  28.  11
    Patient and public involvement: Two sides of the same coin or different coins altogether?Matthew S. McCoy, Jonathan Warsh, Leah Rand, Michael Parker & Mark Sheehan - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (6):708-715.
    Patient and public involvement (PPI) has gained widespread support in health research and health policy circles, but there is little consensus on the precise meaning or justifications of PPI. We argue that an important step towards clarifying the meaning and justification for PPI is to split apart the familiar acronym and draw a distinction between patient and public involvement. Specifically, we argue that patient involvement should refer to the practice of involving individuals in health research or policy on the basis (...)
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  29.  14
    Reasons doctors provide futile treatment at the end of life: a qualitative study.Lindy Willmott, Benjamin White, Cindy Gallois, Malcolm Parker, Nicholas Graves, Sarah Winch, Leonie Kaye Callaway, Nicole Shepherd & Eliana Close - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (8):496-503.
    Objective Futile treatment, which by definition cannot benefit a patient, is undesirable. This research investigated why doctors believe that treatment that they consider to be futile is sometimes provided at the end of a patient9s life. Design Semistructured in-depth interviews. Setting Three large tertiary public hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Participants 96 doctors from emergency, intensive care, palliative care, oncology, renal medicine, internal medicine, respiratory medicine, surgery, cardiology, geriatric medicine and medical administration departments. Participants were recruited using purposive maximum variation sampling. (...)
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  30.  13
    Ethics in practice: the state of the debate on promoting the social value of global health research in resource poor settings particularly Africa.Geoffrey M. Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael C. English - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):22.
    BackgroundPromoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been intense debate within academic (...)
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  31.  22
    Forms of benefit sharing in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings: a qualitative study of stakeholders' views in Kenya.Geoffrey Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael English - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:7.
    Background Increase in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings in the last decade though a positive development has raised ethical concerns relating to potential for exploitation. Some of the suggested strategies to address these concerns include calls for providing universal standards of care, reasonable availability of proven interventions and more recently, promoting the overall social value of research especially in clinical research. Promoting the social value of research has been closely associated with providing fair benefits to various stakeholders (...)
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  32.  39
    Use of broad consent and related procedures in genomics research: Perspectives from research participants in the Genetics of Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHDGen) study in a University Teaching Hospital in Zambia.Jantina De Vries, Paulina Tindana, Janet Seeley, Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Michael Parker, Bongani M. Mayosi, John Musuku & Oliver Mweemba - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):184-199.
    ABSTRACT The use of broad consent for genomics research raises important ethical questions for the conduct of genomics research, including relating to its acceptability to research participants and comprehension of difficult scientific concepts. To explore these and other challenges, we conducted a study using qualitative methods with participants enrolled in an H3Africa Rheumatic Heart Disease genomics study (the RHDGen network) in Zambia to explore their views on broad consent, sample and data sharing and secondary use. In-depth interviews were conducted with (...)
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  33.  15
    Authority and the Future of Consent in Population-Level Biomedical Research.Mark Sheehan, Rachel Thompson, Jon Fistein, Jim Davies, Michael Dunn, Michael Parker, Julian Savulescu & Kerrie Woods - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    Population-level biomedical research has become crucial to the health system’s ability to improve the health of the population. This form of research raises a number of well-documented ethical concerns, perhaps the most significant of which is the inability of the researcher to obtain fully informed specific consent from participants. Two proposed technical solutions to this problem of consent in large-scale biomedical research that have become increasingly popular are meta-consent and dynamic consent. We critically examine the ethical and practical credentials of (...)
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  34.  5
    Law as Clinical Evidence: A New ConstitutiveModel of Medical Education and Decision-Making.Malcolm Parker, Lindy Willmott, Ben White, Gail Williams & Colleen Cartwright - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (1):101-109.
    Over several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors’ decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative “constitutive” model is supported on (...)
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  35.  20
    What constitutes good ethical practice in genomic research in Africa? Perspectives of participants in a genomic research study in Uganda.Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Jantina de Vries, Michael Parker, Paulina Tindana, Oliver Mweemba & Janet Seeley - 2019 - Global Bioethics:1-15.
    Previous research has consistently highlighted the importance of stakeholder engagement in identifying and developing solutions to ethical challenges in genomic research, especially in Africa where such research is relatively new. In this paper, we examine what constitutes good ethical practice in research, from the perspectives of genomic research participants in Uganda. Our study was part of a multi-site qualitative study exploring these issues in Uganda, Ghana and Zambia. We purposively sampled various stakeholders including genomic research participants, researchers, research ethics committee (...)
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  36.  25
    Ethical issues in the export, storage and reuse of human biological samples in biomedical research: perspectives of key stakeholders in Ghana and Kenya.Paulina Tindana, Catherine S. Molyneux, Susan Bull & Michael Parker - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):76.
    For many decades, access to human biological samples, such as cells, tissues, organs, blood, and sub-cellular materials such as DNA, for use in biomedical research, has been central in understanding the nature and transmission of diseases across the globe. However, the limitations of current ethical and regulatory frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa to govern the collection, export, storage and reuse of these samples have resulted in inconsistencies in practice and a number of ethical concerns for sample donors, researchers and research ethics (...)
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  37.  9
    Two concepts of empirical ethics.Malcolm Parker - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (4):202-213.
    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical (...)
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  38.  13
    A qualitative study on aspects of consent for genomic research in communities with low literacy.Daima Bukini, Columba Mbekenga, Siana Nkya, Lisa Purvis, Sheryl McCurdy, Michael Parker & Julie Makani - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundLow literacy of study participants in Sub - Saharan Africa has been associated with poor comprehension during the consenting process in research participation. The concerns in comprehension are far greater when consenting to participate in genomic studies due to the complexity of the science involved. While efforts are made to explore possibilities of applying genomic technologies in diseases prevalent in Sub Saharan Africa, we ought to develop methods to improve participants’ comprehension for genomic studies. The purpose of this study was (...)
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  39.  6
    Key Ethical Concepts and Their Application to COVID-19 Research.Angus Dawson, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Michael Parker, Maxwell J. Smith & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):127-132.
    During the WHO-GloPID COVID-19 Global Research and Innovation Forum meeting held in Geneva on the 11th and 12th of February 2020 a number of different ethical concepts were used. This paper briefly states what a number of these concepts mean and how they might be applied to discussions about research during the COVID-19 pandemic and related outbreaks. This paper does not seek to be exhaustive and other ethical concepts are, of course, relevant and important.
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  40.  15
    Stakeholder views on the acceptability of human infection studies in Malawi.Kate Gooding, Stephen B. Gordon, Michael Parker, Rodrick Sambakunsi, Markus Gmeiner, Jamie Rylance, Kondwani Jambo & Blessings M. Kapumba - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-15.
    BackgroundHuman infection studies (HIS) are valuable in vaccine development. Deliberate infection, however, creates challenging questions, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIS are new and ethical challenges may be heightened. Consultation with stakeholders is needed to support contextually appropriate and acceptable study design. We examined stakeholder perceptions about the acceptability and ethics of HIS in Malawi, to inform decisions about planned pneumococcal challenge research and wider understanding of HIS ethics in LMICs.MethodsWe conducted 6 deliberative focus groups and 15 (...)
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  41.  7
    Tailored medicine: Whom will it fit? The ethics of patient and disease stratification.Andrew Smart, Paul Martin & Michael Parker - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (4):322–343.
    ABSTRACT A key selling point of pharmacogenetics is the genetic stratification of either patients or diseases in order to target the prescribing of medicine. The hope is that genetically ‘tailored’ medicines will replace the current ‘one‐size‐fits‐all’ paradigm of drug development and usage. This paper is concerned with the relationship between difference and justice in the use of pharmacogenetics. This new technology, which facilitates the identification and use of difference, has, we shall argue, the potential to lead to injustice either by (...)
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  42.  16
    Will mass drug administration eliminate lymphatic filariasis? Evidence from northern coastal tanzania.Melissa Parker & Tim Allen - 2013 - Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (4):517-545.
    SummaryThis article documents understandings and responses to mass drug administration for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among adults and children in northern coastal Tanzania from 2004 to 2011. Assessment of village-level distribution registers, combined with self-reported drug uptake surveys of adults, participant observation and interviews, revealed that at study sites in Pangani and Muheza districts the uptake of drugs was persistently low. The majority of people living at these highly endemic locations either did not receive or actively rejected (...)
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  43.  19
    Public’s attitudes on participation in a biobank for research: an Italian survey.Corinna Porteri, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Elena Togni & Michael Parker - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):81.
    The creation of biobanks depends upon people’s willingness to donate their samples for research purposes and to agree to sample storage. Moreover, biobanks are a public good that requires active participation by all interested stakeholders at every stage of development. Therefore, knowing public’s attitudes towards participation in a biobank and biobank management is important and deserves investigation.
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  44.  10
    The Cambridge medical ethics workbook.Donna Dickenson, Richard Huxtable & Michael Parker (eds.) - 2001 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This new edition of The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook builds on the success of the first edition by working from the 'bottom up', with a widely praised case ...
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  45.  5
    Concern for families and individuals in clinical genetics.M. Parker - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (2):70-73.
    Clinical geneticists are increasingly confronted with ethical tensions between their responsibilities to individual patients and to other family members. This paper considers the ethical implications of a “familial” conception of the clinical genetics role. It argues that dogmatic adherence to either the familial or to the individualistic conception of clinical genetics has the potential to lead to significant harms and to fail to take important obligations seriously.Geneticists are likely to continue to be required to make moral judgments in the resolution (...)
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  46.  24
    Use of broad consent and related procedures in genomics research: Perspectives from research participants in the Genetics of Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHDGen) study in a University Teaching Hospital in Zambia.Oliver Mweemba, John Musuku, Bongani M. Mayosi, Michael Parker, Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Janet Seeley, Paulina Tindana & Jantina De Vries - 2019 - Global Bioethics:1-16.
    The use of broad consent for genomics research raises important ethical questions for the conduct of genomics research, including relating to its acceptability to research participants and comprehension of difficult scientific concepts. To explore these and other challenges, we conducted a study using qualitative methods with participants enrolled in an H3Africa Rheumatic Heart Disease genomics study in Zambia to explore their views on broad consent, sample and data sharing and secondary use. In-depth interviews were conducted with RHDGen participants, study staff (...)
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  47.  20
    Philosophical method and Galileo's paradox of infinity.Matthew W. Parker - 2009 - In Bart Van Kerkhove (ed.), New Perspectives on Mathematical Practices: Essays in Philosophy and History of Mathematics. World Scientific.
    We consider an approach to some philosophical problems that I call the Method of Conceptual Articulation: to recognize that a question may lack any determinate answer, and to re-engineer concepts so that the question acquires a definite answer in such a way as to serve the epistemic motivations behind the question. As a case study we examine “Galileo’s Paradox”, that the perfect square numbers seem to be at once as numerous as the whole numbers, by one-to-one correspondence, and yet less (...)
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  48.  9
    Prevalence of depression in granted and refused requests for euthanasia and assisted suicide: a systematic review.Ilana Levene & Michael Parker - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):205-211.
    Next SectionBackground There is an established link between depression and interest in hastened death in patients who are seriously ill. Concern exists over the extent of depression in patients who actively request euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and those who have their requests granted. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of depression in refused and granted requests for euthanasia/PAS and discuss these findings. Methods A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in July 2010, identifying studies reporting rates of depression in requests (...)
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  49.  5
    The role of law in decisions to withhold and withdraw life-sustaining treatment from adults who lack capacity: a cross-sectional study.Benjamin P. White, Lindy Willmott, Gail Williams, Colleen Cartwright & Malcolm Parker - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (5):327-333.
    Objectives To determine the role played by law in medical specialists9 decision-making about withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from adults who lack capacity, and the extent to which legal knowledge affects whether law is followed. Design Cross-sectional postal survey of medical specialists. Setting The two largest Australian states by population. Participants 649 medical specialists from seven specialties most likely to be involved in end-of-life decision-making in the acute setting. Main outcome measures Compliance with law and the impact of legal knowledge (...)
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  50.  15
    Ethical Challenges that Arise at the Community Interface of Health R esearch: Village R eporters’ Experiences in Western K enya.Tracey Chantler, Faith Otewa, Peter Onyango, Ben Okoth, Frank Odhiambo, Michael Parker & Paul Wenzel Geissler - 2013 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (1):30-37.
    Community Engagement (CE) has been presented by bio-ethicists and scientists as a straightforward and unequivocal good which can minimize the risks of exploitation and ensure a fair distribution of research benefits in developing countries. By means of ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Kenya between 2007 and 2009 we explored how CE is understood and enacted in paediatric vaccine trials conducted by the Kenyan Medical Research Institute and the US Centers for Disease Control (KEMRI/CDC). In this paper we focus on the role (...)
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