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Michael Wheeler [44]M. Wheeler [13]Mark A. Wheeler [7]Mark Richard Wheeler [5]
Mark Wheeler [5]Mortimer Wheeler [5]Marion Wheeler [4]Marcus Wheeler [4]

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Muriel E. Wheeler
Northern Illinois University
Molly Wheeler
Seattle Pacific University
Melissa Wheeler
Ashford University
  1.  54
    Reconstructing the Cognitive World: The Next Step.Michael Wheeler - 2005 - Bradford.
    In _Reconstructing the Cognitive World_, Michael Wheeler argues that we should turn away from the generically Cartesian philosophical foundations of much contemporary cognitive science research and proposes instead a Heideggerian approach. Wheeler begins with an interpretation of Descartes. He defines Cartesian psychology as a conceptual framework of explanatory principles and shows how each of these principles is part of the deep assumptions of orthodox cognitive science. Wheeler then turns to Heidegger's radically non-Cartesian account of everyday cognition, which, he argues, can (...)
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  2. In Defence of Extended Functionalism.Michael Wheeler - 2010 - In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press. pp. 245--270.
    According to the extended cognition hypothesis (henceforth ExC), there are conditions under which thinking and thoughts (or more precisely, the material vehicles that realize thinking and thoughts) are spatially distributed over brain, body and world, in such a way that the external (beyond-the-skin) factors concerned are rightly accorded fully-paid-up cognitive status.1 According to functionalism in the philosophy of mind, “what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way (...)
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  3.  95
    Toward a Theory of Episodic Memory: The Frontal Lobes and Autonoetic Consciousness.Mark A. Wheeler, Stuss, T. Donald & Endel Tulving - 1997 - Psychological Bulletin 121:331-54.
  4. The Revolution Will Not Be Optimised: Radical Enactivism, Extended Functionalism and the Extensive Mind.Michael Wheeler - 2017 - Topoi 36 (3):457-472.
    Optimising the 4E revolution in cognitive science arguably requires the rejection of two guiding commitments made by orthodox thinking in the field, namely that the material realisers of cognitive states and processes are located entirely inside the head, and that intelligent thought and action are to be explained in terms of the building and manipulation of content-bearing representations. In other words, the full-strength 4E revolution would be secured only by a position that delivered externalism plus antirepresentationalism. I argue that one (...)
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  5. Minds, Things and Materiality.Michael Wheeler - 2010 - In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In a rich and thought-provoking paper, Lambros Malafouris argues that taking material culture seriously means to be ‘systematically concerned with figuring out the causal efficacy of materiality in the enactment and constitution of a cognitive system or operation’ (Malafouris 2004, 55). As I understand this view, there are really two intertwined claims to be established. The first is that the things beyond the skin that make up material culture (in other words, the physical objects and artefacts in which cultural networks (...)
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  6.  22
    Binding in Short-Term Visual Memory.Mary E. Wheeler & Anne M. Treisman - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (1):48-64.
  7. Genic Representation: Reconciling Content and Causal Complexity.M. Wheeler & A. Clark - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):103-135.
    Some recent cognitive-scientific research suggests that a considerable amount of intelligent action is generated not by the systematic activity of internal representations, but by complex interactions involving neural, bodily, and environmental factors. Following an analysis of this threat to representational explanation, we pursue an analogy between the role of genes in the production of biological form and the role of neural states in the production of behaviour, in order to develop a notion of genic representation. In both cases an appeal (...)
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  8.  3
    Heidegger and Cognitive Science.Julian Kiverstein & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This impressive volume of essays that includes contributions from Herbert Dreyfus, Sean Kelly, Mike Wheeler, Dan Zahavi, and Shaun Gallagher reflects an emerging trend in cognitive science, and explores this new approach to cognitive science informed by Heidegger's thoughts on human existence.
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  9. Cognition in Context: Phenomenology, Situated Robotics and the Frame Problem.Michael Wheeler - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):323 – 349.
    The frame problem is the difficulty of explaining how non-magical systems think and act in ways that are adaptively sensitive to context-dependent relevance. Influenced centrally by Heideggerian phenomenology, Hubert Dreyfus has argued that the frame problem is, in part, a consequence of the assumption (made by mainstream cognitive science and artificial intelligence) that intelligent behaviour is representation-guided behaviour. Dreyfus' Heideggerian analysis suggests that the frame problem dissolves if we reject representationalism about intelligence and recognize that human agents realize the property (...)
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  10.  64
    The Reappearing Tool: Transparency, Smart Technology, and the Extended Mind.Michael Wheeler - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):857-866.
    Some thinkers have claimed that expert performance with technology is characterized by a kind of disappearance of that technology from conscious experience, that is, by the transparency of the tools and equipment through which we sense and manipulate the world. This is a claim that may be traced to phenomenological philosophers such as Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, but it has been influential in user interface design where the transparency of technology has often been adopted as a mark of good design. Moreover, (...)
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  11.  89
    Self-Recognition and the Right Prefrontal Cortex.Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler, Gordon G. Gallup & Alvaro Pascual-Leone - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (9):338-344.
  12.  28
    In Search of Clarity About Parity. [REVIEW]Michael Wheeler - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (3):417 - 425.
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  13.  61
    Extended Consciousness: An Interim Report.Michael Wheeler - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (S1):155-175.
  14.  40
    Mind in Life or Life in Mind? Making Sense of Deep Continuity.Mike Wheeler - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (5-6):148-168.
  15.  33
    Is Cognition Embedded or Extended? The Case of Gestures.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    First paragraph: When we perform bodily gestures, are we ever literally thinking with our hands (arms, shoulders, etc.)? In the more precise, but correspondingly drier, technical language of contemporary philosophy of mind and cognition, essentially the same question might be asked as follows: are bodily gestures ever among the material vehicles that realize cognitive processes? More precisely still, is it ever true that a coupled system made up of neural activity and bodily gestures counts as realizing a process of thought, (...)
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  16.  83
    The Grain of Domains: The Evolutionary-Psychological Case Against Domain-General Cognition.Anthony P. Atkinson & Michael Wheeler - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (2):147-76.
    Prominent evolutionary psychologists have argued that our innate psychological endowment consists of numerous domainspecific cognitive resources, rather than a few domaingeneral ones. In the light of some conceptual clarification, we examine the central inprinciple arguments that evolutionary psychologists mount against domaingeneral cognition. We conclude (a) that the fundamental logic of Darwinism, as advanced within evolutionary psychology, does not entail that the innate mind consists exclusively, or even massively, of domainspecific features, and (b) that a mixed innate cognitive economy of domainspecific (...)
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  17. Two Threats to Representation.Michael Wheeler - 2001 - Synthese 129 (2):211-231.
    I consider two threats to the idea that on-line intelligent behaviour (the production of fluid and adaptable responses to ongoing sensory input) must or should be explained by appeal to neurally located representations. The first of these threats occurs when extra-neural factors account for the kind of behavioural richness and flexibility normally associated with representation-based control. I show how this anti-representational challenge can be met, if we apply the thought that, to be a representational system, an action-oriented neural system must (...)
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  18.  21
    Minding Nature: Gallagher and the Relevance of Phenomenology to Cognitive Science.Michael Wheeler & María Jimena Clavel Vázquez - 2018 - Australasian Philosophical Review 2 (2):145-158.
    In ‘Rethinking Nature: Phenomenology and a Non-reductionist Cognitive Science’, Gallagher [2019] sets out to overcome resistance to the idea that phenomenology is relevant to cognitive science. He argues that the relevance in question may be secured if we rethink the concept of nature. For Gallagher, this transformed concept of nature—which is to be distinguished from the classic scientific conception of nature in that it embraces irreducible subjectivity—is already at work in some contemporary enactive phenomenological approaches to cognitive science. Following a (...)
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  19.  6
    Deceptive Appearances: the Turing Test, Response-Dependence, and Intelligence as an Emotional Concept.Michael Wheeler - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (4):513-532.
    The Turing Test is routinely understood as a behaviourist test for machine intelligence. Diane Proudfoot has argued for an alternative interpretation. According to Proudfoot, Turing’s claim that intelligence is what he calls ‘an emotional concept’ indicates that he conceived of intelligence in response-dependence terms. As she puts it: ‘Turing’s criterion for “thinking” is…: x is intelligent if in the actual world, in an unrestricted computer-imitates-human game, x appears intelligent to an average interrogator’. The role of the famous test is thus (...)
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  20.  70
    Science Friction: Phenomenology, Naturalism and Cognitive Science: Michael Wheeler.Michael Wheeler - 2013 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:135-167.
    Recent years have seen growing evidence of a fruitful engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science. This paper confronts an in-principle problem that stands in the way of this intellectual coalition, namely the fact that a tension exists between the transcendentalism that characterizes phenomenology and the naturalism that accompanies cognitive science. After articulating the general shape of this tension, I respond as follows. First, I argue that, if we view things through a kind of neo-McDowellian lens, we can open up a (...)
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  21.  11
    A Meta-Analysis of the Facilitation of Arm Flexion and Extension Movements as a Function of Stimulus Valence.Simon M. Laham, Yoshihisa Kashima, Jennifer Dix & Melissa Wheeler - 2015 - Cognition and Emotion 29 (6):1069-1090.
  22.  26
    Is Language the Ultimate Artifact?M. Wheeler - 2004 - Language Sciences 26 (6):688-710.
    Andy Clark has argued that language is “in many ways the ultimate artifact” (Clark 1997, p.218). Fuelling this conclusion is a view according to which the human brain is essentially no more than a patterncompleting device, while language is an external resource which is adaptively fitted to the human brain in such a way that it enables that brain to exceed its unaided (pattern-completing) cognitive capacities, in much the same way as a pair of scissors enables us to “exploit our (...)
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  23.  51
    Traits, Genes, and Coding.Michael Wheeler - 2007 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy of Biology. Prometheus Books. pp. 369--401.
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  24.  3
    The reappearing tool: transparency, smart technology, and the extended mind.Michael Wheeler - 2018 - Ai and Society 34 (4):857-866.
    Some thinkers have claimed that expert performance with technology is characterized by a kind of disappearance of that technology from conscious experience, that is, by the transparency of the tools and equipment through which we sense and manipulate the world. This is a claim that may be traced to phenomenological philosophers such as Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, but it has been influential in user interface design where the transparency of technology has often been adopted as a mark of good design. Moreover, (...)
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  25. From Robots to Rothko: The Bringing Forth of Worlds.Michael Wheeler - 1996 - In M. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 209-236.
     
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  26.  19
    Elaborated Contextual Framing is Necessary for Action-Based Attitude Acquisition.Simon M. Laham, Yoshihisa Kashima, Jennifer Dix, Melissa Wheeler & Bianca Levis - 2014 - Cognition and Emotion 28 (6):1119-1126.
  27.  62
    Minimal Representing: A Response to Gallagher.Michael Wheeler - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):371 – 376.
  28. Episodic Memory and Autonoetic Awareness.Mark A. Wheeler - 2000 - In Endel Tulving & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press. pp. 597-608.
  29.  43
    Plastic Machines: Behavioural Diversity and the Turing Test.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    After proposing the Turing Test, Alan Turing himself considered a number of objections to the idea that a machine might eventually pass it. One of the objections discussed by Turing was that no machine will ever pass the Turing Test because no machine will ever “have as much diversity of behaviour as a man”. He responded as follows: the “criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage (...)
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  30. Evolutionary Psychology's Grain Problem and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Reasoning.Anthony P. Atkinson & M. Wheeler - 2003 - In David E. Over (ed.), Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press. pp. 61--99.
  31.  50
    The Recent Engagement Between Analytic Philosophy and Heideggerian Thought: Metaphysics and Mind.Filippo Casati & Michael Wheeler - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (9):486-498.
    Martin Heidegger is a towering figure in the history of continental philosophy, but his work has recently been brought into productive engagement with analytic philosophy. This paper introduces and explores two channels along which such engagement has been taking place. The first is in metaphysics, where Heideggerian thought has been interpreted either as making the metaphysical concept of being literally senseless or as mandating a revision to classical logic. The second is in philosophy of mind, and more particularly in philosophy (...)
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  32.  5
    The Grain of Domains: The Evolutionary‐psychological Case Against Domain‐general Cogni.Anthony P. Atkinson & Michael Wheeler - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (2):147-176.
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  33.  29
    God's Machines: Descartes on the Mechanization of Mind.Michael Wheeler - unknown
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  34.  27
    Box 1. Self-Awareness and the Mirror Test.Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler, Gordon G. Gallup & Alvaro Pascual-Leone - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (9):338-344.
  35.  36
    The Neural Correlates of Self-Awareness and Self-Recognition.Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler & Michael Ewers - 2003 - In Tilo Kircher & Anthony S. David (eds.), The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166-179.
  36.  62
    Domains, Brains and Evolution.Michael Wheeler & Anthony Atkinson - 2001 - In D. Walsh (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 239-266.
    According to Darwinian thinking, organisms are designed by natural selection, and so are integrated collections of adaptations, where an adaptation is a phenotypic trait that is a specialized response to a particular selection pressure. For animals that make their living in the Arctic, one adaptive problem is how to maintain body temperature above a certain minimum level necessary for survival. Polar bears' thick coats are a response to that selection pressure . A thick coat makes a positive difference to a (...)
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  37. Varieties of Consciousness and Memory in the Developing Child.M. Wheeler - 2000 - In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  38.  13
    When the Twain Meet : Could the Study of Mind Be a Meeting of Minds.Michael Wheeler & Massimiliano Cappuccio - 2010 - In James Williams (ed.), Postanalytic and Metacontinental: Crossing Philosophical Divides. Continuum. pp. 125.
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  39.  31
    Semantics in Aristotle's Organon.Mark Richard Wheeler - 1999 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (2):191-226.
  40.  4
    Not What It's Like but Where It's Like. Phenomenal Consciousness, Sensory Substitution, and the Extended Mind.M. Wheeler - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (3-4):129-147.
    According to the hypothesis of extended phenomenal consciousness, although the material vehicles that realize phenomenal consciousness include neural elements, they are not restricted to such elements. There will be cases in which those material vehicles additionally include not only non-neural bodily elements, but also elements located beyond the skull and skin. In this paper, I examine two arguments for ExPC, one due to Noë and the other due to Kiverstein and Farina. Both of these arguments conclude that ExPC is true (...)
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  41.  11
    The Indus Civilization.Donald E. McCown & Mortimer Wheeler - 1954 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 74 (3):176.
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  42.  5
    Do Genes Code for Traits?Michael Wheeler - 2003 - In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 151--164.
  43.  22
    Applying Ethics to the Tourism Industry.Marion Wheeler - 1992 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 1 (4):227–235.
    The world's largest industry has received little ethical attention, yet it raises questions of consumer fairness, marketing and environmental and cultural integrity. The author has recently gained an MSc in Tourism Studies from the University of Surrey, and is currently working as an independent consultant in the tourism and leisure sector.
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  44.  32
    Continuity in Question: An Afterword to 'Is Language the Ultimate Artefact?'.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    Is Language the Ultimate Artefact? (henceforth ILUA) was originally published alongside a paper by Andy Clark called Is Language Special? Some remarks on control, coding, and co-ordination (Clark 2004). One concern (among others) of the latter paper was to resist the argument of the former. In this short afterword, I shall attempt a counterresponse to Clark’s resistance. In so doing I hope to reveal, in a new and perhaps clearer way, what the most important issues really are in this (still (...)
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  45. The Disparate Effects of Repeated Testing-Reconciling Ballard and Bartlett Results.Hl Roediger & Ma Wheeler - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):524-524.
     
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  46.  18
    Domains, Brains and Evolution.Michael Wheeler & Anthony Atkinson - 2001 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 49:239-266.
    According to Darwinian thinking, organisms are designed by natural selection, and so are integrated collections of adaptations, where an adaptation is a phenotypic trait that is a specialized response to a particular selection pressure. For animals that make their living in the Arctic, one adaptive problem is how to maintain body temperature above a certain minimum level necessary for survival. Polar bears' thick coats are a response to that selection pressure. A thick coat makes a positive difference to a polar (...)
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  47.  13
    The Indus Civilization.E. B. & Mortimer Wheeler - 1961 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 81 (4):460.
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  48.  30
    Semantics in Aristotle's.Mark Richard Wheeler - 1999 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (2).
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  49.  12
    Ethics and the Sports Business.Marion Wheeler - 1994 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 3 (1):8–15.
    Action needs to be taken on the ethical issues raised by the commercialising of sport if its integrity is to be maintained and its ethical base is not to be eroded further. The author has worked as an independent consultant in the leisure sector for a number of years and has recently joined the Research Unit of Britain's Sports Council. The views expressed by her in this article are not necessarily those held by the Sports Council.
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  50.  18
    Distributed Cognition in Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy.Miranda Anderson & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2019 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Reveals the diverse ways that cognition was seen as spread over brain, body and world in the 9–17th centuries - The second book in an ambitious 4-volume set looking at distributed cognition in the history of thought - Includes essays on literature, philosophy, law, art, music, medicine, science and material culture - For students and scholars in medieval and Renaissance studies, cognitive humanities and philosophy of mind - Draws out what was distinctive about medieval and Renaissance insights into (and superstitions (...)
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