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Matthew Stone [50]M. W. F. Stone [22]Michael E. Stone [14]Martin Stone [14]
Michael Stone [9]M. H. Stone [9]Mark A. Stone [5]M. Stone [5]

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  1. Imagination and Convention: Distinguishing Grammar and Inference in Language.Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    How do hearers manage to understand speakers? And how do speakers manage to shape hearers' understanding? Lepore and Stone show that standard views about the workings of semantics and pragmatics are unsatisfactory. They advance an alternative view which better captures what is going on in linguistic communication.
     
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  2. Discourse and Logical Form: Pronouns, Attention and Coherence.Una Stojnić, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2017 - Linguistics and Philosophy 40 (5):519-547.
    Traditionally, pronouns are treated as ambiguous between bound and demonstrative uses. Bound uses are non-referential and function as bound variables, and demonstrative uses are referential and take as a semantic value their referent, an object picked out jointly by linguistic meaning and a further cue—an accompanying demonstration, an appropriate and adequately transparent speaker’s intention, or both. In this paper, we challenge tradition and argue that both demonstrative and bound pronouns are dependent on, and co-vary with, antecedent expressions. Moreover, the semantic (...)
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  3.  24
    The Theory of Representations for Boolean Algebras.M. H. Stone - 1936 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 1 (3):118-119.
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  4. Against Metaphorical Meaning.Ernest Lepore & Matthew Stone - 2010 - Topoi 29 (2):165-180.
    The commonplace view about metaphorical interpretation is that it can be characterized in traditional semantic and pragmatic terms, thereby assimilating metaphor to other familiar uses of language. We will reject this view, and propose in its place the view that, though metaphors can issue in distinctive cognitive and discourse effects, they do so without issuing in metaphorical meaning and truth, and so, without metaphorical communication. Our inspiration derives from Donald Davidson’s critical arguments against metaphorical meaning and Richard Rorty’s exploration of (...)
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  5. Deixis (Even Without Pointing).Una Stojnic, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):502-525.
  6. Anscombe on Expression of Intention : An Exegesis.Richard Moran & Martin J. Stone - 2011 - In Anton Ford, Jennifer Hornsby & Frederick Stoutland (eds.), Essays on Anscombe's Intention. Harvard University Press.
     
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  7. Anscombe on Expression of Intention.Richard Moran & Martin J. Stone - 2009 - In Constantine Sandis (ed.), New Essays on the Explanation of Action. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Of course in every act of this kind, there remains the possibility of putting this act into question – insofar as it refers to more distant, more essential ends.... For example the sentence which I write is the meaning of the letters I trace, but the whole work I wish to produce is the meaning of the sentence. And this work is a possibility in connection with which I can feel anguish; it is truly my possibility...tomorrow in relation to it (...)
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  8.  76
    A Formal Semantic Analysis of Gesture.A. Lascarides & M. Stone - 2009 - Journal of Semantics 26 (4):393-449.
    The gestures that speakers use in tandem with speech include not only conventionalized actions with identifiable meanings (so-called narrow gloss gestures or emblems) but also productive iconic and deictic gestures whose form and meanings seem largely improvised in context. In this paper, we bridge the descriptive tradition with formal models of reference and discourse structure so as to articulate an approach to the interpretation of these productive gestures. Our model captures gestures' partial and incomplete meanings as derived from form and (...)
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  9.  57
    Reference to Possible Worlds.Matthew Stone - 1999 - Technical Report 49, Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science.
    In modal subordination, a modal sentence is interpreted relative to a hypothetical scenario introduced in an earlier sentence. In this paper, I argue that this phenomenon reflects the fact that the interpretation of modals is an ANAPHORIC process. Modal morphemes introduce sets of possible worlds, representing alternative hypothetical scenarios, as entities into the discourse model. Their interpretation depends on evoking sets of worlds recording described and reference scenarios, and relating such sets to one another using familiar notions of restricted, preferential (...)
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  10.  38
    Chaos, Prediction and Laplacean Determinism.M. A. Stone - 1989 - American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (2):123--31.
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  11.  28
    Topological Representations of Distributive Lattices and Brouwerian Logics.M. H. Stone - 1938 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 3 (2):90-91.
  12.  53
    Sentence Planning as Description Using Tree Adjoining Grammar.Matthew Stone - unknown
    We present an algorithm for simultaneously constructing both the syntax and semantics of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative specifications of the discourse functions of syntactic constructions to make contextually appropriate syntactic choices.
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  13.  15
    Dynamic Discourse Referents for Tense and Modals.Matthew Stone & Daniel Hardt - 1999 - In Harry Bunt & Reinhard Muskins (eds.), Computing Meaning. Kluwer. pp. 302-321.
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  14.  72
    Enlightened Update: A Computational Architecture for Presupposition and Other Pragmatic Phenomena.Richmond H. Thomason & Matthew Stone - unknown
    We relate the theory of presupposition accommodation to a computational framework for reasoning in conversation. We understand presuppositions as private commitments the speaker makes in using an utterance but expects the listener to recognize based on mutual information. On this understanding, the conversation can move forward not just through the positive effects of interlocutors’ utterances but also from the retrospective insight interlocutors gain about one anothers’ mental states from observing what they do. Our title, ENLIGHTENED UPDATE, highlights such cases. Our (...)
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  15.  26
    Communicative Intentions and Conversational Processes in Human-Human and Human-Computer Dialogue.Matthew Stone - unknown
    This chapter investigates the computational consequences of a broadly Gricean view of language use as intentional activity. In this view, dialogue rests on coordinated reasoning about communicative intentions. The speaker produces each utterance by formulating a suitable communicative intention. The hearer understands it by recognizing the communicative intention behind it. When this coordination is successful, interlocutors succeed in considering the same intentions— that is, the same representations of utterance meaning—as the dialogue proceeds. In this paper, I emphasize that these intentions (...)
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  16.  37
    Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language.Matthew Stone - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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  17.  49
    Denying the Antecedent: Its Effective Use in Argumentation.Mark A. Stone - 2012 - Informal Logic 32 (3):327-356.
    Denying the antecedent is an invalid form of reasoning that is typically identified and frowned upon as a formal fallacy. Contrary to arguments that it does not or at least should not occur, denying the antecedent is a legitimate and effective strategy for undermining a position. Since it is not a valid form of argument, it cannot prove that the position is false. But it can provide inductive evidence that this position is probably false. In this role, it is neither (...)
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  18.  27
    Convention Before Communication.Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone - 2017 - Philosophical Perspectives 31 (1):245-265.
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  19.  66
    Context in Abductive Interpretation.Matthew Stone & Richmond H. Thomason - unknown
    This paper develops a general approach to contextual reasoning in natural language processing. Drawing on the view of natural language interpretation as abduction (Hobbs et al., 1993), we propose that interpretation provides an explanation of how an utterance creates a new discourse context in which its interpreted content is both true and promi- nent. Our framework uses dynamic theories of semantics and pragmatics, formal theories of context, and models of attentional state. We describe and illustrate a Prolog implementation.
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  20. Is Semantics Computational?Mark Steedman & Matthew Stone - unknown
    Both formal semantics and cognitive semantics are the source of important insights about language. By developing precise statements of the rules of meaning in fragmentary, abstract languages, formalists have been able to offer perspicuous accounts of how we might come to know such rules and use them to communicate with others. Conversely, by charting the overall landscape of interpretations, cognitivists have documented how closely interpretations draw on the commonsense knowledge that lets us make our way in the world. There is (...)
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  21.  29
    Or and Anaphora.Matthew D. Stone - unknown
    The meanings of donkey sentences cannot be captured using a procedure which, like Montague’s, uses the existential quantifiers of classical logic to translate indefinites and the variables to translate pronouns. The treatment of these examples requires meanings which depend on the context in which sentences appear, and thus necessitates a logic which models this context to some extent. If context is represented as the information conveyed in discourse, and the meanings of pronouns are enriched to depend on this information, the (...)
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  22. Meaning and Demonstration.Matthew Stone & Una Stojnic - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (1):69-97.
    In demonstration, speakers use real-world activity both for its practical effects and to help make their points. The demonstrations of origami mathematics, for example, reconfigure pieces of paper by folding, while simultaneously allowing their author to signal geometric inferences. Demonstration challenges us to explain how practical actions can get such precise significance and how this meaning compares with that of other representations. In this paper, we propose an explanation inspired by David Lewis’s characterizations of coordination and scorekeeping in conversation. In (...)
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  23.  17
    Convergent Behavioral and Neuropsychological Evidence for a Distinction Between Identification and Production Forms of Repetition Priming.John De Gabrieli, Chandan J. Vaidya, Maria Stone, Wendy S. Francis, Sharon L. Thompson-Schill, Debra A. Fleischman, Jared R. Tinklenberg, Jerome A. Yesavage & Robert S. Wilson - 1999 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128 (4):479.
  24. Interpreting Vague Utterances in Context.Matthew Stone - unknown
    We use the interpretation of vague scalar predicates like small as an illustration of how systematic semantic models of dialogue context enable the derivation of useful, fine-grained utterance interpretations from radically underspeci- fied semantic forms. Because dialogue context suffices to determine salient alternative scales and relevant distinctions along these scales, we can infer implicit standards of comparison for vague scalar predicates through completely general pragmatics, yet closely constrain the intended meaning to within a natural range.
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  25.  29
    Paying Heed to Collocations.Matthew Stone - unknown
    In this paper, we introduce a system, Sentence Planning Using Description, which generates collocations within the paradigm of sentence planning. SPUD simultaneously constructs the semantics and syntax of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential and lexical interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative speci- fications of the discourse (...)
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  26.  24
    Freedom and Force: Essays on Kant’s Legal Philosophy.Sari Kisilevsky & Martin J. Stone (eds.) - 2017 - Bloomsbury.
    This collection of essays takes as its starting point Arthur Ripstein's Force and Freedom: Kant's Legal and Political Philosophy, a seminal work on Kant's thinking about law, which also treats many of the contemporary issues of legal and political philosophy. The essays offer readings and elucidations of Ripstein's thought, dispute some of his claims and extend some of his themes within broader philosophical contexts, thus developing the significance of Ripstein's ideas for contemporary legal and political philosophy. -/- All of the (...)
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  27.  29
    Applications of the Theory of Boolean Rings to General Topology.M. H. Stone - 1939 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 4 (2):88-89.
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  28.  17
    Listening to What Cannot Be Said: Broken Narratives and the Lived Body.Renata Kokanović & Meredith Stone - 2018 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 17 (1):20-31.
    The core of this special issue of Arts and Humanities in Higher Education emerged from the Broken Narratives and the Lived Body conference held in 2016. The ‘Broken Narrative’ essays included in this issue open up a critical space for understanding and theorising illness narratives that defy a conventional cognitive ordering of the self as a bounded spatial and temporal entity. Here, we discuss how narratives might be ‘broken’ by discourse, trauma, ‘ill’ lived bodies and experiences that exceed linguistic representation. (...)
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  29.  94
    Logic and Semantic Analysis.Ernest Lepore & Matthew Stone - 2006 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. pp. 173.
  30.  48
    Formal Semantics for Iconic Gesture.Alex Lascarides & Matthew Stone - unknown
    We present a formal analysis of iconic coverbal gesture. Our model describes the incomplete meaning of gesture that’s derivable from its form, and the pragmatic reasoning that yields a more specific interpretation. Our formalism builds reported.
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  31. Discourse Coherence and Gesture Interpretation.Alex Lascarides & M. Stone - manuscript
    In face-to-face interaction, speakers make multimodal contributions that exploit both the linguistic resources of spoken language and the visual and spatial affordances of gesture. In this paper, we argue that, in formulating and understanding such multimodal contributions, interlocutors apply the same principles of coherence that characterize the interpretation of natural language discourse. In particular, we use a close analysis of a series of naturally-occurring embodied discourses to argue for two key generalizations. First, communicators and their audiences draw on coherence relations (...)
     
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  32.  25
    The Breadth of Semantics: Reply to Critics.Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (2):195-206.
    In our 2015 book Imagination and Convention, we explore the scope and limits of linguistic knowledge in semantics and pragmatics for natural language. We draw heavily on the notion of coordination from David Lewis' book on conventions. To the extent that the account we develop is right, general principles like Grice's cooperative principle and the maxims of conversation have little to say about about interpretation. Three commentators—Anne Bezuidenhout, Laurence Horn, and Zoltan Gendler Szabo—discuss and evaluate our program in three essays (...)
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  33.  37
    Societal Grounding is Essential to Meaningful Language Use.Matthew Stone - unknown
    well-known arguments dispute the meaningfulness of language use in specific extant systems; the symbols they use..
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  34. Focusing the Law What Legal Interpretation is Not.Martin Stone - 1994 - Faculty of Law, University of Toronto.
  35.  1
    Family Members, Ambulance Clinicians and Attempting CPR in the Community: The Ethical and Legal Imperative to Reach Collaborative Consensus at Speed.Robert Cole, Mike Stone, Alexander Ruck Keene & Zoe Fritz - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (10):650-653.
    Here we present the personal perspectives of two authors on the important and unfortunately frequent scenario of ambulance clinicians facing a deceased individual and family members who do not wish them to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We examine the professional guidance and the protection provided to clinicians, which is not matched by guidance to protect family members. We look at the legal framework in which these scenarios are taking place, and the ethical issues which are presented. We consider the interaction between (...)
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  36.  30
    Kyburg, Levi, and Petersen.Mark Stone - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (2):244-255.
    In this paper I attempt to tie together a longstanding dispute between Henry Kyburg and Isaac Levi concerning statistical inferences. The debate, which centers around the example of Petersen the Swede, concerns Kyburg's and Levi's accounts of randomness and choosing reference classes. I argue that both Kyburg and Levi have missed the real significance of their dispute, that Levi's claim that Kyburg violates Confirmational Conditionalization is insufficient, and that Kyburg has failed to show that Levi's criteria for choosing reference class (...)
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  37.  33
    Representing Communicative Intentions in Collaborative Conversational Agents.Matthew Stone - unknown
    This paper pursues a formal analogy between natural language dialogue and collaborative real-world action in general. The analogy depends on an analysis of two aspects of collaboration that figure crucially in language use. First, agents must be able to coordinate abstractly about future decisions which cannot be made on present information. Second, when agents finally take such decisions, they must again coordinate in order to interpret one anothers’ actions as collaborative. The contribution of this paper is a general representation of (...)
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  38.  60
    Linguistic Representation and Gricean Inference.Matthew Stone - unknown
    An essential ingredient of language use is our ability to reason about utterances as intentional actions. Linguistic representations are the natural substrate for such reasoning, and models from computational semantics can often be seen as providing an infrastructure to carry out such inferences from rich and accurate grammatical descriptions. Exploring such inferences offers a productive pragmatic perspective on problems of interpretation, and promises to leverage semantic representations in more flexible and more general tools that compute with meaning.
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  39.  9
    Otherwise Than Hospitality: A Disputation on the Relation of Ethics to Law and Politics.Gilbert Leung & Matthew Stone - 2009 - Law and Critique 20 (2):193-206.
    At a time of unprecedented migration and social displacement, following a century ravaged by war and hegemonic shift, the question of hospitality presents itself with unparalleled urgency. Taking his cue from Immanuel Kant’s cosmopolitics, Jacques Derrida addressed this question by deliberating on the nature of the political obligation to the other person. Invoking the work of Emmanuel Levinas, this demand is first of all ethical, and unconditional. But Derrida was also acutely aware of the residual violence of the hospitable gesture, (...)
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  40.  21
    Philosophical Investigations Into Figurative Speech Metaphor and Irony.Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone - 2014 - ProtoSociology 31:75-87.
    This paper surveys rich and important phenomena in language use that theorists study from a wide range of perspectives. And according to us, there is no unique and general mechanism behind our practices of metaphor and irony. Metaphor works in a particular way, by prompting the specific kind of analogical thinking And, irony works in its own particular way, by prompting new appreciation of the apparent contribution, speaker or perspective of an utterance exhibited for effect. Or so we will argue.
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  41.  30
    Abductive Planning with Sensing.Matthew Stone - unknown
    In abductive planning, plans are constructed as reasons for an agent to act: plans are demonstrations in logical theory of action that a goal will result assuming that given actions occur successfully. This paper shows how to construct plans abductively for an agent that can sense the world to augment its partial information. We use a formalism that explicitly refers not only to time but also to the information on which the agent deliberates. Goals are reformulated to represent the successive (...)
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  42.  59
    Models, Chaos, and Goodness of Fit.Stephen H. Kellert, Mark A. Stone & Arthur Fine - 1990 - Philosophical Topics 18 (2):85-105.
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  43. Galileo, Ficino, and Renaissance Platonism.James Hankins, Jill Kraye & M. W. F. Stone - 2000 - In Jill Kraye & M. W. F. Stone (eds.), Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy. Routledge.
     
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  44.  9
    Yoga for a World Out of Balance: Teachings on Ethics and Social Action.Michael Stone - 2009 - Shambhala Publications.
    In response to this need, this book shows how the yoga tradition offers a greater path to being a responsible member of the global community.
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  45.  3
    The Representation of Boolean Algebras.M. H. Stone - 1939 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 4 (1):35-35.
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  46.  14
    Word-Identification Priming for Ignored and Attended Words.Maria Stone, Sandra L. Ladd, Chandan J. Vaidya & John D. E. Gabrieli - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (2):238-258.
    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (...)
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  47.  7
    Lexicalized Grammar 101.Matthew Stone - unknown
    This paper presents a simple and versatile tree-rewriting lexicalized grammar formalism, TAGLET, that provides an effective scaffold for introducing advanced topics in a survey course on natural language processing (NLP). Students who implement a strong competence TAGLET parser and generator simultaneously get experience with central computer science ideas and develop an effective starting point for their own subsequent projects in data-intensive and interactive NLP.
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  48.  4
    Note on Formal Logic.M. H. Stone - 1937 - American Journal of Mathematics 59 (4):506-514.
  49. The Scope and Limits of Moral Deliberation.M. W. F. Stone - 2004 - In Lodi Nauta & Detlev Pätzold (eds.), Imagination in the Later Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. Peeters. pp. 35--57.
     
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  50.  82
    The Will and Human Action: From Antiquity to the Present Day.Thomas Pink & M. W. F. Stone (eds.) - 2003 - Routledge.
    What is the will? And what is its relation to human action? Throughout history, philosophers have been fascinated by the idea of "the will": the source of the drive that motivates human beings to act. However, there has never been a clear consensus as to what the will is and how it relates to human action. Some philosophers have taken the will to be based firmly in reason and rational choice, and some have seen it as purely self-determined. Others have (...)
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