Results for 'Machine Ethics'

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  1. A Challenge for Machine Ethics.Ryan Tonkens - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (3):421-438.
    That the successful development of fully autonomous artificial moral agents (AMAs) is imminent is becoming the received view within artificial intelligence research and robotics. The discipline of Machines Ethics, whose mandate is to create such ethical robots, is consequently gaining momentum. Although it is often asked whether a given moral framework can be implemented into machines, it is never asked whether it should be. This paper articulates a pressing challenge for Machine Ethics: To identify an ethical framework (...)
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  2. The Status of Machine Ethics: A Report From the AAAI Symposium. [REVIEW]Michael Anderson & Susan Leigh Anderson - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (1):1-10.
    This paper is a summary and evaluation of work presented at the AAAI 2005 Fall Symposium on Machine Ethics that brought together participants from the fields of Computer Science and Philosophy to the end of clarifying the nature of this newly emerging field and discussing different approaches one could take towards realizing the ultimate goal of creating an ethical machine.
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  3.  72
    The Motivations and Risks of Machine Ethics.Stephen Cave, Rune Nyrup, Karina Vold & Adrian Weller - 2019 - Proceedings of the IEEE 107 (3):562-574.
    Many authors have proposed constraining the behaviour of intelligent systems with ‘machine ethics’ to ensure positive social outcomes from the development of such systems. This paper critically analyses the prospects for machine ethics, identifying several inherent limitations. While machine ethics may increase the probability of ethical behaviour in some situations, it cannot guarantee it due to the nature of ethics, the computational limitations of computational agents and the complexity of the world. In addition, (...)
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  4. Incremental Machine Ethics.Thomas M. Powers - 2011 - IEEE Robotics and Automation 18 (1):51-58.
    Approaches to programming ethical behavior for computer systems face challenges that are both technical and philosophical in nature. In response, an incrementalist account of machine ethics is developed: a successive adaptation of programmed constraints to new, morally relevant abilities in computers. This approach allows progress under conditions of limited knowledge in both ethics and computer systems engineering and suggests reasons that we can circumvent broader philosophical questions about computer intelligence and autonomy.
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  5.  45
    Levels of Trust in the Context of Machine Ethics.Herman T. Tavani - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):75-90.
    Are trust relationships involving humans and artificial agents possible? This controversial question has become a hotly debated topic in the emerging field of machine ethics. Employing a model of trust advanced by Buechner and Tavani :39–51, 2011), I argue that the “short answer” to this question is yes. However, I also argue that a more complete and nuanced answer will require us to articulate the various levels of trust that are also possible in environments comprising both human agents (...)
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  6. Rethinking Machine Ethics in the Era of Ubiquitous Technology.Jeffrey White (ed.) - 2015 - IGI.
  7. A Case for Machine Ethics in Modeling Human-Level Intelligent Agents.Robert James M. Boyles - 2018 - Kritike 12 (1):182–200.
    This paper focuses on the research field of machine ethics and how it relates to a technological singularity—a hypothesized, futuristic event where artificial machines will have greater-than-human-level intelligence. One problem related to the singularity centers on the issue of whether human values and norms would survive such an event. To somehow ensure this, a number of artificial intelligence researchers have opted to focus on the development of artificial moral agents, which refers to machines capable of moral reasoning, judgment, (...)
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  8.  8
    Moral Orthoses: A New Approach to Human and Machine Ethics.Marius Dorobantu & Yorick Wilks - 2019 - Zygon 54 (4):1004-1021.
  9. Conceptualizing Policy in Value Sensitive Design: A Machine Ethics Approach.Steven Umbrello - manuscript
    The value sensitive design (VSD) approach to designing transformative technologies for human values is taken as the object of study in this chapter. VSD has traditionally been conceptualized as another type of technology or instrumentally as a tool. The various parts of VSD’s principled approach would then aim to discern the various policy requirements that any given technological artifact under consideration would implicate. Yet, little to no consideration has been given to how laws, regulations, policies and social norms engage within (...)
     
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  10.  31
    A Prima Facie Duty Approach to Machine Ethics Machine Learning of Features of Ethical Dilemmas, Prima Facie Duties, and Decision Principles Through a Dialogue with Ethicists.Susan Leigh Anderson & Michael Anderson - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  11. The problem of machine ethics in artificial intelligence.Rajakishore Nath & Vineet Sahu - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):103-111.
    The advent of the intelligent robot has occupied a significant position in society over the past decades and has given rise to new issues in society. As we know, the primary aim of artificial intelligence or robotic research is not only to develop advanced programs to solve our problems but also to reproduce mental qualities in machines. The critical claim of artificial intelligence advocates is that there is no distinction between mind and machines and thus they argue that there are (...)
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  12. Autonomous Reboot: The Challenges of Artificial Moral Agency and the Ends of Machine Ethics.Jeffrey White - manuscript
    Ryan Tonkens (2009) has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents (AMAs) satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe - both "rational" and "free" - while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of Machine Ethics to create AMAs that are perfectly, not merely reliably, ethical. Challenges for machine ethicists have also been presented by Anthony Beavers and Wendell Wallach, who have pushed for the reinvention of traditional ethics in order to avoid (...)
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  13.  48
    Once People Understand That Machine Ethics is Concerned with How Intelligent Machines Should Behave, They Often Maintain That Isaac Asimov has Already Given Us an Ideal Set of Rules for Such Machines. They Have in Mind Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics: 1. A Robot May Not Injure a Human Being, or, Through Inaction, Allow a Human.Susan Leigh Anderson - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  14. Philosophical Concerns with Machine Ethics.Susan Leigh Anderson - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  15. Deontological Machine Ethics.Thomas M. Powers - 2005 - In M. Anderson, S. L. Anderson & C. Armen (eds.), Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Fall Symposium Technical Report.
    Rule-based ethical theories like Kant's appear to be promising for machine ethics because of the computational structure of their judgments. On one formalist interpretation of Kant's categorical imperative, for instance, a machine could place prospective actions into the traditional deontic categories (forbidden, permissible, obligatory) by a simple consistency test on the maxim of action. We might enhance this test by adding a declarative set of subsidiary maxims and other "buttressing" rules. The ethical judgment is then an outcome (...)
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  16.  32
    Machine Ethics and the Idea of a More-Than-Human Moral World.Steve Torrance - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 115.
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    Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue Part 2: From Frankenstein to Battlefield Drones; A Perspective on Machine Ethics.Mark Dougherty - 2013 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 22 (1):1-7.
    . Intelligent systems are reaching the point where they can take very significant decisions on behalf of humans and society. The moral and ethical impact of such systems needs to be taken very seriously, both internally and externally in respect of such systems. Although some work into defining and systematizing machine ethics has begun, a great deal of work remains to be done and many research questions remain open.
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  18.  5
    One Way to View the Puzzle of Machine Ethics is to Consider How.Thomas M. Powers - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 464.
  19. The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on Ai, Robots, and Ethics.David J. Gunkel - 2012 - MIT Press.
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. Much recent attention has been devoted to the "animal question" -- consideration of the moral status of nonhuman animals. In this book, David Gunkel takes up the "machine question": whether and to what extent intelligent and autonomous machines of our own making can be considered to have legitimate moral responsibilities and any legitimate claim to moral consideration. The machine question poses (...)
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  20.  50
    Designing a Machine to Learn About the Ethics of Robotics: The N-Reasons Platform. [REVIEW]Peter Danielson - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):251-261.
    We can learn about human ethics from machines. We discuss the design of a working machine for making ethical decisions, the N-Reasons platform, applied to the ethics of robots. This N-Reasons platform builds on web based surveys and experiments, to enable participants to make better ethical decisions. Their decisions are better than our existing surveys in three ways. First, they are social decisions supported by reasons. Second, these results are based on weaker premises, as no exogenous expertise (...)
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  21. Machine Ethics.M. Anderson & S. Anderson (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Univ. Press.
    The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ...
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  22.  7
    Rule Based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Natural Language Processing in Machine Ethics.Rollin M. Omari & Masoud Mohammadian - 2016 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 14 (3):231-253.
  23. Machine Medical Ethics.Simon Peter van Rysewyk & Matthijs Pontier (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    In medical settings, machines are in close proximity with human beings: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. Machines in these contexts are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. -/- As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical (...)? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for empathy and emotion detection necessary? What about consciousness? -/- The essays in this collection by researchers from both humanities and science describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine, what design features are necessary in order to achieve this, philosophical and practical questions concerning justice, rights, decision-making and responsibility, and accurately modeling essential physician-machine-patient relationships. -/- This collection is the first book to address these 21st-century concerns. (shrink)
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  24. Integrating Robot Ethics and Machine Morality: The Study and Design of Moral Competence in Robots.Bertram F. Malle - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (4):243-256.
    Robot ethics encompasses ethical questions about how humans should design, deploy, and treat robots; machine morality encompasses questions about what moral capacities a robot should have and how these capacities could be computationally implemented. Publications on both of these topics have doubled twice in the past 10 years but have often remained separate from one another. In an attempt to better integrate the two, I offer a framework for what a morally competent robot would look like and discuss (...)
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  25. Introduction: Machine Ethics and the Ethics of Building Intelligent Machines. [REVIEW]Marcello Guarini - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):213-215.
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    Considerations About the Relationship Between Animal and Machine Ethics.Oliver Bendel - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (1):103-108.
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    Prototyping N-Reasons: A Computer Mediated Ethics Machine.P. A. Danielson - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 9.
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    Luís Moniz Pereira & Ari Saptawijaya, Programming Machine Ethics: Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, €99.99, ISBN 978-3-319-29353-0.Sean Welsh - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):253-257.
  29.  12
    Programming Machine Ethics by Luís Moniz Pereira and Ari Saptawijaya.Robert Kowalski - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):299-300.
  30. Machine and Metaphor: The Ethics of Language in American Realism.Jennifer C. Cook - 2006 - Routledge.
    American literary realism burgeoned during a period of tremendous technological innovation. Because the realists evinced not only a fascination with this new technology but also an ethos that seems to align itself with science, many have paired the two fields rather unproblematically. But this book demonstrates that many realist writers, from Mark Twain to Stephen Crane, Charles W. Chesnutt to Edith Wharton, felt a great deal of anxiety about the advent of new technologies – precisely at the crucial intersection of (...)
     
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  31.  4
    Machine Metaphors and Ethics in Synthetic Biology.Joachim Boldt - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-13.
    The extent to which machine metaphors are used in synthetic biology is striking. These metaphors contain a specific perspective on organisms as well as on scientific and technological progress. Expressions such as “genetically engineered machine”, “genetic circuit”, and “platform organism”, taken from the realms of electronic engineering, car manufacturing, and information technology, highlight specific aspects of the functioning of living beings while at the same time hiding others, such as evolutionary change and interdependencies in ecosystems. Since these latter (...)
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  32.  19
    “Hooked Up to That Damn Machine”: Working with Metaphors in Clinical Ethics Cases.Susanne Michl & Anita Wohlmann - 2019 - Clinical Ethics 14 (2):80-86.
    The frequent use of metaphors in health care communication in general and clinical ethics cases in particular calls for a more mindful and competent use of figurative speech. Metaphors are powerful tools that enable different ways of thinking about complex issues in health care. However, depending on how and in which context they are used, they can also be harmful and undermine medical decision-making. Given this contingent nature of metaphors, this article discusses two approaches that suggest how medical health (...)
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  33. David J. Gunkel: The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics: MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2012, 272 Pp, ISBN-10: 0-262-01743-1, ISBN-13: 978-0-262-01743-5. [REVIEW]Mark Coeckelbergh - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):235-238.
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    Questions Left Unanswered: The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. David J. Gunkel. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012, 272 Pages, $35. [REVIEW]Jeffrey D. Gottlieb - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):163-166.
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    Questions Left Unanswered: The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. David J. Gunkel. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012, 272 Pages, $35.Jeffrey D. Gottlieb - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):163-166.
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    Decentered Ethics in the Machine Era and Guidance for AI Regulation.Christian Hugo Hoffmann & Benjamin Hahn - forthcoming - AI and Society.
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    The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. By David J. Gunkel.Dominika Dzwonkowska - 2013 - International Philosophical Quarterly 53 (1):91-93.
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    Thinking Otherwise: Ethics, Technology and Other Subjects.David J. Gunkel - 2007 - Ethics and Information Technology 9 (3):165-177.
    Ethics is ordinarily understood as being concerned with questions of responsibility for and in the face of an other. This other is more often than not conceived of as another human being and, as such, necessarily excludes others – most notably animals and machines. This essay examines the ethics of such exclusivity. It is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the exclusive anthropocentrism of traditional forms of moral␣thinking and, following the example of recent innovations in animal (...)
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  39.  21
    A Fourth Law of Robotics? Copyright and the Law and Ethics of Machine Co-Production.Burkhard Schafer, David Komuves, Jesus Manuel Niebla Zatarain & Laurence Diver - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (3):217-240.
    Jon Bing was not only a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence and law and the legal regulation of technology. He was also an accomplished author of fiction, with an oeuvre spanning from short stories and novels to theatre plays and even an opera. As reality catches up with the imagination of science fiction writers who have anticipated a world shared by humans and non-human intelligences of their creation, some of the copyright issues he has discussed in his academic (...)
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  40.  10
    Review of "The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics". [REVIEW]Peter H. Denton - 2014 - Essays in Philosophy 15 (1):179-183.
  41.  7
    Photography as a Machine Organism: The Cyberneticization of the Photographic and Techne as Ethics.Mark Martinez - 2015 - Philosophy of Photography 6 (1):61-72.
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  42.  4
    Pig Hearts and Machine-Lathed Kidneys:The Ethics of Staying Alive.Brendan Parent - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (4):46-47.
  43. Machine Medical Ethics.Gary Comstock - 2015 - Springer.
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  44. On How to Build a Moral Machine.Paul Bello & Selmer Bringsjord - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):251-266.
    Herein we make a plea to machine ethicists for the inclusion of constraints on their theories consistent with empirical data on human moral cognition. As philosophers, we clearly lack widely accepted solutions to issues regarding the existence of free will, the nature of persons and firm conditions on moral agency/patienthood; all of which are indispensable concepts to be deployed by any machine able to make moral judgments. No agreement seems forthcoming on these matters, and we don’t hold out (...)
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  45. Predictive Policing and the Ethics of Preemption.Daniel Susser - forthcoming - In Ben Jones & Eduardo Mendieta (eds.), The Ethics of Policing: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York, NY: NYU Press.
    The American justice system, from police departments to the courts, is increasingly turning to information technology for help identifying potential offenders, determining where, geographically, to allocate enforcement resources, assessing flight risk and the potential for recidivism amongst arrestees, and making other judgments about when, where, and how to manage crime. In particular, there is a focus on machine learning and other data analytics tools, which promise to accurately predict where crime will occur and who will perpetrate it. Activists and (...)
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  46. Robot Minds and Human Ethics: The Need for a Comprehensive Model of Moral Decision Making. [REVIEW]Wendell Wallach - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):243-250.
    Building artificial moral agents (AMAs) underscores the fragmentary character of presently available models of human ethical behavior. It is a distinctly different enterprise from either the attempt by moral philosophers to illuminate the “ought” of ethics or the research by cognitive scientists directed at revealing the mechanisms that influence moral psychology, and yet it draws on both. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have tended to stress the importance of particular cognitive mechanisms, e.g., reasoning, moral sentiments, heuristics, intuitions, or a moral (...)
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  47.  55
    Ethics and Artificial Life: From Modeling to Moral Agents. [REVIEW]John P. Sullins - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):139-148.
    Artificial Life has two goals. One attempts to describe fundamental qualities of living systems through agent based computer models. And the second studies whether or not we can artificially create living things in computational mediums that can be realized either, virtually in software, or through biotechnology. The study of ALife has recently branched into two further subdivisions, one is “dry” ALife, which is the study of living systems “in silico” through the use of computer simulations, and the other is “wet” (...)
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  48. The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate.Brent Mittelstadt, Patrick Allo, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Sandra Wachter & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Big Data and Society 3 (2).
    In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, and how we perceive, understand, and interact among ourselves and with the environment. Gaps between the design and operation of algorithms and our understanding of their ethical implications can have severe consequences (...)
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  49.  36
    Critiquing the Reasons for Making Artificial Moral Agents.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Scott Robbins - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents. Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than (...)
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  50. There is No 'I' in 'Robot': Robots and Utilitarianism (Expanded & Revised).Christopher Grau - 2011 - In Susan Anderson & Michael Anderson (eds.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 451.
    Utilizing the film I, Robot as a springboard, I here consider the feasibility of robot utilitarians, the moral responsibilities that come with the creation of ethical robots, and the possibility of distinct ethics for robot-robot interaction as opposed to robot-human interaction. (This is a revised and expanded version of an essay that originally appeared in IEEE: Intelligent Systems.).
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