Results for 'Maciej Musia��'

536 found
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  1.  20
    Words on Kripke’s Puzzle.Maciej Tarnowski & Maciej Głowacki - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-21.
    In this paper we present a solution to Saul Kripke’s Puzzle About Belief Meaning and use, Dordrecht, 1979) based on Kaplan’s metaphysical picture of words. Although it is widely accepted that providing such a solution was one of the main incentives for the development of Kaplan’s theory, it was never presented by Kaplan in a systematic manner and was regarded by many as unsatisfactory. We agree with these critiques, and develop an extension of Kaplan’s theory by introducing the notion of (...)
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  2.  63
    Culture–Gene Coevolution, Norm-Psychology and the Emergence of Human Prosociality.Maciej Chudek & Joseph Henrich - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (5):218-226.
  3.  5
    Performing Individualism. Two Tendencies Dismantling War Imagery in Croatian and Serbian Historical Novels of the 1960s.Maciej Czerwiński - 2019 - Seeu Review 14 (2):2-29.
    The article aims at addressing the question of representations of World War Two in Croatian and Serbian literature that were subversive in the sense that they queried the legend not simply by rejecting communism and affirming nationalism, but by emphasizing the uncertainty and sensibility of the human beings, a typical modern reaction to violence and, in general, modernist topoi. In this article I will focus on modernist novelistic representations of the 1960s in which the uncertainty and instability of collective warrants (...)
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  4.  18
    On Production and Use of Tokens of I.Maciej Głowacki - 2021 - Studia Semiotyczne 35 (1):95-106.
    In this paper, I analyze the semantics of the first person pronoun “I” from the perspective of the user/producer distinction. In the first part of the paper, I describe the Simple View and propose three interpretations of its thesis. In the second part, I analyze the notions of use and production of a linguistic token. In the next part, I show that all of the interpretations of SV are sensitive to counterexamples. In the end, I discuss possible answers of the (...)
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  5.  8
    Autonomic Nervous System Activity During Positive Emotions: A Meta-Analytic Review.Maciej Behnke, Sylvia D. Kreibig, Lukasz D. Kaczmarek, Mark Assink & James J. Gross - 2022 - Emotion Review 14 (2):132-160.
    Emotion Review, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 132-160, April 2022. Autonomic nervous system activity is a fundamental component of emotional responding. It is not clear, however, whether positive emotional states are associated with differential ANS reactivity. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analytic review of 120 articles, measuring ANS activity during 11 elicited positive emotions, namely amusement, attachment love, awe, contentment, craving, excitement, gratitude, joy, nurturant love, pride, and sexual desire. We identified a widely dispersed collection of studies. Univariate (...)
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  6.  13
    Illocution and accommodation in the functioning of presumptions.Maciej Witek - 2019 - Synthese 198 (7):6207-6244.
    In this paper, I develop a speech-act based account of presumptions. Using a score-keeping model of illocutionary games, I argue that presumptions construed as speech acts can be grouped into three illocutionary act types defined by reference to how they affect the state of a conversation. The paper is organized into two parts. In the first one, I present the score-keeping model of speech act dynamics; in particular, I distinguish between two types of mechanisms—the direct mechanism of illocution and the (...)
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  7.  77
    Non-Inferential Aspects of Ad Hominem and Ad Baculum.Katarzyna Budzynska & Maciej Witek - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):301-315.
    The aim of the paper is to explore the interrelation between persuasion tactics and properties of speech acts. We investigate two types of arguments ad: ad hominem and ad baculum. We show that with both of these tactics, the structures that play a key role are not inferential, but rather ethotic, i.e., related to the speaker’s character and trust. We use the concepts of illocutionary force and constitutive conditions related to the character or status of the speaker in order to (...)
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  8.  20
    Davida Kaplana metafizyka słów.Maciej Głowacki - 2022 - Filozofia Nauki 29 (116):103-129.
    This paper presents the fundamental problems of metaphysics of words and reconstructs David Kaplan’s intentional metaphysics of words. I critically analyze Kaplan’s proposal and present the most important objections. I also propose some possible answers to the objections.
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  9.  56
    On the Pragmatic Approach to Counterpossibles.Maciej Sendłak - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (2):523-532.
    Nina Emery and Christopher Hill proposed a pragmatic approach toward the debate about counterpossibles—i.e., counterfactuals with impossible antecedents. The core of this approach is to move the burden of the problem from the notion of truth value into the notion of assertion. This is meant to explain our pre-theoretical intuitions about counterpossibles while claiming that each and every counterpossible is vacuously true. The aim of this paper is to indicate a problematic aspect of this view.
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  10.  50
    An Interactional Account of Illocutionary Practice.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Language Sciences 47:43-55.
    The paper aims to develop an interactional account of illocutionary practice, which results from integrating elements of Millikan's biological model of language within the framework of Austin's theory of speech acts. The proposed account rests on the assumption that the force of an act depends on what counts as its interactional effect or, in other words, on the response that it conventionally invites or attempts to elicit. The discussion is divided into two parts. The first one reconsiders Austin's and Millikan's (...)
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  11. Sebastian T. Kołodziejczyk, Granice pojęciowe metafizyki.Maciej Czerniakowski - 2008 - Roczniki Filozoficzne:521-528.
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  12. Współczesne użycia dyskursu filozoficznego i literatury.Maciej Michalski - 2021 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 26 (2):125-142.
    This paper discusses three different contemporary uses of philosophy and literature in non-philosophical and non-literary texts. Most often, both discourses are used as tools, and they are invoked instrumentally in popularizing literature or in teaching. Philosophy and literature can also be treated as a source or starting point for reflection outside its mother field, or even as a cause of various social and political processes. The most interesting usage of both discourses is to refer to them as the symptoms or (...)
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  13. How to Establish Authority with Words: Imperative Utterances and Presupposition Accommodation.Maciej Witek - 2013 - In Anna Brożek (ed.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University, Warszawa 2013. pp. 145-157.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at providing an account of an indirect mechanism responsible for establishing one's power to issue biding directive acts; second, it is intended as a case for an externalist account of illocutionary interaction. The mechanism in question is akin to what David Lewis calls presupposition accommodation: a rule-governed process whereby the context of an utterance is adjusted to make the utterance acceptable; the main idea behind the proposed account is that the (...)
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  14.  6
    Piotr Kropotkin i ewolucyjne źródła moralności.Maciej Drabiński - 2020 - Etyka 58 (2):26-49.
    Piotr Kropotkin był najważniejszym przedstawicielem tzw. darwinizmu rosyjskiego oraz teorii pomocy wzajemnej, która podkreślała znaczenie współpracy wewnątrzgatunkowej w procesie doboru naturalnego oraz walki o byt. Na jej kanwie rosyjski badacz wysunął tezę o ewolucyjnych źródłach moralności, będącej problem badawczym w niniejszym artykule. Stanowi to jednocześnie powód dlaczego poza przedstawieniem wspomnianej tezy i jej założeń, w publikacji zilustrowana została także teoria pomocy wzajemnej. Zaproponowana przez Kropotkina wizja moralności suponowała, iż stanowi ona „przyrodzoną” właściwość ludzkiej natury. Podstawę dla niej stanowić ma instynkt (...)
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  15.  27
    Czy matematyka jest składnią języka? Kurta Gödla argument przeciwko formalizmowi.Maciej Głowacki - 2021 - Filozofia Nauki 29 (113):43-61.
    In this paper, I critically examine Kurt Gödel’s argument against the syntactic interpretation of mathematics. While the main aim is to analyze the argument, I also wish to underscore the relevance of the original elements of Gödel’s philosophical thought. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part, I introduce the reader to Gödel’s philosophy. In the second part, I reconstruct the formalist stance in the philosophy of mathematics, which is the object of Gödel’s criticism. In the third part, (...)
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  16.  1
    Brzemię Przeszłości: Zło Jako Przedmiot Interpretacji Historycznej.Maciej Bugajewski - 2009 - Wydawn. Nauk. Uniwersytetu Im. Adama Mickiewicza.
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  17.  17
    Possibilities of Materiality.Maciej Biedziński - 2018 - American Journal of Semiotics 34 (3):293-311.
    In contemporary marketing practice, semiotics is often considered to be a useful set of tools employed only in certain moments of the brand-building process. One of the reasons for this is that models rooted in dyadic understanding of a sign serve to narrow the role of applied semioticians to that of the expert, supporting a linear transfer of meaning from culture to products and services. This article proposes a framework that regards a semiotician, rather, as a key figure—a figure that (...)
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  18.  38
    Hannah Arendt and the Challenge of Modernity. A Phenomenology of Human Rights.Maciej Brachowicz - 2010 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):151-154.
  19.  51
    Mechanisms of Illocutionary Games.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Language and Communication 42:11-22.
    The paper develops a score-keeping model of illocutionary games and uses it to account for mechanisms responsible for creating institutional facts construed as rights and commitments of participants in a dialogue. After introducing the idea of Austinian games—understood as abstract entities representing different levels of the functioning of discourse—the paper defines the main categories of the proposed model: interactional negotiation, illocutionary score, appropriateness rules and kinematics rules. Finally, it discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in illocutionary games and (...)
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  20.  13
    Acquisition and Loss of the Public Law Status of Entrepreneur – Interpretation Problems of Public Commercial Law in Poland.Maciej Etel - 2013 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 33 (1):127-138.
    The obligation of the legalization of entrepreneurial activity from Article 14 of The Act of July 2, 2004 on the freedom of entrepreneurial activity caused deliberations regarding constitutive or declarative character of the legalization entry and as a result, created a problem with indication of the moment when the public law status of an entrepreneur is acquired. The answer to the question whether Central Register and Information of Entrepreneurial Activity or the register of entrepreneurs of the National Court Register have (...)
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  21.  9
    Counterpossibles, Story Prefix and Trivialism.Maciej Sendłak - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):7283-7301.
    The aim of this paper is to argue in favor of the view that some counterpossibles are false. This is done indirectly by showing that accepting the opposite view, i.e., one that ascribes truth to each and every counterpossible, results in the claim that every necessarily false theory has exactly the same consequences. Accordingly, it is shown that taking every counterpossible to be true not only undermines the value of debates over various alternative theories and their consequences, but also puts (...)
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  22.  5
    Is Having Contradictory Beliefs Possible? Discussion and Critique of Arguments for the Psychological Principle of Non-Contradiction.Maciej Tarnowski - 2020 - Studia Semiotyczne—English Supplement 31:91-126.
    The aim of this paper is to present and analyze arguments provided for the Psychological Principle of Non-Contradiction which states that one cannot have, or cannot be described as having, contradictory beliefs. By differentiating two possible interpretations of PNC, descriptive and normative, and examining arguments provided for each of them separately I point out the flaws in reasoning in these arguments and difficulties with aligning PNC with the empirical data provided by research done in cognitive and clinical psychology. I claim (...)
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  23.  2
    Social Norms Moderate the Effect of Tax System on Tax Evasion: Evidence From a Large-Scale Survey Experiment.Maciej A. Górecki & Natalia Letki - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 172 (4):727-746.
    In this study, we reconcile conflicting findings from the extant literature on the impact of tax system parameters on tax noncompliance. We argue that social norms play a role of heuristics facilitating tax payers’ response to the instrumental incentives posed by the systemic parameters, such as tax rate and penalties for evasion, and thus moderate the effect of those parameters on willingness to evade taxes. Relying on a unique survey experiment conducted in fourteen countries of Central-Eastern Europe, we demonstrate two (...)
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  24.  17
    Tackling Group-Level Traits by Starting at the Start.Maciej Chudek & Joseph Henrich - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):256-257.
  25. Maciej grochowski.Definicje Słownikowe A. Zdania Analityczne - 1990 - Studia Semiotyczne 16:119.
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  26.  3
    1994 European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic.Maciej LiSkiewicz & Riidiger Reischuk - 1995 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 1 (2):203-268.
  27.  29
    Bielawski, Maciej, "Panikkar. Una biografía".Montserrat Abumalham - 2015 - 'Ilu. Revista de Ciencias de Las Religiones 20:315-316.
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  28.  3
    Argumentation and Legal Interpretation in the Criminal Decisions of the Polish Supreme Court and the German Federal Court of Justice: A Comparative View.Maciej Małolepszy & Michał Głuchowski - 2021 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 35 (5):1797-1815.
    The subject of this study are the argumentation strategies applied by the Polish and German apex courts competent in criminal matters, namely the Supreme Court and the Federal Court of Justice, respectively. The investigation encompasses a total of 200 rulings issued by the criminal panels of these bodies. Particular focus was put on examining which arguments both courts apply to solve interpretation problems, and secondly, how these courts systematize the interpretation process. Methodologically, the examination utilizes, inter alia, the principles of (...)
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  29.  17
    Polish “Entrepreneur” and EU “Undertaking”: Multilingualism and Differences in Legal Identification.Maciej Etel - 2017 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 52 (1):57-71.
    The European Union and its member-states’ involvement in the economic sphere, manifesting itself in establishing the rules of entrepreneurs’ functioning – their responsibilities and entitlements – requires a precise determination of the addressees of these standards. Proper identification of an entrepreneur is a condition of proper legislation, interpretation, application, control and execution of the law. In this context it is surprising that understanding the term entrepreneur in Polish law and in EU law is not the same, and divergences and differences (...)
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  30.  18
    Intymność a kultura. Czyste relacje Giddensa w perspektywie społeczno-regulacyjnej koncepcji kultury.Maciej Musiał - 2011 - Filo-Sofija 11 (12 (2011/1)):347-360.
    Author: Musiał Maciej Title: INTIMACY AND CULTURE. ANTHONY GIDDENS’ CONCEPTION OF PURE RELATIONSHIP IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOCIO-REGULATIVE THEORY OF CULTURE (Intymność a kultura. Czysta relacja Giddensa w perspektywie społeczno-regulacyjnej koncepcji kultury) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2011, vol:.12, number: 2011/1, pages: 347-360 Keywords: INTIMACY, CULTURE, PURE RELATIONSHIP, FUNCTIONAL AND AUBJECTIVE-RATIONAL EXPLANATION Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:The aim of the thesis is an attempt to applicate Jerzy Kmita’s theory of culture (...)
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  31.  42
    On Finite Models of the Lambek Calculus.Maciej Farulewski - 2005 - Studia Logica 80 (1):63-74.
    We study a class of finite models for the Lambek Calculus with additive conjunction and with and without empty antecedents. The class of models enables us to prove the finite model property for each of the above systems, and for some axiomatic extensions of them. This work strengthens the results of [3] where only product-free fragments of these systems are considered. A characteristic feature of this approach is that we do not rely on cut elimination in opposition to e.g. [5], (...)
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  32.  9
    Czy posiadanie sprzecznych przekonań jest możliwe? Omówienie i krytyka argumentów za psychologiczną zasadą niesprzeczności.Maciej Tarnowski - 2019 - Studia Semiotyczne 33 (2):323-353.
    Celem tego tekstu jest rekonstrukcja i analiza argumentów przedstawianych za Psychologiczną Zasadą Niesprzeczności, stwierdzającą, że żaden podmiot nie może mieć sprzecznych przekonań lub być opisany jako posiadający sprzeczne przekonania. Poprzez rozróżnienie dwóch możliwych interpretacji PZN, deskryptywnej i normatywnej, oraz dokładne zbadanie argumentacji przedstawionej dla każdej z nich z osobna, wskazuję zawarte w nich błędy oraz problemy związane z uzgodnieniem ich z wynikami badań prowadzonych w psychologii poznawczej i klinicznej. Uzasadniam, dlaczego PZN nie może być wyprowadzona z żadnego ze stanowisk metafizycznych (...)
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  33.  11
    The Expressive Dimension and Score-Changing Function of Speech Acts From the Evolutionist Point of View.Maciej Witek - 2019 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 96 (3):381-398.
    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the author examines Mitchell Green’s account of the expressive power and score-changing function of speech acts; second, he develops an alternative, though also evolutionist approach to explaining these two hallmarks of verbal interaction. After discussing the central tenets of Green’s model, the author draws two distinctions – between externalist and internalist aspects of veracity, and between perlocutionary and illocutionary credibility – and argues that they constitute a natural refinement of Green’s original conceptual (...)
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  34.  46
    Linguistic Underdeterminacy: A View From Speech Act Theory.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Journal of Pragmatics 76:15-29.
    The aim of this paper is to reformulate the Linguistic Underdeterminacy Thesis by making use of Austin’s theory of speech acts. Viewed from the post-Gricean perspective, linguistic underdeterminacy consists in there being a gap between the encoded meaning of a sentence uttered by a speaker and the proposition that she communicates. According to the Austinian model offered in this paper, linguistic underdeterminacy should be analysed in terms of semantic and force potentials conventionally associated with the lexical and syntactic properties of (...)
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  35.  18
    Anselm and Russell.Maciej Nowicki - 2006 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (4):355-368.
    In his paper “St. Anselm’s ontological argument succumbs to Russell’s paradox” Christopher Viger presents a critique of Anselm’s Argument from the second chapter of Proslogion. Viger claims there that he manages to show that the greater than relation that Anselm used in his proof leads to inconsistency. I argue firstly, that Viger does not show what he maintains to show, secondly, that the flaw is not in the nature of Anselm’s reasoning but in Viger’s (mis)understanding of Anselm as well as (...)
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  36.  20
    Stulecie \"Sporu o Platona\".Maciej Chlewicki - 2011 - Filo-Sofija 11 (13):559-571.
    Author: Chlewicki Maciej Title: A HUNDRED YEARS OF THE DISPUTE ABOUT PLATO (Stulecie Sporu o Platona) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2011, vol:.13/14, number: 2011/2-3, pages: 559-571 Keywords: PLATO, WŁADYSŁAW TATARKIEWICZ, MARBURG NEO-KANTIAN SCHOOL, THEORY OF IDEA Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:The aim of this paper is to present the main theses and the importance of Tatarkiewicz’s article The dispute about Plato (Spór o Platona) in polish reception of Plato’s philosophy. (...)
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  37.  5
    Processual Emergentism.Maciej Dombrowski - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-23.
    The turn of the twenty-first century was a period of intensified research on the description of the world as a complex structure built of dynamical systems occurring at different levels of reality. Such systems can be described as bundles of processes. Therefore, the most empirically adequate ontology turns out to be processualism. In this paper, I describe a contemporary version of processual philosophy, which I refer to as processual emergentism. Within the proposed position, the classical formulations of processualism and emergentism (...)
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  38.  7
    Learning Through Clamor: The Allocation and Perception of Study Time in Noise.Maciej Hanczakowski, C. Philip Beaman & Dylan M. Jones - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (7):1005-1022.
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  39.  6
    Creative Lockdown? A Daily Diary Study of Creative Activity During Pandemics.Maciej Karwowski, Aleksandra Zielińska, Dorota M. Jankowska, Elzbieta Strutyńska, Iwona Omelańczuk & Izabela Lebuda - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is influencing our lives in an enormous and unprecedented way. Here, we explore COVID-19-lockdown's consequences for creative activity. To this end, we relied on two extensive diary studies. The first, held on March 2019, involved 78 students who reported their emotions and creativity over 2 weeks. The second, conducted on March 2020, involved 235 students who reported on their emotions, creativity, and the intensity of thinking and talking about COVID-19 over a month. We found that (...)
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  40. Pokochać Mądrość: Zarys Dydaktyki Filozofii I Etyki.Maciej Bała - 2009 - Wydawn. Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego.
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  41. Filozofia mistyki.Maciej Bala - 2007 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 43 (1):87-98.
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  42. Mikroelektronika i społeczeństwo (\"Mikroelektronika i społeczeństwo. Na dobre czy na złe? Raport dla Klubu Rzymskiego\", pod red. G. Friedrichsa i A. Schaffa, Warszawa 1987). [REVIEW]Maciej Balcerak - 1990 - Studia Filozoficzne 290 (1).
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  43. O Możliwości Hermeneutycznej Filozofii Religii: Propozycja Paula Ricœura.Maciej Bała - 2007 - Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego.
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  44.  64
    Alternative Frameworks and Counterpossibles.Maciej Sendłak - 2016 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 93 (1):24-41.
    The aim of this paper is to show why the theories of impossible worlds do not fully solve the problem of counterpossibles, but merely shift it. Moreover, by making a distinction between two types of languages, we will show that some expectations about proper theory of counterfactuals might be too great.
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  45.  49
    No Right To Mercy - Making Sense of Arguments From Dignity in the Lethal Autonomous Weapons Debate.Maciej Zając - 2020 - Etyka 59 (1):134-55.
    Arguments from human dignity feature prominently in the Lethal Autonomous Weapons moral feasibility debate, even though their exists considerable controversy over their role and soundness and the notion of dignity remains under-defined. Drawing on the work of Dieter Birnbacher, I fix the sub-discourse as referring to the essential value of human persons in general, and to postulated moral rights of combatants not covered within the existing paradigm of the International Humanitarian Law in particular. I then review and critique dignity-based arguments (...)
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  46. Three Approaches to the Study of Speech Acts.Maciej Witek - 2013 - Dialogue and Universalism 23 (1):129-141.
    The paper reconstructs and discusses three different approaches to the study of speech acts: (i) the intentionalist approach, according to which most illocutionary acts are to be analysed as utterances made with the Gricean communicative intentions, (ii) the institutionalist approach, which is based on the idea of illocutions as institutional acts constituted by systems of collectively accepted rules, and (iii) the interactionalist approach the main tenet of which is to perform illocutionary acts by making conventional moves in accordance with patterns (...)
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  47.  1
    On the Methodological Restriction of the Principle of Characterization.Maciej Sendłak - 2020 - Annalen der Philosophie 87 (2):807-825.
    The subject of this article is the Principle of Characterization—the most controversial principle of Alexius Meinong’s Theory of Objects. The aim of this text is twofold. First of all, to show that Bertrand Russell’s well-known objection to the Principle of Characterization can be reformulated against contemporary unrestricted interpretations of it. Second, to propose an alternative formulation of this principle. This refers to the methodology of metaphysics and is based on the distinction between pre-theoretical and theoretical languages. The proposed formulation fits (...)
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  48.  20
    The Equivalence of Nonassociative Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context‐Free Grammars.Maciej Kandulski - 1988 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 34 (1):41-52.
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  49.  13
    Accommodation and Convention.Maciej Witek - 2016 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):99-115.
    The paper develops a non-Gricean account of accommodation: a contextadjusting process guided by the assumption that the speaker’s utterance constitutes an appropriate conversational move. The paper is organized into three parts. The first one reconstructs the basic tenets of Lepore and Stone's non-Gricean model of meaningmaking, which results from integrating direct intentionalism and extended semantics. The second part discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in conversational practice. The third part uses the tenets of the non-Gricean model of meaning-making (...)
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  50.  17
    The Stigma of Reporting Wrongdoing at Work: When Doing Right is Perceived as Wrong.Maciej Macko & Brita Bjørkelo - 2012 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 43 (2):70-75.
    The stigma of reporting wrongdoing at work: When doing right is perceived as wrong The act of reporting unethical, illegal and illegitimate practices at work, whistleblowing, can be associated with a stigma for the individual in question. This article presents the stigmatizing position of reporting wrongdoing at work, types of wrongdoing and individual antecedents. Since empirical studies have shown very few systematic results regarding individual differences, one way to decrease societal stigma can be to relate the act of reporting to (...)
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