Results for 'Madhyamaka'

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  1. Madhyamaka Ethics.Bronwyn Finnigan - 2018 - In Daniel Cozort & James Mark Shields (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Buddhist Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 162-183.
    There are two main loci of contemporary debate about the nature of Madhyamaka ethics. The first investigates the general issue of whether the Madhyamaka philosophy of emptiness is consistent with a commitment to systematic ethical distinctions. The second queries whether the metaphysical analysis of no-self presented by Śāntideva in his Bodhicaryāvatāra entails the impartial benevolence of a bodhisattva. This article will critically examine these debates and demonstrate the ways in which they are shaped by competing understandings of (...) conventional truth or reality and the forms of reasoning admissible for differentiating conventional truth from falsity and good from bad. (shrink)
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  2. Madhyamaka Buddhist Meta-ethics: The Justificatory Grounds of Moral Judgments.Bronwyn Finnigan - 2015 - Philosophy East and West 65 (3):765-785.
    In recent decades, several attempts have been made to characterize Buddhism as a systematically unified and consistent normative ethical theory. This has given rise to a growing interest in meta-ethical questions. Meta-ethics can be broadly or narrowly defined. Defined broadly, it is a domain of inquiry concerned with the nature and status of the fundamental or framing presuppositions of normative ethical theories, where this includes the cognitive and epistemic requirements of presupposed conceptions of ethical agency.1 Defined narrowly, it concerns the (...)
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  3. The Madhyamaka Contribution to Skepticism.Georges Dreyfus & Jay L. Garfield - 2021 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 12 (1):4-26.
    This paper examines the work of Nāgārjuna as interpreted by later Madhyamaka tradition, including the Tibetan Buddhist Tsongkhapa (1357–1419). It situates Madhyamaka skepticism in the context of Buddhist philosophy, Indian philosophy more generally, and Western equivalents. Find it broadly akin to Pyrrhonism, it argues that Madhyamaka skepticism still differs from its Greek equivalents in fundamental methodologies. Focusing on key hermeneutical principles like the two truths and those motivating the Svātantrika/Prāsaṅgika schism (i.e., whether followers of Nāgārjuna should offer (...)
     
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  4.  57
    Madhyamaka.Richard Hayes - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Madhyamaka school of Buddhism, the followers of which are called Mādhyamikas, was one of the two principal schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India, the other school being the Yogācāra. The name of the school is a reference to the claim made of Buddhism in general that it is a middle path (madhyamā pratipad) that avoids the two extremes of eternalism—the doctrine that all things exist because of an eternal essence—and annihilationism—the doctrine that things have essences while they exist (...)
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  5. Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction.Jan Westerhoff - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The Indian philosopher Acarya Nagarjuna (c. 150-250 CE) was the founder of the Madhyamaka (Middle Path) school of Mahayana Buddhism and arguably the most influential Buddhist thinker after Buddha himself. Indeed, in the Tibetan and East Asian traditions, Nagarjuna is often referred to as the "second Buddha." This book presents a survey of the whole of Nagarjuna's philosophy based on his key philosophical writings. His primary contribution to Buddhist thought lies in the further development of the concept of sunyata (...)
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  6. The madhyamaka concept of svabhāva: Ontological and cognitive aspects.Jan Westerhoff - 2007 - Asian Philosophy 17 (1):17 – 45.
    This paper considers the philosophical interpretation of the concept of svabhāva, sometimes translated as 'inherent existence' or 'own-being', in the Madyamaka school of Buddhist philosophy. It is argued that svabhāva must be understood as having two different conceptual dimensions, an ontological and a cognitive one. The ontological dimension of svabhāva shows it to play a particular part in theories investigating the most fundamental constituents of the world. Three different understandings of svabhāva are discussed under this heading: svabhāva understood as essence, (...)
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  7. Madhyamaka and Yogācāra: Allies or Rivals? eds. by Jay L. Garfield and Jan Westerhoff. [REVIEW]Oren Hanner - 2018 - Philosophy East and West 68 (2):629-633.
    Recent decades have witnessed a number of scholarly attempts to illuminate the philosophical affinity between the Madhyamaka and Yogācāra, the two main systems of thought in the Mahāyāna stream of Buddhism. Both schools originated in India in the first centuries of the common era, and had a significant impact on the doctrines of Asian Buddhism in such countries as China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan. Consequently, their views concerning reality have been documented in various textual sources, ranging from early philosophical (...)
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  8. No Unity, No Problem: Madhyamaka Metaphysical Indefinitism.Allison Aitken - 2021 - Philosophers' Imprint 21 (31):1–24.
    According to Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophers, everything depends for its existence on something else. But what would a world devoid of fundamentalia look like? In this paper, I argue that the anti-foundationalist “neither-one-nor-many argument” of the Indian Mādhyamika Śrīgupta commits him to a position I call “metaphysical indefinitism.” I demonstrate how this view follows from Śrīgupta’s rejection of mereological simples and ontologically independent being, when understood in light of his account of conventional reality. Contra recent claims in the secondary literature, (...)
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  9.  45
    Madhyamaka and Modern Western Philosophy.Jan Westerhoff - 2017 - Buddhist Studies Review 33 (1-2):281-302.
    In the past the study of Asian philosophical traditions has often been approached by asking how the theories developed within these nonWestern cultures would help us to solve problems in contemporary Western philosophy. The present account, which summarizes results of a research project funded by the John Templeton foundation in 2015, attempts to reverse this way of studying Asian philosophy by investigating which theories, approaches and models from contemporary Western philosophy can be used to support, analyse, refine and advance insights (...)
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  10. Madhyamaka Schools in India. Peter Della Santina.D. Seyfort Ruegg - 1990 - Buddhist Studies Review 7 (1-2):142-144.
    Madhyamaka Schools in India. Peter Della Santina. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1986. xxii, 242pp. Rs 100.
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  11. Ontic Indeterminacy: Chinese Madhyamaka in the Contemporary Context.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (3):419-433.
    A number of analytical philosophers have recently endorsed the view that the world itself is indeterminate in some respect. Intriguingly, ideas similar to the view are expressed by thinkers from Chinese Madhyamaka Buddhism, which may shed light on the current discussion of worldly indeterminacy. Using as a basis Chinese Madhyamaka thought, together with Jessica Wilson’s account of indeterminacy, I develop an ontological conception of indeterminacy, termed ontic indeterminacy, which centres on two complementary ideas—conclusive indeterminability and provisional determinability. I (...)
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  12. Madhyamaka Philosophy of No-Mind: Taktsang Lotsāwa’s On Prāsaṅgika, Pramāṇa, Buddhahood and a Defense of No-Mind Thesis.Sonam Thakchoe & Julien Tempone Wiltshire - 2019 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 47 (3):453-487.
    It is well known in contemporary Madhyamaka studies that the seventh century Indian philosopher Candrakīrti rejects the foundationalist Abhidharma epistemology. The question that is still open to debate is: Does Candrakīrti offer any alternative Madhyamaka epistemology? One possible way of addressing this question is to find out what Candrakīrti says about the nature of buddha’s epistemic processes. We know that Candrakīrti has made some puzzling remarks on that score. On the one hand, he claims buddha is the pramāṇabhūta-puruṣa (...)
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  13. Madhyamaka and Classical Greek Skepticism.Georges Dreyfus & Jay L. Garfield - 2011 - In Georges Dreyfus, Bronwyn Finnigan, Jay Garfield, Guy Newland, Graham Priest, Mark Siderits, Koji Tanaka, Sonam Thakchoe, Tom Tillemans & Jan Westerhoff (eds.), Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 115--130.
     
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  14.  93
    Turning a madhyamaka trick: Reply to Huntington. [REVIEW]Jay L. Garfield - 2008 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 36 (4):507-527.
    Huntington ; argues that recent commentators err in attributing to Nāgārjuna and Candrakīrti a commitment to rationality and to the use of argument, and that these commentators do violence to the Madhyamaka project by using rational reconstruction in their interpretation of Nāgārjuna’s and Candrakīrti’s texts. Huntington argues instead that mādhyamikas reject reasoning, distrust logic and do not offer arguments. He also argues that interpreters ought to recuse themselves from argument in order to be faithful to these texts. I demonstrate (...)
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  15.  3
    Madhyamaka Thought in China.Ming-Wood Liu - 1994 - E.J. Brill.
    This book examines the three stages of development of Chinese Madhyamaka, focusing attention on the different ways the representative figures of each stage applied basic Madhyamaka principles to deal with the central Buddhist doctrinal issues of their age.
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  16.  16
    Madhyamaka, Metaphysical Realism, and the Possibility of an Ancestral World.Simon P. James - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 68 (4):1116-1133.
    It is the evening of January 11, 1951. A. J. Ayer retires to a Parisian bar for a post-lecture drink, where he is joined by Georges Batailles, Maurice MerleauPonty, and the physicist Georges Ambrosino. They argue until 3 a.m. The point at issue: Was there a sun before human beings existed? Ayer says "yes," the other three say "no."1Now imagine that a fifth person joins the debate—a Mādhyamika. She argues that because nothing exists independently of conceptual imputation, since, as she (...)
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  17.  50
    The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India.David Seyfort Ruegg - 1981 - Harrassowitz.
    INTRODUCTION: THE NAME MADHYAMAKA The Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism goes back to Nagarjuna, the great Indian Buddhist philosopher who is placed ...
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  18.  71
    The madhyamaka critique of epistemology. I.Mark Siderits - 1980 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 8 (4):307-335.
  19.  37
    The madhyamaka critique of epistemology II.Mark Siderits - 1981 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 9 (2):121-160.
  20.  23
    A Madhyamaka Analysis of the Property View and the Essence View of Existence.A. K. Jayesh - 2020 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 38 (1):1-5.
    In this paper, I try to demonstrate a problem with two medieval European views of existence: The property view and the essence view. Adopting a style of reasoning employed by the Indian Madhyamaka philosopher Nāgārjuna, I argue that both the property view and the essence view understand the relation between an object and its existence in terms of difference: The former understands the difference as the difference between an object and its property of existence, and the latter, as the (...)
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  21. Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka.Jan Westerhoff - 2010 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The Indian philosopher Acharya Nagarjuna was the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism and arguably the most influential Buddhist thinker after Buddha himself. Indeed, in the Tibetan and East Asian traditions, Nagarjuna is often referred to as the 'second Buddha.' His primary contribution to Buddhist thought lies is in the further development of the concept of sunyata or 'emptiness.' For Nagarjuna, all phenomena are without any svabhaba, literally 'own-nature' or 'self-nature', and thus without any underlying essence. In (...)
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  22. The Continuity Between Madhyamaka and Yogācāra Schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India.Christian Coseru - 1996 - Journal of the Asiatic Society 37 (2):48–83.
    Do the two rival schools of Indian Buddhist philosophy, Madhyamaka and Yogācāra, share more in common than it may appear at first blush? Interpretation of Madhyamaka that see it as a philosophical enterprise concerned with language games, conceptual holism, and the limits of philosophical discourse, it is argued, miss the point about its distinctly epistemic concern with conventions of everyday practice. Likewise, interpretations of Yogācāra that regard it as a form of pure idealism overlook its uniquely phenomenological epistemology. (...)
     
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  23.  85
    Life without Belief: A Madhyamaka Defense of the Livability of Pyrrhonism.Robin Brons - 2018 - Philosophy East and West 68 (2):329-351.
    Despite the striking similarities between Pyrrhonian skepticism and Madhyamaka Buddhism, few lessons have been drawn from the parallels between the two traditions. Here, it is argued that Madhyamaka Buddhism verifies the livability of Pyrrhonian skepticism. After establishing that Pyrrhonism and Madhyamaka can be understood as undertaking the same project, it is shown that Madhyamaka philosophy is able to refute objections to the viability of Pyrrhonism. Finally, it is demonstrated that Madhyamaka is still a lived practice (...)
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  24.  20
    Introduction to Madhyamaka Philosophy.Jaideva Singh - 1968 - Varanasi, Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan.
    This brief introduction to Madhyamaka Philosophy gives a history of the rise and growth of Madhyamaka Philosophy, and the origin, structure, development and purpose of the Madhyamaka dialectic.
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  25.  17
    The madhyamaka philosophy.Peter Della Santina - 1987 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 15 (2):173-185.
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  26. Madhyamaka buddhism.Dan Arnold - 2005 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  27. The Madhyamaka Thought in Ancient China and Baekje - Focused on the Dialectical Thinking of Jizang and Hyegyun -. 趙允卿 - 2022 - Journal of the New Korean Philosophical Association 107:267-281.
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  28.  30
    The madhyamaka and modern western philosophy.Peter Della Santina - 1986 - Philosophy East and West 36 (1):41-54.
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  29.  28
    Madhyamaka and Yog?c?ra — Allies or Rivals?, edited by Jay L. Garfield and Jan Westerhoff. Oxford University Press, 2015. 300pp. Pb. £23.49. ISBN-13: 9780190231293. [REVIEW]Warren Lee Todd - 2017 - Buddhist Studies Review 33 (1-2):303-307.
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  30.  40
    Madhyamaka Schools in India: A Study of the Madhyamaka Philosophy and of the Division of the System Into the Prāsaṅgika and Svātantrika Schools.Peter Della Santina - 1986 - Motilal Banarsidass.
    This Volume traces the development of one of the most divisive debates in Buddhist philosophy in which leading parts were taken by Nagarjuna, Bhavaviveka and ...
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  31.  8
    Is the Pramāṇavārttika a Madhyamaka Treatise?Tsering Nurboo - 2020 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 48 (5):827-844.
    This paper deals with the problem of the Pramāṇavārttika’s tenet affiliation and the related question of its final philosophical view within the framework of Buddhist philosophical schools. There are contrasting views and positions on this issue in Tibetan interpretations of the text. Some claim that the Pramāṇavārttika is a text advocating the other-emptiness doctrine, while other scholars argue that it is a Sautrāntika–Vijñānavāda or Vijñānavāda treatise. By contrast, Padma dkar po holds view that it is a Svātantrika-Madhyamaka text, while (...)
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  32.  12
    Mūla-madhyamaka Kārikā of Nāgārjuna. Part IIMula-madhyamaka Karika of Nagarjuna. Part II.L. S. & H. Chatterjee - 1963 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (2):278.
  33.  62
    The Commitments of a Madhyamaka Trickster: Innovation in Candrakīrti’s Prasanna-padā. [REVIEW]Eviatar Shulman - 2010 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 38 (4):379-417.
    This paper challenges the notion that there is a complete continuity between the thought of Nāgārjuna and the thought of Candrakīrti. It is shown that there is strong reason to doubt Candrakīrti’s gloss of Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā (MMK) 2.1, and that Candrakīrti’s peculiar reading of this verse causes him to alter the context of the discussion in the four cases in which Nāgārjuna quotes MMK 2.1 later in the text—MMK 3.3, 7.14, 10.13 and 16.7. The innovation produced by Candrakīrti is next (...)
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  34.  29
    Institutions, Madhyamaka and universal model theory.Razvan Diaconescu - 2007 - In Jean-Yves Béziau & Alexandre Costa-Leite (eds.), Perspectives on Universal Logic. pp. 41--65.
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  35.  22
    Madhyamaka — the philosophy of great humor?Christian Lindtner - 1990 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 18 (3):249-260.
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  36. Pyrrhonism and the mādhyamaka.Adrian Kuzminski - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (4):482-511.
    : The question of possible Indian influence on Pyrrhonist skepticism was raised long ago by Diogenes Laertius in his biography of Pyrrho. Diogenes tells us that Pyrrho adopted his "most noble philosophy" as a result of his contacts with Indian sages when he accompanied Alexander the Great on his expedition in the fourth century B.C.E. Most modern Western scholars have downplayed Diogenes’ claim as unsubstantiated, but the striking parallels to be found in subsequent ancient Pyrrhonist and Mādhyamaka texts suggest its (...)
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  37. On the Nihilist Interpretation of Madhyamaka.Jan Westerhoff - 2016 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 44 (2):337-376.
    Madhyamaka philosophy has been frequently characterized as nihilism, not just by its Buddhist and non-Buddhist opponents, but also by some contemporary Buddhologists. This characterization might well strike us as surprising. First, nihilism appears to be straightforwardly inconsistent. It would be curious if a philosophical school holding such an obviously deficient view would have acquired the kind of importance Madhyamaka has acquired in the Asian intellectual landscape over the last two millenia. Second, Madhyamaka by its very name proclaims (...)
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  38. Personal identity, minimalism, and madhyamaka.Roy W. Perrett - 2002 - Philosophy East and West 52 (3):373-385.
    The publication of Derek Parfit's Reasons and Persons in 1984 revived and reshaped the debate on personal identity in Western philosophy. Not only does Parfit argue forcefully and ingeniously for a revisionary Reductionist theory of persons and their diachronic identity, but he also draws radical normative inferences from such a theory. Along the way he also mentions Indian Buddhist parallels to his own Reductionist theory. Some of these parallels are explored here, while particular attention is also paid to the supposed (...)
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  39.  5
    Madhyamaka Metaethics.Jason Dockstader - forthcoming - Sophia:1-21.
    This paper develops two novel views that help solve the ‘now what’ problem for moral error theorists concerning what they should do with morality once they accept it is systematically false. It does so by reconstructing aspects of the metaethical and metanormative reflections found in the Madhyamaka Buddhist, and in particular the Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka Buddhist, tradition. It also aims to resolve the debate among contemporary scholars of Madhyamaka Buddhism concerning the precise metaethical status of its views, namely, (...)
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  40.  38
    On the interpretation of madhyamaka thought.Paul Williams - 1991 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 19 (2):191-218.
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  41. Fa-­tsang on Madhyamaka: Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Twelve Gates and Fa-­tsang’s Commentary.Dirck Vorenkamp - manuscript
    Translation of Nagarjuna's -Treatise on the Twelve Gates- as well as fazang's commentary on that treatise.
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  42.  36
    Realistic-Antimetaphysical Reading Vs Any Nihilistic Interpretation of Madhyamaka.Giuseppe Ferraro - 2017 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 45 (1):73-98.
    This paper supports the thesis that nihilistic interpretations of Madhyamaka philosophy derive from generally antirealistic and/or metaphysical approaches to Nāgārjuna’s thought. However, the arguments and many images by way of which the author of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā and his Indian commentators defend themselves from the charge of nihilism show limits in these approaches, and rather confirm that Nāgārjuna’s philosophy should be read as a theoretical proposal that is at once realistic and antimetaphysical. The epistemology inherent to the soteriological dimension of (...)
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  43.  10
    Ippolito Desideri and Madhyamaka: On the Interpretation of Giuseppe Toscano.Trent Pomplun - 2018 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 38 (1):109-117.
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  44.  30
    Some logical issues in madhyamaka thought.Brian Galloway - 1989 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (1):1-35.
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  45. Der Erkenntnislehre des Prasangika-Madhyamaka, nach dem Tshig gsal ston thun gyi tshad ma'i rnam bsad des 'Jam dbyans bzad pa'i rdo rje. Einleitung, Textanalyse, Übersetzung. Chizuko Yoshimizu. [REVIEW]Chr Lindtner - 1998 - Buddhist Studies Review 15 (1):116-121.
    Der Erkenntnislehre des Prasangika-Madhyamaka, nach dem Tshig gsal ston thun gyi tshad ma'i rnam bsad des 'Jam dbyans bzad pa'i rdo rje. Einleitung, Textanalyse, Übersetzung. Chizuko Yoshimizu. Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde 37, Vienna 1996. xxiii, 309 pp.
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  46. Can a Madhyamaka be a skeptic? The case of Patsab Nyimadrak.Georges Dreyfus - 2011 - In Georges Dreyfus, Bronwyn Finnigan, Jay Garfield, Guy Newland, Graham Priest, Mark Siderits, Koji Tanaka, Sonam Thakchoe, Tom Tillemans & Jan Westerhoff (eds.), Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 89--113.
     
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  47.  10
    The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India.Robert A. F. Thurman & David Seyfort Ruegg - 1985 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (2):380.
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  48.  47
    The Sense Madhyamaka Makes as a Buddhist Position: Or, How a ‘Performativist Account of the Language of Self’ Makes Sense of ‘No-Self’.Dan Arnold - 2019 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 47 (4):697-726.
    Revisiting the author’s characteristic line of interpretation of the Madhyamaka philosophy of Nāgārjuna and Candrakīrti, this essay responds to critiques thereof by arguing for the sense Madhyamaka makes, on the author’s interpretation, as a Buddhist position. For purposes of the argument, it is allowed that especially on the author’s characteristic interpretation, Madhyamaka appears to have affinities with the “personalist” doctrine long regarded by Indian and Tibetan Buddhist traditions as unorthodox. In particular, it is accepted that on this (...)
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  49. Minds, intrinsic properties, and madhyamaka buddhism.Teed Rockwell - 2009 - Zygon 44 (3):659-674.
    Certain philosophers and scientists have noticed that there are data that do not seem to fit with the traditional view known as the Mind/Brain Identity theory. This has inspired a new theory about the mind known as the Hypothesis of Extended Cognition. Now there is a growing controversy over whether these data actually require extending the mind out beyond the brain. Such arguments, despite their empirical diversity, have an underlying form. They all are disputes over where to draw the line (...)
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  50.  38
    Authority in Early Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka.Kevin Vose - 2010 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 38 (6):553-582.
    This paper examines the role of pramāṇa in Jayānanda’s commentary to Candrakīrti’s Madhyamakāvatāra. As the only extant Indian commentary on any of Candrakīrti’s works (available only in Tibetan translation), written in the twelfth century when Candrakīrti’s interpretation of Madhyamaka first became widely valued, Jayānanda’s Madhyamakāvatāraṭīkā is crucial to our understanding of early Prāsaṅgika thought. In the portions of his text examined here, Jayānanda offers a pointed critique of both svatantra inferences and the broader Buddhist epistemological movement. In developing this (...)
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