O autor recolhe, no interior da experiência cristã, perspectivas pertinentes e necessárias à concretização histórica do diálogo inter-religioso. Sua tese é a de que elementos básicos para essa práxis libertadora estão presentes na própria experiência religiosa de Jesus de Nazaré. O ponto de partida é o reconhecimento, pressuposto epocal, da legitimidade do pluralismo cultural e religioso. Na primeira parte, explicita a dimensão antropológica e os pressupostos críticos de compreensão de uma tradição religiosa. Na segunda, recolhe contribuições importantes da tradição judaico-cristã (...) para a efetivação do diálogo interreligioso: a estrutura dialógica da revelação divina, a universalidade do amor de Deus, a promoção da vida humana como valor central, a necessária encarnação histórica da experiência de Deus e a dimensão sacramental da religião diante da centralidade teológica do Reino de Deus. Por fim, utiliza a categoria inreligionação, de Torres Queiruga, para mostrar as maravilhas do possível e necessário diálogo inter-religioso. Palavras-chave: Diálogo inter-religioso; Pluralismo; Fundamentalismo; Reino de Deus; Inreligionação. ABSTRACT The author extracts from Christian experience perspectives associated with, and necessary to, the historical concretization of inter-religious dialogue. According to his thesis, basic elements of inter-religious dialogue are present in Jesus’ own religious experience. The starting point is the acknowledgment of the legitimacy of cultural and religious pluralism. In the first part, the article points out the anthropologic dimension and critical premises of the comprehension of a religious tradition. In the second part, important contributions from Jewish-Christian tradition to an effective inter-religious dialogue are presented: the dialogical structure of divine revelation, the universality of God’s love, the promotion of human life as a central value, the necessary historical incarnation of God’s experience and the sacramental dimension of religion in face of the theological centrality of God’s Kingdom. Finally, Torres Queiruga’s category of ‘inreligionation’ is used to show the wonderful results of inter-religious dialogue. Key words: Inter-religious dialogue; Pluralism; Fundamentalism; God’s Kingdom; ‘Inreligionation’. (shrink)
Biomedical research has a strong impact on a country’s scientific-technological and socioeconomic development. It can make a significant contribution at three different levels: promotion of public health; the exchange of knowledge within the scientific community; and economic/ financial profitability. Africa only attracts ~3.3% of the world’s clinical research. This small proportion is due to, among several factors, the absence of two fundamental aspects: specific robust legislation and capacity for regulatory and ethical evaluation. There are five Portuguese- speaking African countries – (...) Angola, Cabo Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe. Despite presenting different degrees of clinical research development, these countries show a common serious insufficiency in the minimum conditions necessary for hosting, collaborating or leading biomedical research projects. These countries are also excluded from the support of international organisations for capacity building because of the language barrier. The Biomedical Ethics and Regulatory Capacity Building Partnership for Portuguese-Speaking African Countries project has developed methods to build capacity and partnership through research on national law, comparisons with international standards and by issuing recommendations at a national level. Through collaborative intensive training, trainees are taught to become educators at a national level. This, in turn, creates a sustainable impact at country level. BERC-Luso is a pioneering project, owing to a combination of innovative features. The partnership project: was developed exclusively in Portuguese; involves a large number of African countries, and national and international institutions; has been further enhanced by the diversity and complementarity of its action plans; and has also benefited from a broad participatory methodology based on resolution of recipients’ problems by the recipients themselves. It thus stands out as a model for similar future projects. (shrink)
In spite of vast global improvements in living standards, health, and well-being, the persistence of absolute poverty and its attendant maladies remains an unsettling fact of life for billions around the world and constitutes the primary cause for the failure of developing states to improve the health of their peoples. While economic development in developing countries is necessary to provide for underlying determinants of health – most prominently, poverty reduction and the building of comprehensive primary health systems – inequalities in (...) power within the international economic order and the spread of neoliberal development policy limit the ability of developing states to develop economically and realize public goods for health. With neoliberal development policies impacting entire societies, the collective right to development, as compared with an individual rights-based approach to development, offers a framework by which to restructure this system to realize social determinants of health. The right to development, working through a vector of rights, can address social determinants of health, obligating states and the international community to support public health systems while reducing inequities in health through poverty-reducing economic growth. At an international level, where the ability of states to develop economically and to realize public goods through public health systems is constrained by international financial institutions, the implementation of the right to development enables a restructuring of international institutions and foreign-aid programs, allowing states to enter development debates with a right to cooperation from other states, not simply a cry for charity. (shrink)
From Bohm-Bawerk on, political economists have seemingly blown great holes in Marxism, disproving its key concepts and falsifying Marx's predictions. In this book, Geoffrey Pilling maintains that even the most devastating of such factual analyses are fruitless because they misconstrue the nature of Marx's critique. In Pilling's presentation, Marx's critique of political economy is not "economic" but philosophic. In criticizing political economy, Marx transcends it and in so doing is essentially immune from any analysis which turns on "facts." According to (...) Pilling, "Marx's work cannot be reduced to a series of results, to be tested against the 'facts' of capitalist development". Pilling, following the lead of Lenin, seeks to overturn the "shallow empiricism" which has led to the degeneration of Marxism. It is Pilling's aim to recover the "philosophical method" of Capital, i.e., to re-work Capital in the light of Hegel's Logic, to rehabilitate dialectic over empiricism. Pilling begins by showing how "... Marx's critique of political economy [is] of a philosophic nature, rather than one concerned with the details of economic theory alone". Marx, as we know, rejects the individualism of political economy which derives from Locke. He condemns the uncritical and "ahistorical" character of political economy, i.e., the tendency to treat the categories of economics as natural. According to Pilling's. (shrink)
To a field of study not intensively cultivated by Marxists, Wikse contributes a criticism of what he calls "idiocy," the tendency to regard the self as private property. Whereas earlier writers like L. Sève or A. Schaff focused principally upon psychological and philosophical theories of the person, Wikse directs attention rather to experience, his own and that of others, mainly as this is reflected in language.
The aim of this paper is to analyze time-asymmetric quantum mechanics with respect of its validity as a non time-reversal invariant, time-asymmetric theory as well as of its ability to determine an arrow of time.
A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others. We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (...) and a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R. The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM. Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. (shrink)
There is a generic way to add any new feature to a system. It involves identifying the basic units which build up the system and introducing the new feature to each of these basic units. In the case where the system is argumentation and the feature is probabilistic we have the following. The basic units are: the nature of the arguments involved; the membership relation in the set S of arguments; the attack relation; and the choice of extensions. Generically to (...) add a new aspect to an argumentation network \ can be done by adding this feature to each component. This is a brute-force method and may yield a non-intuitive or meaningful result. A better way is to meaningfully translate the object system into another target system which does have the aspect required and then let the target system endow the aspect on the initial system. In our case we translate argumentation into classical propositional logic and get probabilistic argumentation from the translation. Of course what we get depends on how we translate. In fact, in this paper we introduce probabilistic semantics to abstract argumentation theory based on the equational approach to argumentation networks. We then compare our semantics with existing proposals in the literature including the approaches by M. Thimm and by A. Hunter. Our methodology in general is discussed in the conclusion. (shrink)
Ukraine has a special geopolitical location in Europe - between East and West, South and North. The specificity of this provision is due to multi-year contacts between peoples who lived or passed through its territory, the interactions of different cultures, traditions and worldviews. As a result, there is a rather varied ethno-national and religious palette of Ukrainian population. In today's conditions of building an independent state and civil society, this can be both a positive and a negative factor. Recent events (...) and practices show that the problem of religious and ethnic renaissance has acquired a special political and spiritual significance. Different directions of Christianity, other religions, existing for centuries on the Ukrainian ethnic basis, have been influenced by a wide range of social and national life. In addition, ethno-national and religious processes took place differently in the western and eastern regions of Ukraine, in the village and in the city. (shrink)
The present study tested the hypothesis that centrality of religiosity as defined as the position of an individual’s religious construct system in personality moderates the relationship between the experience of forgiveness by God and forgivingness for others. Participants completed measures of forgiveness by God, forgivingness, and centrality of religiosity. The moderating hypothesis was tested by treating centrality of religiosity both as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable with reference to a typological distinction. Results indicate that centrality of religiosity (...) moderates the positive relationship between forgiveness by God and forgivingness for others, implying that this relation only occurs if the religious construct system is in a central position in personality, but not if it is in a subordinate position. These results underline the importance of considering centrality of religiosity as an individual difference variable. (shrink)
Given an argumentation network with initial values to the arguments, we look for algorithms which can yield extensions compatible with such initial values. We find that the best way of tackling this problem is to offer an iteration formula that takes the initial values and the attack relation and iterates a sequence of intermediate values that eventually converges leading to an extension. The properties surrounding the application of the iteration formula and its connection with other numerical and non-numerical techniques proposed (...) by others are thoroughly investigated in this paper. (shrink)
The structural-parametric synthesis of neural networks of deep learning, in particular convolutional neural networks used in image processing, is considered. The classification of modern architectures of convolutional neural networks is given. It is shown that almost every convolutional neural network, depending on its topology, has unique blocks that determine its essential features, Residual block, Inception module, ResNeXt block. It is stated the problem of structural-parametric synthesis of convolutional neural networks, for the solution of which it is proposed to use a (...) genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is used to effectively overcome a large search space: on the one hand, to generate possible topologies of the convolutional neural network, namely the choice of specific blocks and their locations in the structure of the convolutional neural network, and on the other hand to solve the problem of structural-parametric synthesis of convolutional neural network of selected topology. The most significant parameters of the convolutional neural network are determined. An encoding method is proposed that allows to repre- sent each network structure in the form of a string of fixed length in binary format. After that, several standard genetic operations were identified, i.e. selection, mutation and crossover, which eliminate weak individuals of the previous generation and use them to generate competitive ones. An example of solving this problem is given, a database of patients with thyroid disease was used as a training sample. (shrink)