Results for 'M. Timur Friedman'

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  1.  26
    BankXX: Supporting Legal Arguments Through Heuristic Retrieval. [REVIEW]Edwina L. Rissland, David B. Skalak & M. Timur Friedman - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (1):1-71.
    The BankXX system models the process of perusing and gathering information for argument as a heuristic best-first search for relevant cases, theories, and other domain-specific information. As BankXX searches its heterogeneous and highly interconnected network of domain knowledge, information is incrementally analyzed and amalgamated into a dozen desirable ingredients for argument (called argument pieces), such as citations to cases, applications of legal theories, and references to prototypical factual scenarios. At the conclusion of the search, BankXX outputs the set of argument (...)
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  2.  71
    Evaluating a Legal Argument Program: The BankXX Experiments. [REVIEW]Edwina L. Rissland, David B. Skalak & M. Timur Friedman - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):1-74.
    In this article we evaluate the BankXX program from several perspectives. BankXX is a case-based legal argument program that retrieves cases and other legal knowledge pertinent to a legal argument through a combination of heuristic search and knowledge-based indexing. The program is described in detail in a companion article in Artificial Intelligence and Law 4: 1--71, 1996. Three perspectives are used to evaluate BankXX:(1) classical information retrieval measures of precision and recall applied against a hand-coded baseline; (2) knowledge-representation and case-based (...)
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  3.  3
    M. S. Friedman's Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue. [REVIEW]Robert F. Creegan - 1956 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17:278.
  4. Sheard, M., See Friedman, H.H. Friedman - 1995 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 71:307.
  5.  18
    The Theory of Morals. By M. Timur. (Elek Books, London. 1956. Pp. Xii + 524. Price 45s.).W. J. Rees - 1958 - Philosophy 33 (124):78-.
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  6.  15
    The Theory of Morals. By M. Timur. Philosophical Library Inc., New York. 1965. Pp. Xii, 524. $7.50.Stanley B. Cunningham - 1967 - Dialogue 5 (4):652-653.
  7. Friedman@Math.Ohio-State.Edu.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    It has been accepted since the early part of the Century that there is no problem formalizing mathematics in standard formal systems of axiomatic set theory. Most people feel that they know as much as they ever want to know about how one can reduce natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, and complex numbers to sets, and prove all of their basic properties. Furthermore, that this can continue through more and more complicated material, and that there is never a real problem.
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  8. Core Mechanisms in ‘Theory of Mind’.Alan M. Leslie, Ori Friedman & Tim P. German - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):528-533.
    Our ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of other people does not initially develop as a theory but as a mechanism. The ‘ theory of mind ’ mechanism is part of the core architecture of the human brain, and is specialized for learning about mental states. Impaired development of this mechanism can have drastic effects on social learning, seen most strikingly in the autistic spectrum disorders. ToMM kick-starts belief–desire attribution but effective reasoning about belief contents depends on a process (...)
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  9. Why Friedman's Non-Monotonic Reasoning Defies Hempel's Covering Law Model.M. C. W. Janssen & Y. -H. Tan - 1991 - Synthese 86 (2):255 - 284.
    In this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We will discuss an example of an electric circuit, which clearly indicates that the symmetry of explanation and prediction does not always hold. It will be argued that an alternative logic for causal explanation is (...)
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  10.  27
    Better as the Value-Fundamental.M. Timur - 1955 - Mind 64 (253):52-60.
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  11. Does Mathematics Need New Axioms.Solomon Feferman, Harvey M. Friedman, Penelope Maddy & John R. Steel - 1999 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):401-446.
    Part of the ambiguity lies in the various points of view from which this question might be considered. The crudest di erence lies between the point of view of the working mathematician and that of the logician concerned with the foundations of mathematics. Now some of my fellow mathematical logicians might protest this distinction, since they consider themselves to be just more of those \working mathematicians". Certainly, modern logic has established itself as a very respectable branch of mathematics, and there (...)
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  12.  24
    The Theory of Morals.M. Timur - 1956 - London: Elek Books.
  13. The Theory of Morals.M. Timur - 1958 - Philosophy 33 (124):78-80.
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  14.  18
    Community Hospital Oversight of Clinical Investigators' Financial Relationships.M. A. Hall, K. P. Weinfurt, J. S. Lawlor, J. Y. Friedman, K. A. Schulman & J. Sugarman - 2008 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 31 (1):7-13.
    The considerable attention to financial interests in clinical research has focused mostly on academic medical centers, even though the majority of clinical research is conducted in community practice settings. To fill this gap, this article maps the practices and policies in 73 community hospitals and several hundred specialized facilities around the country for reviewing clinical investigators’ financial relationships with research sponsors. Community hospitals face a substantially different mix of issues than academic medical centers do because their physician researchers are usually (...)
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  15. The Meaning and Status of Newton's Law of Inertia and the Nature of Gravitational Forces.J. Earman & M. Friedman - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):329-359.
    A four dimensional approach to Newtonian physics is used to distinguish between a number of different structures for Newtonian space-time and a number of different formulations of Newtonian gravitational theory. This in turn makes possible an in-depth study of the meaning and status of Newton's Law of Inertia and a detailed comparison of the Newtonian and Einsteinian versions of the Law of Inertia and the Newtonian and Einsteinian treatments of gravitational forces. Various claims about the status of Newton's Law of (...)
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  16.  66
    The Conceptual Underpinnings of Pretense: Pretending is Not 'Behaving-as-If.'.Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie - 2007 - Cognition 105 (1):103-124.
    The ability to engage in and recognize pretend play begins around 18 months. A major challenge for theories of pretense is explaining how children are able to engage in pretense, and how they are able to recognize pretense in others. According to one major account, the metarepresentational theory, young children possess both production and recognition abilities because they possess the mental state concept, PRETEND. According to a more recent rival account, the Behavioral theory, young children are behaviorists about pretense, and (...)
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  17. Overcoming Metaphysics: Carnap and Heidegger.M. Friedman - forthcoming - Origins of Logical Empiricism:45--79.
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  18. REVIEWS-M. Friedman and R. Creath (Editors), The Cambridge Companion to Carnap.James Justus - 2009 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 15 (4).
  19.  29
    Weak Comparability of Well Orderings and Reverse Mathematics.Harvey M. Friedman & Jeffry L. Hirst - 1990 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 47 (1):11-29.
    Two countable well orderings are weakly comparable if there is an order preserving injection of one into the other. We say the well orderings are strongly comparable if the injection is an isomorphism between one ordering and an initial segment of the other. In [5], Friedman announced that the statement “any two countable well orderings are strongly comparable” is equivalent to ATR 0 . Simpson provides a detailed proof of this result in Chapter 5 of [13]. More recently, (...) has proved that the statement “any two countable well orderings are weakly comparable” is equivalent to ATR 0 . The main goal of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of this result. (shrink)
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  20. A Complete Theory of Everything: Satisfiability in the Universal Domain Harvey M. Friedman October 10, 1999 Friedman@Math.Ohio-State.Edu Www.Math.Ohio-State.Edu/~Friedman/. [REVIEW]Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
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  21.  31
    The Physiological Psychology of Hunger: A Physiological Perspective.Mark I. Friedman & Edward M. Stricker - 1976 - Psychological Review 83 (6):409-431.
  22. A Complete Theory of Everything: Satisfiability in the Universal Domain Harvey M. Friedman October 10, 1999 Friedman@Math.Ohio-State.Edu. [REVIEW]Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
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  23.  5
    M. A. Gavrilov and V. A. Hvoščuk. Métod Častičnoj Invérsii V Réléjnyh Shémah. Doklady Akadémii Nauk SSSR, Vol. 75 , Pp. 685–687. - M. A. Gavrilov and V. A. Kvoshchuk. Partial Inversion Method of Relay Circuits. English Translation of the Preceding. Multilith-Offset. Morris D. Friedman, Inc., Needham Heights, Mass., C. 1957, 4 Pp. [REVIEW]P. Szeptycki - 1959 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (3):258-259.
  24. FRIEDMAN, M.: "Foundations of Space-Time Theories".A. Heathcote - 1986 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64:224.
     
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  25.  9
    Why Friedman's Non-Monotonic Reasoning Defies Hempel's Covering Law Model.M. C. W. Janssen & Y. Tan - 1991 - Synthese 86 (2):255-284.
    In this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We will discuss an example of an electric circuit, which clearly indicates that the symmetry of explanation and prediction does not always hold. It will be argued that an alternative logic for causal explanation is (...)
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  26.  17
    Harvey M. Friedman. Determinateness in the Low Projective Hierarchy. Fundamenta Mathematicae, Vol. 72 No. 1 , Pp. 79–95. [REVIEW]Jens Erik Fenstad - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (3):599.
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  27. Friedman, M. And Narveson, J.-Political Correctness.P. Fairfield - 1996 - Philosophical Books 37:210-211.
     
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  28.  3
    Social Network-Based Ethical Analysis of COVID-19 Vaccine Supply Policy in Three Central Asian Countries.Kerim M. Munir, Totugul Murzabekova, Zhangir Tulekov, Damin Asadov, Daniel Wikler & Timur Aripov - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundIn the pandemic time, many low- and middle-income countries are experiencing restricted access to COVID-19 vaccines. Access to imported vaccines or ways to produce them locally became the principal source of hope for these countries. But developing a strategy for success in obtaining and allocating vaccines was not easy task. The governments in those countries have faced the difficult decision whether to accept or reject offers of vaccine diplomacy, weighing the price and availability of COVID-19 vaccines against the concerns over (...)
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  29.  3
    M. A. Gavrilov and V. A. Hvoščuk. Métod Častičnoj Invérsii V Réléjnyh Shémah. Doklady Akadémii Nauk SSSR, Vol. 75 , Pp. 685–687. - M. A. Gavrilov and V. A. Kvoshchuk. Partial Inversion Method of Relay Circuits. English Translation of the Preceding. Multilith-Offset. Morris D. Friedman, Inc., Needham Heights, Mass., C. 1957, 4 Pp. [REVIEW]P. Szeptycki - 1959 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (3):258-259.
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  30.  13
    Harvey M. Friedman, Stephen G. Simpson, and Rick L. Smith. Countable Algebra and Set Existence Axioms. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, Vol. 25 , Pp. 141–181. - Harvey M. Friedman, Stephen G. Simpson, and Rick L. Smith. Addendum to “Countable Algebra and Set Existence Axioms.” Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, Vol. 28 , Pp. 319–320. [REVIEW]Peter G. Clote - 1987 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 52 (1):276-278.
  31.  41
    A Developmental Shift in Processes Underlying Successful Belief‐Desire Reasoning.Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):963-977.
    Young children’s failures in reasoning about beliefs and desires, and especially about false beliefs, have been much studied. However, there are few accounts of successful belief-desire reasoning in older children or adults. An exception to this is a model in which belief attribution is treated as a process wherein an inhibitory system selects the most likely content for the belief to be attributed from amongst several competing contents [Leslie, A. M., & Polizzi, P. (1998). Developmental Science, 1, 247–254]. We tested (...)
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  32.  43
    Essays in Positive Economics. By Henry M. Oliver, Jr. [REVIEW]Milton Friedman - 1954 - Ethics 65:71.
  33.  11
    Ethical and Logistical Issues Raised by the Advanced Donation Program “Pay It Forward” Scheme.Lainie Friedman Ross, James R. Rodrigue & Robert M. Veatch - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):518-536.
    The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who (...)
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  34.  28
    Is Young Children’s Recognition of Pretense Metarepresentational or Merely Behavioral? Evidence From 2- and 3-Year-Olds’ Understanding of Pretend Sounds and Speech.Ori Friedman, Karen R. Neary, Corinna L. Burnstein & Alan M. Leslie - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):314-319.
  35. Similar Subclasses.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Reflection, in the sense of [Fr03a] and [Fr03b], is based on the idea that a category of classes has a subclass that is “similar” to the category. Here we present axiomatizations based on the idea that a category of classes that does not form a class has extensionally different subclasses that are “similar”. We present two such similarity principles, which are shown to interpret and be interpretable in certain set theories with large cardinal axioms.
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  36. 10. Interpreting Quantum Field Theory Interpreting Quantum Field Theory (Pp. 348-378).Michael Friedman, Robert DiSalle, J. D. Trout, Shaun Nichols, Maralee Harrell, Clark Glymour, Carl G. Wagner, Kent W. Staley, Jesús P. Zamora Bonilla & Frederick M. Kronz - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (2):256-265.
    Recently, Rueger and Sharp and Koperski have been concerned to show that certain procedural accounts of model confirmation are compromised by non-linear dynamics. We suggest that the issues raised are better approached by considering whether chaotic data analysis methods allow for reliable inference from data. We provide a framework and an example of this approach.
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  37.  88
    Invisible Hand Arguments: Milton Friedman and Adam Smith.Alistair M. Macleod - 2007 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 5 (2):103-117.
    The version of the invisible hand argument in Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments differs in important respects from the version in The Wealth of Nations. Both are different, in turn, from the version invoked by Milton Friedman in Free to Choose. However, all three have a common structure. Attention to this structure can help sharpen our sense of their essential thrust by highlighting the questions (about the nature of economic motivation, the structure of markets, and conceptions of the (...)
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  38. Introduction.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    The use of x[y,z,w] rather than the more usual y Πx has many advantages for this work. One of them is that we have found a convenient way to eliminate any need for axiom schemes. All axioms considered are single sentences with clear meaning. (In one case only, the axiom is a conjunction of a manageable finite number of sentences).
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  39.  16
    Sy D. Friedman. The -Singleton Conjecture. Journal of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 3 No. 4 , Pp. 771–791.M. C. Stanley - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):1136-1137.
  40. Adjacent Ramsey Theory.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Let k ≥ 2 and f:Nk Æ [1,k] and n ≥ 1 be such that there is no x1 < ... < xk+1 £ n such that f(x1,...,xk) = f(x1,...,xk+1). Then we want to find g:Nk+1 Æ [1,3] such that there is no x1 < ... < xk+2 £ n such that g(x1,...,xk+1) = g(x2,...,xk+2). This reducees adjacent Ramsey in k dimensions with k colors to adjacent Ramsey in k+1 dimensions with 3 colors.
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  41. A Complete Theory of Everything: Satisfiability in the Universal Domain.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
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  42.  9
    Sy D. Friedman. Fine Structure and Class Forcing. De Gruyter Series in Logic and its Applications, No. 3. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2000, X + 221 Pp. [REVIEW]M. C. Stanley - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (4):522-525.
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  43. Foundations of Mathematics: Past, Present, and Future.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    It turns out, time and time again, in order to make serious progress in f.o.m., we need to take actual reasoning and actual development into account at precisely the proper level. If we take these into account too much, then we are faced with information that is just too difficult to create an exact science around - at least at a given state of development of f.o.m. And if we take these into account too little, our findings will not have (...)
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  44.  6
    Review: Sy D. Friedman, The $Pi^1_2$-Singleton Conjecture. [REVIEW]M. C. Stanley - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):1136-1137.
  45.  10
    Set Existence Property for Intuitionistic Theories with Dependent Choice.Harvey M. Friedman & Andrej Ščedrov - 1983 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 25 (2):129-140.
  46. The Upper Shift Kernel Theorems.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We now fix A ⊆ Q. We study a fundamental class of digraphs associated with A, which we call the A-digraphs. An A,kdigraph is a digraph (Ak,E), where E is an order invariant subset of A2k in the following sense. For all x,y ∈ A2k, if x,y have the same order type then x ∈ E ↔ y ∈ E.
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  47. Ketamine Enhanced Psychotherapy: Preliminary Clinical Observations on its Effectiveness in Treating Death Anxiety.Eli Kolp, M. Young, Harris Friedman, Evgeny Krupitsky & Karl Jansen - 2007 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 26 (1):1-17.
    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic commonly used by US physicians, has recently been shown to be a powerful anti-depressant and is also capable of eliciting transpersonal experiences that can be transformative. Although currently approved in the US only for use as an anesthetic, physicians there can legally prescribe it off-label to treat various psychological/ psychiatric problems and it has been used for these non-anesthetic purposes in Argentina, Iran, Mexico, Russia, and the UK, as well as in the US. The literature on (...)
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  48.  19
    Stephen G. Simpson. Friedman's Research on Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic. Harvey Friedman's Research on the Foundations of Mathematics, Edited by L. A. Harrington, M. D. Morley, A. S̆c̆edrov, and S. G. Simpson, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Vol. 117, North-Holland, Amsterdam, New York, and Oxford, 1985, Pp. 137–159. [REVIEW]Wilfried Sieg - 1990 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (2):870-874.
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  49.  17
    Subtle Cardinals and Linear Orderings.Harvey M. Friedman - 2000 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 107 (1-3):1-34.
    The subtle, almost ineffable, and ineffable cardinals were introduced in an unpublished 1971 manuscript of R. Jensen and K. Kunen. The concepts were extended to that of k-subtle, k-almost ineffable, and k-ineffable cardinals in 1975 by J. Baumgartner. In this paper we give a self contained treatment of the basic facts about this level of the large cardinal hierarchy, which were established by J. Baumgartner. In particular, we give a proof that the k-subtle, k-almost ineffable, and k-ineffable cardinals define three (...)
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  50. Transfer Principles in Set Theory.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    1. Transfer principles from N to On. A. Mahlo cardinals. B. Weakly compact cardinals. C. Ineffable cardinals. D. Ramsey cardinals. E. Ineffably Ramsey cardinals. F. Subtle cardinals. G. From N to (...))
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