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Matthew Stone [39]M. W. F. Stone [26]Martin Stone [12]M. H. Stone [8]
Michael Stone [8]Michael E. Stone [7]Mark A. Stone [5]M. Stone [5]

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Profile: Martin J. Stone (Yeshiva University)
Profile: Mark Stone
Profile: Martin Stone
Profile: Maggie Stone
Profile: Monica Stone
Profile: Miranda Stone (Oregon State University)
Profile: Michel Stone (Université de Montréal)
Profile: Myrtice Stone
Profile: Misty Stone (UNCP)
Profile: Markavelli Stone
  1. Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone (2014). Imagination and Convention: Distinguishing Grammar and Inference in Language. OUP Oxford.
    How do hearers manage to understand speakers? And how do speakers manage to shape hearers' understanding? Lepore and Stone show that standard views about the workings of semantics and pragmatics are unsatisfactory. They advance an alternative view which better captures what is going on in linguistic communication.
     
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  2. Thomas Pink & M. W. F. Stone (eds.) (2014). The Will and Human Action: From Antiquity to the Present Day. Routledge.
    What is the will? And what is its relation to human action? Throughout history, philosophers have been fascinated by the idea of 'the will': the source of the drive that motivates human beings to act. However, there has never been a clear consensus as to what the will is and how it relates to human action. Some philosophers have taken the will to be based firmly in reason and rational choice, and some have seen it as purely self-determined. Others have (...)
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  3. Ernest Lepore & Matthew Stone (2010). Against Metaphorical Meaning. Topoi 29 (2):165-180.
    The commonplace view about metaphorical interpretation is that it can be characterized in traditional semantic and pragmatic terms, thereby assimilating metaphor to other familiar uses of language. We will reject this view, and propose in its place the view that, though metaphors can issue in distinctive cognitive and discourse effects, they do so without issuing in metaphorical meaning and truth, and so, without metaphorical communication. Our inspiration derives from Donald Davidson’s critical arguments against metaphorical meaning and Richard Rorty’s exploration of (...)
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  4. Matthew Stone, Interpreting Vague Utterances in Context.
    We use the interpretation of vague scalar predicates like small as an illustration of how systematic semantic models of dialogue context enable the derivation of useful, fine-grained utterance interpretations from radically underspeci- fied semantic forms. Because dialogue context suffices to determine salient alternative scales and relevant distinctions along these scales, we can infer implicit standards of comparison for vague scalar predicates through completely general pragmatics, yet closely constrain the intended meaning to within a natural range.
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  5.  95
    Mark Stone (forthcoming). Book Review: Searching for a Distant God: The Legacy of Maimonides. [REVIEW] Interpretation 55 (2):212-212.
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  6.  92
    Michael E. Stone (forthcoming). Book Review: Eve and Adam: Jewish, Christian and Muslim Readings on Genesis and Gender. [REVIEW] Interpretation 54 (2):206-206.
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  7.  46
    Una Stojnic, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore (2013). Deixis. Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):502-525.
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  8. Richard Moran & Martin J. Stone (2011). Anscombe on Expression of Intention : An Exegesis. In Anton Ford, Jennifer Hornsby & Frederick Stoutland (eds.), Essays on Anscombe's Intention. Harvard University Press
     
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  9.  39
    Richmond H. Thomason & Matthew Stone, Enlightened Update: A Computational Architecture for Presupposition and Other Pragmatic Phenomena.
    We relate the theory of presupposition accommodation to a computational framework for reasoning in conversation. We understand presuppositions as private commitments the speaker makes in using an utterance but expects the listener to recognize based on mutual information. On this understanding, the conversation can move forward not just through the positive effects of interlocutors’ utterances but also from the retrospective insight interlocutors gain about one anothers’ mental states from observing what they do. Our title, ENLIGHTENED UPDATE, highlights such cases. Our (...)
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  10.  5
    John De Gabrieli, Chandan J. Vaidya, Maria Stone, Wendy S. Francis, Sharon L. Thompson-Schill, Debra A. Fleischman, Jared R. Tinklenberg, Jerome A. Yesavage & Robert S. Wilson (1999). Convergent Behavioral and Neuropsychological Evidence for a Distinction Between Identification and Production Forms of Repetition Priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128 (4):479.
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  11.  83
    Mark Steedman & Matthew Stone, Is Semantics Computational?
    Both formal semantics and cognitive semantics are the source of important insights about language. By developing precise statements of the rules of meaning in fragmentary, abstract languages, formalists have been able to offer perspicuous accounts of how we might come to know such rules and use them to communicate with others. Conversely, by charting the overall landscape of interpretations, cognitivists have documented how closely interpretations draw on the commonsense knowledge that lets us make our way in the world. There is (...)
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  12. Peter Adamson, H. Baltussen & M. W. F. Stone (2005). Abel, Félix M.,'Saint Jérome et les prophéties messianiques', Revue biblique, ns, 13 (1916), 423–40; 14 (1917), 247–69 Abū Macshar al-Balkhī, Kitāb al-madkhal al-kabīr ilā cilm ah kām al-nujūm: Liber introductorii maioris ad scientiam judiciorum astrorum, ed. by Richard Lemay, 9 vols (Naples: Istituto universitario Orientale, 1995–96). [REVIEW] Dionysius 23:105-16.
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  13.  23
    M. A. Stone (1989). Chaos, Prediction and Laplacean Determinism. American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (2):123--31.
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  14.  22
    A. Lascarides & M. Stone (2009). A Formal Semantic Analysis of Gesture. Journal of Semantics 26 (4):393-449.
    The gestures that speakers use in tandem with speech include not only conventionalized actions with identifiable meanings (so-called narrow gloss gestures or emblems) but also productive iconic and deictic gestures whose form and meanings seem largely improvised in context. In this paper, we bridge the descriptive tradition with formal models of reference and discourse structure so as to articulate an approach to the interpretation of these productive gestures. Our model captures gestures' partial and incomplete meanings as derived from form and (...)
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  15.  30
    Matthew Stone (1999). Reference to Possible Worlds. Technical Report 49, Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science.
    In modal subordination, a modal sentence is interpreted relative to a hypothetical scenario introduced in an earlier sentence. In this paper, I argue that this phenomenon reflects the fact that the interpretation of modals is an ANAPHORIC process. Modal morphemes introduce sets of possible worlds, representing alternative hypothetical scenarios, as entities into the discourse model. Their interpretation depends on evoking sets of worlds recording described and reference scenarios, and relating such sets to one another using familiar notions of restricted, preferential (...)
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  16.  78
    Richard Moran & Martin J. Stone (2009). Anscombe on Expression of Intention. In Constantine Sandis (ed.), New Essays on the Explanation of Action. Palgrave Macmillan
    Of course in every act of this kind, there remains the possibility of putting this act into question – insofar as it refers to more distant, more essential ends.... For example the sentence which I write is the meaning of the letters I trace, but the whole work I wish to produce is the meaning of the sentence. And this work is a possibility in connection with which I can feel anguish; it is truly my possibility...tomorrow in relation to it (...)
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  17. Alex Lascarides & M. Stone, Discourse Coherence and Gesture Interpretation.
    In face-to-face interaction, speakers make multimodal contributions that exploit both the linguistic resources of spoken language and the visual and spatial affordances of gesture. In this paper, we argue that, in formulating and understanding such multimodal contributions, interlocutors apply the same principles of coherence that characterize the interpretation of natural language discourse. In particular, we use a close analysis of a series of naturally-occurring embodied discourses to argue for two key generalizations. First, communicators and their audiences draw on coherence relations (...)
     
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  18.  2
    M. H. Stone (1936). The Theory of Representations for Boolean Algebras. Journal of Symbolic Logic 1 (3):118-119.
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  19. Martin Stone (2002). Formalism. In Jules Coleman & Scott J. Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. OUP Oxford
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  20.  7
    Matthew Stone (2004). Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language. Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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  21.  64
    Ernest Lepore, Una Stojnic & Matthew Stone, Situated Utterances and Discourse Relations.
    Utterances in situated activity are about the world. Theories and systems normally capture this by assuming references must be resolved to real-world entities in utterance understanding. We describe a number of puzzles and problems for this approach, and propose an alternative semantic representation using discourse relations that link utterances to the nonlinguistic context to capture the context-dependent interpretation of situated utterances. Our approach promises better empirical coverage and more straightforward system building. Substantiating these advantages is work in progress.
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  22.  13
    Matthew D. Stone, Or and Anaphora.
    The meanings of donkey sentences cannot be captured using a procedure which, like Montague’s, uses the existential quantifiers of classical logic to translate indefinites and the variables to translate pronouns. The treatment of these examples requires meanings which depend on the context in which sentences appear, and thus necessitates a logic which models this context to some extent. If context is represented as the information conveyed in discourse, and the meanings of pronouns are enriched to depend on this information, the (...)
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  23.  40
    Matthew Stone & Richmond H. Thomason, Context in Abductive Interpretation.
    This paper develops a general approach to contextual reasoning in natural language processing. Drawing on the view of natural language interpretation as abduction (Hobbs et al., 1993), we propose that interpretation provides an explanation of how an utterance creates a new discourse context in which its interpreted content is both true and promi- nent. Our framework uses dynamic theories of semantics and pragmatics, formal theories of context, and models of attentional state. We describe and illustrate a Prolog implementation.
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  24.  31
    Matthew Stone & Una Stojnic (2015). Meaning and Demonstration. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (1):69-97.
    In demonstration, speakers use real-world activity both for its practical effects and to help make their points. The demonstrations of origami mathematics, for example, reconfigure pieces of paper by folding, while simultaneously allowing their author to signal geometric inferences. Demonstration challenges us to explain how practical actions can get such precise significance and how this meaning compares with that of other representations. In this paper, we propose an explanation inspired by David Lewis’s characterizations of coordination and scorekeeping in conversation. In (...)
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  25.  27
    Matthew Stone, Reproducing Natural Behaviors in Conversational Animation.
    Building animated conversational agents requires developing a fine-grained analysis of the motions and meanings available to interlocutors in face-to-face conversation and implementing strategies for using these motions and meanings to communicate effectively. In this paper, we describe our research on signaling uncertainty on an animated face as an end-to-end case study of this process. We sketch our efforts to characterize people’s facial displays of uncertainty in face-to-face conversation in ways that allow us to simulate those behaviors in an animated agent. (...)
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  26. M. H. Stone (1938). Topological Representations of Distributive Lattices and Brouwerian Logics. Journal of Symbolic Logic 3 (2):90-91.
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  27.  56
    Thomas Pink & M. W. F. Stone (eds.) (2003). The Will and Human Action: From Antiquity to the Present Day. Routledge.
    What is the will? And what is its relation to human action? Throughout history, philosophers have been fascinated by the idea of "the will": the source of the drive that motivates human beings to act. However, there has never been a clear consensus as to what the will is and how it relates to human action. Some philosophers have taken the will to be based firmly in reason and rational choice, and some have seen it as purely self-determined. Others have (...)
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  28.  1
    Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone (2016). Semantics, Coherence, and Intentions: Reply to Carston, Collins and Hawthorne. Mind and Language 31 (5):646-654.
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  29.  38
    Stephen H. Kellert, Mark A. Stone & Arthur Fine (1990). Models, Chaos, and Goodness of Fit. Philosophical Topics 18 (2):85-105.
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  30.  19
    Mark Stone (2014). "Classical Logic and Its Rabbit-Holes: A First Course," by Nelson P. Lande. [REVIEW] Teaching Philosophy 37 (4):564-567.
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  31.  28
    Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone (2012). Figures of Speech. The Philosophers' Magazine 56 (56):31-41.
    We cannot explain our diverse practices for engaging with imagery through general pragmatic mechanisms. There is no general mechanism behind practices like metaphor and irony. Metaphor works the way it works; irony works the way it works.
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  32.  16
    Mark Stone (1987). Mind and Brain, the Many-Faceted Problems. The Personalist Forum 3 (1):71-73.
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  33.  19
    Matthew Stone, Paying Heed to Collocations.
    In this paper, we introduce a system, Sentence Planning Using Description, which generates collocations within the paradigm of sentence planning. SPUD simultaneously constructs the semantics and syntax of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential and lexical interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative speci- fications of the discourse (...)
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  34.  15
    Matthew Stone, Societal Grounding is Essential to Meaningful Language Use.
    well-known arguments dispute the meaningfulness of language use in specific extant systems; the symbols they use..
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  35.  73
    Ernest Lepore & Matthew Stone (2006). Logic and Semantic Analysis. In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland 173.
  36.  22
    M. W. F. Stone (2000). 2 The Soul's Relation to the Body: Thomas Aquinas, Siger of Brabant and the Parisian Debate on Monopsychism. In Tim Crane & Sarah Patterson (eds.), History of the Mind-Body Problem. New York: Routledge 34.
  37.  22
    Matthew Stone, Crafting the Illusion of Meaning: Template-Based Specification of Embodied Conversational Behavior.
    Templates are a widespread natural language tech- nology that achieves believability within a narrow range of interaction and coverage. We consider templates for embodied conversational behavior. Such templates combine a specific pattern of marked-up text, specifying prosody and conversational signals as well as words, with similarly-annotated gaps that can be filled in by rule to yield a coherent contribution to a dialogue with a user. In this paper we argue that templates can give a de- signer substantial freedom to realize (...)
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  38.  9
    M. H. Stone (1939). Applications of the Theory of Boolean Rings to General Topology. Journal of Symbolic Logic 4 (2):88-89.
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  39.  7
    M. W. F. Stone (2000). The Origins of Probabilism in Late Scholastic Moral Thought. Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 67 (1):114-157.
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  40.  4
    Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone (2016). The Breadth of Semantics: Reply to Critics. Inquiry 59 (2):195-206.
    In our 2015 book Imagination and Convention, we explore the scope and limits of linguistic knowledge in semantics and pragmatics for natural language. We draw heavily on the notion of coordination from David Lewis' book on conventions. To the extent that the account we develop is right, general principles like Grice's cooperative principle and the maxims of conversation have little to say about about interpretation. Three commentators—Anne Bezuidenhout, Laurence Horn, and Zoltan Gendler Szabo—discuss and evaluate our program in three essays (...)
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  41.  8
    Martin Stone (2014). Interpretation: Everyday and Philosophical. In Andrea Kern & James Conant (eds.), Varieties of Skepticism: Essays After Kant, Wittgenstein, and Cavell. De Gruyter 215-248.
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  42.  16
    Matthew Stone, Sentence Planning as Description Using Tree Adjoining Grammar.
    We present an algorithm for simultaneously constructing both the syntax and semantics of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative specifications of the discourse functions of syntactic constructions to make contextually appropriate syntactic choices.
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  43.  23
    Matthew Stone, Semantics and Computational Semantics.
    Interdisciplinary investigations marry the methods and concerns of different fields. Computer science is the study of precise descriptions of finite processes; semantics is the study of meaning in language. Thus, computational semantics embraces any project that approaches the phenomenon of meaning by way of tasks that can be performed by following definite sets of mechanical instructions. So understood, computational semantics revels in applying semantics, by creating intelligent devices whose broader behavior fits the meanings of utterances, and not just their form. (...)
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  44.  6
    M. Stone, S. L. Ladd, C. J. Vaidya & J. D. E. Gabrieli (1998). Word-Identification Priming for Ignored and Attended Words. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (2):238-258.
    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (...)
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  45.  7
    M. H. Stone (1927). Fiktionen in der Mathematik. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 24 (18):501-503.
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  46.  12
    Mark Stone (1987). Kyburg, Levi, and Petersen. Philosophy of Science 54 (2):244-255.
    In this paper I attempt to tie together a longstanding dispute between Henry Kyburg and Isaac Levi concerning statistical inferences. The debate, which centers around the example of Petersen the Swede, concerns Kyburg's and Levi's accounts of randomness and choosing reference classes. I argue that both Kyburg and Levi have missed the real significance of their dispute, that Levi's claim that Kyburg violates Confirmational Conditionalization is insufficient, and that Kyburg has failed to show that Levi's criteria for choosing reference class (...)
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  47.  26
    Matthew Stone, Representing Communicative Intentions in Collaborative Conversational Agents.
    This paper pursues a formal analogy between natural language dialogue and collaborative real-world action in general. The analogy depends on an analysis of two aspects of collaboration that figure crucially in language use. First, agents must be able to coordinate abstractly about future decisions which cannot be made on present information. Second, when agents finally take such decisions, they must again coordinate in order to interpret one anothers’ actions as collaborative. The contribution of this paper is a general representation of (...)
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  48.  41
    Matthew Stone & Richmond H. Thomason, Coordinating Understanding and Generation in an Abductive Approach.
    We use a dynamic, context-sensitive approach to abductive interpretation to describe coordinated processes of understanding, generation and accommodation in dialogue. The agent updates the dialogue uniformly for its own and its interlocutors’ utterances, by accommodating a new context, inferred abductively, in which utterance content is both true and prominent. The generator plans natural and comprehensible utterances by exploiting the same abductive preferences used in understanding. We illustrate our approach by formalizing and implementing some interactions between information structure and the form (...)
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  49.  42
    Matthew Stone, Linguistic Representation and Gricean Inference.
    An essential ingredient of language use is our ability to reason about utterances as intentional actions. Linguistic representations are the natural substrate for such reasoning, and models from computational semantics can often be seen as providing an infrastructure to carry out such inferences from rich and accurate grammatical descriptions. Exploring such inferences offers a productive pragmatic perspective on problems of interpretation, and promises to leverage semantic representations in more flexible and more general tools that compute with meaning.
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  50.  26
    Matthew Stone, Learning to Interpret Utterances Using Dialogue History.
    We describe a methodology for learning a disambiguation model for deep pragmatic interpretations in the context of situated task-oriented dialogue. The system accumulates training examples for ambiguity resolution by tracking the fates of alternative interpretations across dialogue, including subsequent clarificatory episodes initiated by the system itself. We illustrate with a case study building maximum entropy models over abductive interpretations in a referential communication task. The resulting model correctly resolves 81% of ambiguities left unresolved by an initial handcrafted baseline. A key (...)
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