Se examina si las políticas de la diferencia son compatibles con las políticas de redistribución que caracterizan el Estado de Bienestar. Se muestra cómo Brian Barry construye una versión caricaturizada del multiculturalismo, y se indaga si la dicotomía entre liberalismo y multiculturalismo admite a..
Se busca rastrear la imagen que Platón tiene de Heráclito y articularla con la estructura argumentativa del Cratilo, para comprender las necesidades textuales a las que responde la doctrina del flujo perpetuo, es decir, la discusión sobre la corrección (ὀρθότης) del nombre. Gracias a la inclusión del testimonio heraclíteo, resulta posible rastrear la presunta consolidación de la tesis sobre los nombres primarios y los secundarios como el eje de la separación entre dos planos de realidad (uno estable y uno móvil) (...) y de la teoría de las Ideas -es decir, como la base de la epistemología platónica presente en los diálogos de madurez-. The article seeks to trace the image Plato has of Heraclitus and connect it with the argumentative structure of the Cratylus in order to understand the textual needs that give rise to the doctrine of perpetual flux, that is, the discussion regarding the correctness (ὀρθότης) of names. The inclusion of Heraclitus's testimony makes it possible to trace the alleged consolidation of the thesis regarding primary and secondary names as the axis of separation between two levels of reality (one stable, the other, changing) and the theory of Ideas -that is, as the basis of Plato's epistemology as set forth in the late dialogues-. (shrink)
In the intellectual autobiography that opens this book, Chisholm divides philosophers into “drones” and “commentators,” placing himself in the first group. As a drone, Chisholm proposed solutions to philosophical problems and asked his students and colleagues to try to refute him. He reports that they often did, sending him back to the drawing board. Chisholm’s wry self-description says much about his manner as well as his method. A more pretentious philosopher might have spoken of his dogged search for philosophical truth (...) in an age when many have come to disparage that quest. (shrink)
RESUMEN Se analiza si la versión de la justicia como equidad, presentada en El liberalismo político, es genuinamente una concepción política. Se examina el problema de la razonabilidad de las doctrinas comprehensivas, y se indaga luego si el argumento en dos etapas afecta la integridad estructural del liberalismo político. Se concluye que J. Rawls fracasa en su intento de justificar un liberalismo independiente de una doctrina comprehensiva de carácter liberal. ABSTRACT The article analyzes whether the conception of justice as fairness, (...) set forth by Rawls in Political Liberalism, is a genuine political conception. It first examines the issue of reasonableness of comprehensive doctrines and then goes on to inquire whether the two-step argument affects the structural integrity of political liberalism. The paper concludes that J. Rawls fails in his attempt to justify liberalism independently of a comprehensive liberal doctrine. (shrink)
resumen Este artículo se ocupa de analizar si la estrategia desplegada por Rawls, a partir de las Conferencias Dewey, le permite superar el carácter comprehensivo que algunos críticos le imputan a su concepción política de la persona. Para ello se describe primero dicha concepción, y luego se revisa..
El objeto de este trabajo es abordar la idea de nación cívica, un concepto político clave en la producción discursiva de la Generación de 1837, cuyo poder de interpelación ha persistido en momentos más recientes de la historia Argentina. Para ello, se analizarán con las herramientas heurísticas de la historia conceptual los usos de ‘civilidad', ‘civismo', ‘civilización', ‘patria' y ‘nación' en un corpus específico de la producción de Juan Bautista Alberdi y Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. Nuestra hipótesis de lectura es que, (...) para comprender las diferencias entre estos dos planteos y las tensiones internas de cada uno de ellos, hay que problematizar sus representaciones discursivas, a partir del carácter polisémico y polémico de la nación cívica, donde conviven formas de la politicidad muchas veces contrapuestas, como el republicanismo cívico y la dominación civilizatoria. En ese marco, adquiere mayor relevancia una pregunta filosófico-política cuyo sentido se reafirma en el contexto del Bicentenario: ¿cuáles son las implicancias contemporáneas de un discurso político-generacional que pretendió crear una nación para el desierto Argentina? The main object of this paper is analyze to the notion of civic nation, a concept and a politic representation which is fundamental in the production of the Generation of 1837 in Argentina The interpellation power of this concept still persists in recent moments of argentine history. To this end, we shall study, with the heuristic tools of Conceptual and Intellectual History, the uses of ‘civility', civism', ‘civilization', ‘patria' and ‘nation' in an specific corpus of Juan Bautista Alberdi and Domingo Faustino Sarmiento's production. Our reading hypothesis is that for understanding the differences between these two interpretations of the civic nation and the internal tensions that each proposition has is necessary to question their discursive representations. Because it is inside these representations of civic nation we can identify oppositional conceptions of politics such as the civic republicanism and the domination of the civilization. (shrink)
Este artículo presenta argumentos a favor del diseño de políticas públicas sensibles al desafío multicultural y, en especial, a la circunstancia de que la cultura es un elemento crucial para la identidad individual. En primer lugar, repasa la querella entre liberales y comunitaristas como la fuente del actual debate. Luego, analiza la reacción de Rawls ante la crítica comunitarista. En tercer lugar, expone críticamente las tres grandes concepciones-modelo que intentan hacerse cargo del pluralismo cultural. Y, para finalizar, esboza una posible (...) respuesta a las demandas de las minorías étnicas. (shrink)
En pleno ocaso de la resistencia maoísta, nos referimos a los primeros años de la década del noventa, Sendero Luminoso consideraba que el control de la ciudad formaba parte de una lucha estratégico-militar para tomar el poder. Esta visión determinista obligaba a encontrar en las zonas marginales como Villa El Salvador la fuerza necesaria para llevar a cabo la revolución de vanguardias. No obstante, en medio de esta búsqueda se erigió una comuna urbana que llegó a cuestionar el papel de (...) la izquierda y transformar la sociedad capitalista desde el Estado. Por lo expuesto, el propósito de este artículo consiste en analizar e interpretar el quiebre de una forma de autogestión gestada en los cinturones marginales de Lima y en pleno proceso de guerra popular. Para ello, estableceremos un puente de diálogo entre el dato bibliográfico y la reconstrucción testimonial de un movimiento de trabajadores que puso en marcha un proyecto de autorregulación social y política. Palabras clave: autogestión, estética política, lucha de clases, revuelta, Sendero Luminoso. (shrink)
This paper analyzes how cultural diversity in Argentina is calling into question modern political concepts like republic, nation or democracy. The phenomenon of population movements, the demand for recognition of indigenous people's rights, or the conflicts arising from claims to regions' right to life and identity - as in the case of the town of Gualeguaychú in Argentina - challenge the logic of the nation-state and its sovereignty as well as the republican principles of liberty, equality and fraternity. The author (...) examines how far the representation of the Argentinean republic at the time of its foundation included a standardizing vision of diversity, and how the legacy of this representation brought about an ambivalence between a universalist wish to take part in the progress of humanity and the reality of an exclusive democracy that valued one culture over others. It studies the narrative of national identity and attempts to describe how, proceeding from this narrative, the opposition between civilization and barbarity affects the way Latin Americans see the great challenges presented by the future of democracy, and by the recognition of the plurality of cultural allegiances. (shrink)
Este ensayo se propone examinar cuatro modelos distintos de la universidad (el alemán, el francés, el argentino y el americano) que han orientado su desarrollo en el curso de la historia haciendo énfasis en la relación que ésta guarda con el Estado. El análisis de los cuatro modelos busca cuestionar el rol de la universidad dentro de la sociedad en distintos intentos de su refundación con el fin de alimentar la discusión actual sobre el modelo que ha ser adoptado en (...) el porvenir resaltando su carácter de ideal en tanto ésta instituye una comunidad de iguales. (shrink)
This article analyzes whether the strategy displayed by Rawls startingwith the Dewey Lectures makes it possible to overcome the comprehensive character that some critics attribute to his political conception of person. After describing said conception, the paper reviews the objection that it is incompatible with those conceptions of the good that attribute a constitutive character to attachments and ends. Finally, it is concluded that although the distinction between political and comprehensive liberalism is unstable, it is compatible with constitutive conceptions of (...) the good. (shrink)
The environment has often been thought to consist of resources that are unowned, and hence subject to the well-known tragedy of the commons. But in recent years, property ideas have been increasingly recruited for environmental protection, in a manner that appears to vindicate the view that property rights evolve along with the needs for resource management. Nevertheless, property regimes have some pitfalls for environmental resources: the relevant parties may not be able to come to agreement; property regimes may be weak (...) or ineffective; they may be aimed at purposes inconsistent with environmental protection; property rights definitions may not work well for environmental resources; modern property regimes may promote monoculture rather than diverse environments. This essay describes these problems and asks to what degree they apply to a new effort to use property rights approaches, namely cap-and-trade programs to control greenhouse gases. It concludes that property rights, while imperfect and something of a retreat from a regime of complete liberty, may offer gains for environmental protection. But success will depend on close attention to the accountability and effectiveness of the governmental institutions necessary to support environmental property regimes. (shrink)
This paper examines the complexity and fluidity of maternal identity through an examination of narratives about "real motherhood" found in children's literature. Focusing on the multiplicity of mothers in adoption, I question standard views of maternity in which gestational, genetic and social mothering all coincide in a single person. The shortcomings of traditional notions of motherhood are overcome by developing a fluid and inclusive conception of maternal reality as authored by a child's own perceptions.
GESCHÉ, Adolphe. Deus para pensar o ser humano. Victor René Villavicencio Matienzo GALANTINO, Nunzio. Dizer o homem hoje: novos caminhos da antropologia filosófica. Victor René Villavicencio Matienzo LIBÂNIO, J. B. Qual o caminho entre o crer e o amar? Victor René Villavicencio Matienzo IBARRONDO, Xabier Pikaza. Monoteísmo e globalização: Moisés, Jesus, Muhammad. Wellington Teodoro da Silva MARTINS, Iris Mesquita. Felicidade na velhice. Iris Mesquita Martins.
CQ: The Baby Bas Ross case stirred much public debate in The Netherlands since 1988 -a newborn infant with Down's syndrome whose parents refused to consent to a surgery that would have repaired an otherwise fatal congenital anomaly. Can you share your thoughts with us on this case?HD: I was the first ethicist to comment on this case because I was a friend of Dr. Molenaar, who was the final surgical decision maker for Baby Bas. A physician and I supported (...) his decision throughout the prosecution that followed. We also summarized the case in the N.T.V.G., the Dutch Magazine of Medicine. We argued In the article that parents should have the option to make nontreatment decisions. Moreover, In cases where the physician has to perform aggressive medical interventions, there certainly must be thorough and sound justification to ensure that the decision to Intervene Is in the best interest of the child.Heleen M. Dupuis, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics at the Leiden University School of Medicine, where she heads the Department of Metamedica and teaches in the Department of Philosophy. She is also a member of the Institutional Review Board/Ethics Committee of the Leiden University Hospital and a member of the Ethics Committee of the Royal Dutch Society of Medicine. (shrink)
Several variants of Lewis's Best System Account of Lawhood have been proposed that avoid its commitment to perfectly natural properties. There has been little discussion of the relative merits of these proposals, and little discussion of how one might extend this strategy to provide natural property-free variants of Lewis's other accounts, such as his accounts of duplication, intrinsicality, causation, counterfactuals, and reference. We undertake these projects in this paper. We begin by providing a framework for classifying and assessing the variants (...) of the Best System Account. We then evaluate these proposals, and identify the most promising candidates. We go on to develop a proposal for systematically modifying Lewis's other accounts so that they, too, avoid commitment to perfectly natural properties. We conclude by briefly considering a different route one might take to developing natural property-free versions of Lewis's other accounts, drawing on recent work by Williams. (shrink)
Os guaranis ensinam que o diálogo inter-religioso é possível porque existe sentido, e existe sentido porque existe linguagem humana, e porque existe linguagem humana é possível sonhar, e porque existe o sonho, é possível dialogar no horizonte mais pleno cujos sentidos da humanidade podem celebrar uma festa universal. Palavras-chave: Hermenêutica; Epistemologia; Religião; Guarani; Antropologia; Sentido. ABSTRACT The Guaranis teach us that inter-religions dialogue is possible because meaning exists, and meaning exists because there is human language, and as there is human (...) language it is possible to dream, and dreams allow us to establish a dialogue in a wider horizon, whose maenings of mankind may celebrate a universal festivity. Key words: Hermeneutics; Epistemology; Religion; Guarani ; Anthropology; Meaning. (shrink)
This article critically examines the plain exit principle of Kukathas that argues as the best system to conciliate the demands of belonging to an indigenous culture and the right to dissent from their women members. We first review the tension between feminism of equality and the situation of indigenous women with their internal cultures. Second, we explore the thesis of Kukathas for conclude that it alone is not enough. Finally, it analyses an alternative solution that overlapping the right of exit, (...) a model of multicultural jurisdictions and adequate conception of deliberative democracy. (shrink)
The debate that raged in the interwar period between the Austrian economists and socialist economists was, narrowly conceived, a debate in positive economics. What was being discussed was certainly not the morality of capitalism or of socialism. Nor, strictly speaking, was the debate even about society's economic well-being under socialism; it concerned the ability of central planners to make decisions that take appropriate account of relevant resource scarcities, in the light of consumer preference rankings. To be sure, the extraordinary interest (...) which surrounded the debate and the passions that lurked barely below its surface testified to the powerful implications of the debate for crucial issues in welfare economics. The Austrians were not merely exploring the economies of socialism; they were in effect demonstrating that, as an economic system attempting to serve the needs of its citizens, socialism must inevitably fail. But, even if the debate is interpreted in its broadest terms, as a debate in welfare economics, it represented a sharp break widi traditional polemics relating to the socialism-capitalism issue. Traditionally the arguments for or against capitalism had, until 1920, been deeply involved in ediical questions. Mises's 1920 challenge to socialism, in contrast, was explicit in making no attempt to address any claims concerning the alleged moral superiority of socialism. He simply argued that, as an economic system, socialism was inherendy incapable of fulfilling the objectives of its proponents; central planners are unable to plan centrally. (shrink)
Writing in 1912, before the Bolshevik Revolution, American socialist John Spargo said that it was “inconceivable” that a democratic socialist society would ever abolish the “sacred right” of freedom of publication which had been won at so great a sacrifice. According to Spargo, “every Socialist writer of note” agreed with Karl Kautsky that the freedom of the press, and of literary production in general, is an “essential condition” of democratic socialism.
Kurt Godel, the greatest logician of our time, startled the world of mathematics in 1931 with his Theorem of Undecidability, which showed that some statements in mathematics are inherently "undecidable." His work on the completeness of logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency of the axiom of choice and the continuum theory brought him further worldwide fame. In this introductory volume, Raymond Smullyan, himself a well-known logician, guides the reader through the fascinating world of Godel's incompleteness theorems. The (...) level of presentation is suitable for anyone with a basic acquaintance with mathematical logic. As a clear, concise introduction to a difficult but essential subject, the book will appeal to mathematicians, philosophers, and computer scientists. (shrink)