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Profile: Maciej Witek
  1.  21
    Non-Inferential Aspects of Ad Hominem and Ad Baculum.Katarzyna Budzynska & Maciej Witek - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):301-315.
    The aim of the paper is to explore the interrelation between persuasion tactics and properties of speech acts. We investigate two types of arguments ad: ad hominem and ad baculum. We show that with both of these tactics, the structures that play a key role are not inferential, but rather ethotic, i.e., related to the speaker’s character and trust. We use the concepts of illocutionary force and constitutive conditions related to the character or status of the speaker in order to (...)
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  2. A Contextualist Account of the Linguistic Reality.Maciej Witek - 2008 - In Joanna Odrowąż-Sypniewska (ed.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University 4. Semper.
    In this paper I consider the idea of external language and examine the role it plays in our understanding of human linguistic practice. Following Michael Devitt, I assume that the subject matter of a linguistic theory is not a psychologically real computational module, but a semiotic system of physical entities equipped with linguistic properties. 2 What are the physical items that count as linguistic tokens and in virtue of what do they possess phonetic, syntactic and semantic properties? According to Devitt, (...)
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  3. Three Approaches to the Study of Speech Acts.Maciej Witek - 2013 - Dialogue and Universalism 23 (1):129-141.
    The paper reconstructs and discusses three different approaches to the study of speech acts: (i) the intentionalist approach, according to which most illocutionary acts are to be analysed as utterances made with the Gricean communicative intentions, (ii) the institutionalist approach, which is based on the idea of illocutions as institutional acts constituted by systems of collectively accepted rules, and (iii) the interactionalist approach the main tenet of which is to perform illocutionary acts by making conventional moves in accordance with patterns (...)
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  4.  48
    How to Establish Authority with Words: Imperative Utterances and Presupposition Accommodation.Maciej Witek - 2013 - In Anna Brożek (ed.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University, Warszawa 2013. pp. 145-157.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at providing an account of an indirect mechanism responsible for establishing one's power to issue biding directive acts; second, it is intended as a case for an externalist account of illocutionary interaction. The mechanism in question is akin to what David Lewis calls presupposition accommodation: a rule-governed process whereby the context of an utterance is adjusted to make the utterance acceptable; the main idea behind the proposed account is that the (...)
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  5.  26
    An Interactional Account of Illocutionary Practice.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Language Sciences 47:43-55.
    The paper aims to develop an interactional account of illocutionary practice, which results from integrating elements of Millikan's biological model of language within the framework of Austin's theory of speech acts. The proposed account rests on the assumption that the force of an act depends on what counts as its interactional effect or, in other words, on the response that it conventionally invites or attempts to elicit. The discussion is divided into two parts. The first one reconsiders Austin's and Millikan's (...)
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  6. Wittgenstein and the Internalism-Externalism Dilemma.Maciej Witek - 2003 - In W. Löffler & P. Weingartner (eds.), Knowledge and Belief. Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society. Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society.
    It can be said that Wittgenstein"s Private Language Argument initiated the internalism-externalism dilemma. In one of its interpretations the argument is read as a criticism of methodological solipsism. Internalism, in turn, assumes that methodological solipsism is an adequate account of mental content. Therefore some externalists refer to Wittgenstein as their forerunner. I argue, first, that the Private Language Argument does not support the claim of externalism that meanings are not in the head, even though it undermines methodological solipsism. I also (...)
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  7.  21
    Linguistic Underdeterminacy: A View From Speech Act Theory.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Journal of Pragmatics 76:15-29.
    The aim of this paper is to reformulate the Linguistic Underdeterminacy Thesis by making use of Austin’s theory of speech acts. Viewed from the post-Gricean perspective, linguistic underdeterminacy consists in there being a gap between the encoded meaning of a sentence uttered by a speaker and the proposition that she communicates. According to the Austinian model offered in this paper, linguistic underdeterminacy should be analysed in terms of semantic and force potentials conventionally associated with the lexical and syntactic properties of (...)
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  8.  18
    Mechanisms of Illocutionary Games.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Language and Communication 42:11-22.
    The paper develops a score-keeping model of illocutionary games and uses it to account for mechanisms responsible for creating institutional facts construed as rights and commitments of participants in a dialogue. After introducing the idea of Austinian games—understood as abstract entities representing different levels of the functioning of discourse—the paper defines the main categories of the proposed model: interactional negotiation, illocutionary score, appropriateness rules and kinematics rules. Finally, it discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in illocutionary games and (...)
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  9. Naturalising Illocutionary Rules.Maciej Witek - 2010 - In Marcin Miłkowski & Konrad Talmont-Kaminski (eds.), Beyond Description: Naturalism and Normativity. College Publications.
    In this paper I consider the concept of an illocutionary rule - i.e., the rule of the form "X counts as 7 in context C" - and examine the role it plays in explaining the nature of verbal communication and the conventionality of natural languages. My aim is to find a middle ground between John R. Searle's view, according to which every conventional speech act has to be explained in terms of illocutionary rules that underlie its performance, and the view (...)
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  10.  19
    The Polish School of Argumentation: A Manifesto.Katarzyna Budzynska, Michal Araszkiewicz, Barbara Bogołȩbska, Piotr Cap, Tadeusz Ciecierski, Kamila Debowska-Kozlowska, Barbara Dunin-Kȩplicz, Marcin Dziubiński, Michał Federowicz, Anna Gomolińska, Andrzej Grabowski, Teresa Hołówka, Łukasz Jochemczyk, Magdalena Kacprzak, Paweł Kawalec, Maciej Kielar, Andrzej Kisielewicz, Marcin Koszowy, Robert Kublikowski, Piotr Kulicki, Anna Kuzio, Piotr Lewiński, Jakub Z. Lichański, Jacek Malinowski, Witold Marciszewski, Edward Nieznański, Janina Pietrzak, Jerzy Pogonowski, Tomasz A. Puczyłowski, Jolanta Rytel, Anna Sawicka, Marcin Selinger, Andrzej Skowron, Joanna Skulska, Marek Smolak, Małgorzata Sokół, Agnieszka Sowińska, Piotr Stalmaszczyk, Tomasz Stawecki, Jarosław Stepaniuk, Alina Strachocka, Wojciech Suchoń, Krzysztof Szymanek, Justyna Tomczyk, Robert Trypuz, Kazimierz Trzȩsicki, Mariusz Urbański, Ewa Wasilewska-Kamińska, Krzysztof A. Wieczorek, Maciej Witek, Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska, Olena Yaskorska, Maria Załȩska, Konrad Zdanowski & Żure - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):267-282.
    Building on our diverse research traditions in the study of reasoning, language and communication, the Polish School of Argumentation integrates various disciplines and institutions across Poland in which scholars are dedicated to understanding the phenomenon of the force of argument. Our primary goal is to craft a methodological programme and establish organisational infrastructure: this is the first key step in facilitating and fostering our research movement, which joins people with a common research focus, complementary skills and an enthusiasm to work (...)
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  11.  14
    Introduction.Maciej Witek - 2005 - Philosophica 75.
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  12.  27
    Truth and Conversation.Maciej Witek - 2005 - Philosophica 75:103-135.
    The paper develops an argument in favour of a version of inflationism about thruth. I claim that in order to explain the conversational validity of T-equivalences one should assume that there is a constitutive connection between the concept of truth for statements and the concept of speaker meaning. The justification of my claim proceeds in two steps. Firstly, I formulate an inflationary account of the conversational validity of T-equivalences in terms of conversational implicatures generated by the use of the truth (...)
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  13.  14
    Spór o naturę prawdy z punktu widzenia teorii czynności mowy.Maciej Witek - 2006 - Filozofia Nauki 2 (2006):131-146.
    There are at least three distinct arguments about the nature of truth. The first two are, respectively, between correspondence theories and epistemic theories and between inflationism and deflationism. The aim of the paper is to characterise the third dispute whose starting question is whether truth and truth conditions are semantic or pragmatic concepts. In other words, the question is whether it is semantics or pragmatics that provides an adequate account of truth conditions of utterances. There are two competing answers: the (...)
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  14.  19
    Contextual Facilitation of Colour Recognition: Penetrating Beliefs or Colour-Shape Associations?Maciej Witek - manuscript
    My aim in this paper is to defend the view that the processes underlying early vision are informationally encapsulated. Following Marr (1982) and Pylyshyn (1999) I take early vision to be a cognitive process that takes sensory information as its input and produces the so-called primal sketches or shallow visual outputs: informational states that represent visual objects in terms of their shape, location, size, colour and luminosity. Recently, some researchers (Schirillo 1999, Macpherson 2012) have attempted to undermine the idea of (...)
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  15.  1
    Accommodation and Convention.Maciej Witek - 2016 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):99-115.
    The paper develops a non-Gricean account of accommodation: a contextadjusting process guided by the assumption that the speaker’s utterance constitutes an appropriate conversational move. The paper is organized into three parts. The first one reconstructs the basic tenets of Lepore and Stone's non-Gricean model of meaningmaking, which results from integrating direct intentionalism and extended semantics. The second part discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in conversational practice. The third part uses the tenets of the non-Gricean model of meaning-making (...)
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  16.  15
    Scepticism About Reflexive Intentions Refuted.Maciej Witek - 2009 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 5 (1):69-83.
    The aim of this paper is to resist four arguments, originally developed by Mark Siebel, that seem to support scepticism about reflexive communicative intentions. I argue, first, that despite their complexity reflexive intentions are thinkable mental representations. To justify this claim, I offer an account of the cognitive mechanism that is capable of producing an intention whose content refers to the intention itself. Second, I claim that reflexive intentions can be individuated in terms of their contents. Third, I argue that (...)
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  17.  6
    Searle, Burge and Intentional Content.Maciej Witek - 2004 - In Johann Marek & Maria Reicher (eds.), Experience and Analysis. Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society.
  18.  1
    The Many Faces of Speech Act Theory — Editorial to Special Issue on Speech Actions.Maciej Witek & Iwona Witczak-Plisiecka - 2009 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 5 (1):1-8.
    The many faces of speech act theory — editorial to special issue on speech actions.
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  19. Czynności Illokucyjne Jako Akty Interakcyjne.Maciej Witek - 2010 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 75.
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  20. Deflacjonizm a element normatywny.Maciej Witek - 2001 - Filozofia Nauki 2.
    The author offers a critical analysis of so called deflationary conception of truth. According to the conception in question an adequate theory of truth contains nothing more than instances of a schema: „p” is true iff p. In short, truth is a disquotation. After giving a brief presentation of main deflationary ideas, the author argues that deflationism conflicts with normative epistemology. In other words, being a form of naturalism it leads to elimination of so called normative element from the philosophy (...)
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  21. Frege i semantyka języka naturalnego.Maciej Witek - 1996 - Principia 15.
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  22. Jakie Skojarzenia Ma Umysł Obliczeniowy? Obrona Tezy o Izolacji Informacyjnej Systemu Wczesnego Widzenia.Maciej Witek - 2012 - Studia Z Kognitywistyki I Filozofii Umysłu 6 (2).
    Celem artykułu jest obrona tezy o izolacji informacyjnej systemu wczesnego widzenia przed zarzutami odwołującymi się do eksperymentów świadczących rzekomo o wpływie przekonań o typowych barwach przedmiotów na budowę płytkich reprezentacji wzrokowych. Przez płytkie reprezentacje wzrokowe rozumiem doznania percepcyjne reprezentujące bodźce zewnętrzne wyłącznie za pomocą takich własności, jak kształt, wielkość, położenie i barwa. Twierdzę, że doniesienia eksperymentalne przytaczane przez przeciwników tezy o izolacji informacyjnej można wyjaśnić za pomocą hipotezy, w myśl której system wczesnego widzenia tworzy płytkie reprezentacje wzrokowe korzystając z lokalnej (...)
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  23. Jakiej teorii prawdy relatywiści potrzebują?Maciej Witek - 2003 - Filozofia Nauki 3.
    The aim of this paper is to justify the claim that relativism assumes a deflationary account of truth. In the first section the author articulates some terminological conventions regarding the use of the terms "relativism" and "deflationism". It is assumed that relativism advocates two theses. The first one is the thesis of relativity. It says that opinions adopted by members of some community depend on social or cultural factors determining their cognitive point of view. The second one is the thesis (...)
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  24. Linguistic Underdeterminacy From the Viewpoint of the Reflexive Truth Conditions Theory.Maciej Witek - 2009 - Filozofia Nauki 17 (3):57.
     
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  25. Niedookreślenie językowe z punktu widzenia teorii zwrotnych warunków prawdziwości.Maciej Witek - 2009 - Filozofia Nauki 17 (3).
    The aim of the paper is to present the theory of reflexive truth conditions with particular reference to the literalist account of communicative competence it offers. Like contextualist conceptions, the theory allows for the phenomenon of linguistic underdeterminacy. Unlike most popular accounts of communicative competence, however, it takes the phenomenon to be a property of the semantic, rather than the cognitive correlate of an utterance; it is claimed, namely, that the semantic correlate of an utterance is to be identified with (...)
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  26. Tacit Mechanisms and Heuristic Theorizing: Comments on Ryszard Wójcicki's “Is There Only One Truth? An Introduction to the Pragmatic Theory of Knowledge Acquisition”.Maciej Witek - 2012 - Filozofia Nauki 20 (1).
    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it aims at developing a preliminary typology of subconscious, tacit mechanisms that underlie the conscious exercise of practical skills as well as the formation and functioning of conscious mental representations such as perceptual experiences, mental images, explicitly held beliefs and explanatory hypotheses. Second, it employs the typology to consider whether these tacit mechanisms can be examined and explicated by what Ryszard Wójcicki calls heuristic theorizing or heuristic reasoning , i.e., by a cognitive (...)
     
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  27. The Minimalist Conception of Truth and Philosophy of Science. Ajdukiewicz’s Account of Scientific Inquiry.Maciej Witek - 2003 - In Artur Rojszczak, Jacek Cachro & Gabriel Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher.
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  28. The Minimalist Conception of Truth and Philosophy of Science.Maciej Witek - 2003 - In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 251--266.
  29. Teoria teorii znaczenia.Maciej Witek - 2009 - Filozofia Nauki 17 (2).
    The aim of the paper is to evaluate critically Wacław Janikowski's radically empiricist theory of meaning. In the first section, the author offers a critical analysis of the main theses and definitions proposed by Janikowski. His conclusion is that Janikowski fails to provide a coherent theory of meaning, balancing between functionalism, mentalism and behaviorism. In the second section, the author offers a more general reflection on the actual aim and expected form of a theory of meaning. He claims that in (...)
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  30. Zgodność z rzeczywistością. Uwagi o Jacka J. Jadackiego teorii prawdy.Maciej Witek - 2005 - Filozofia Nauki 3.
    The author starts with the assumption that a popular idea, according to which a true sentence corresponds with reality, is adequate. Therefore, any adequate theory of truth has to account for it. It turns out, however, that it is the epistemic conception, not the correspondence one, that meets such a demand. In order to justify his claim, the author discusses Jacek J. Jadacki's theory of truth. Roughly speaking, the theory in question states that if a given sentence refers to a (...)
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