18 found
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  1.  30
    Overstepping the boundaries of free choice: Folk beliefs on free will and determinism in real world contexts.Magda Osman - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 77:102860.
  2.  49
    Unconscious task application.Filip Van Opstal, Wim Gevers, Magda Osman & Tom Verguts - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):999-1006.
    The nature of unconscious information processing is a heavily debated issue in cognitive science, and neuroscience. Traditionally, it has been thought that unconscious cognitive processing is restricted to knowledge that is strongly prepared by conscious processes. In three experiments, we show that the task that is performed consciously can also be applied unconsciously to items outside the current task set. We found that a same–different judgment of two target stimuli was also performed on two subliminally presented prime stimuli. This was (...)
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  3.  22
    Unconscious task application.Filip Opstavanl, Wim Gevers, Magda Osman & Tom Verguts - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):999-1006.
    The nature of unconscious information processing is a heavily debated issue in cognitive science , and neuroscience . Traditionally, it has been thought that unconscious cognitive processing is restricted to knowledge that is strongly prepared by conscious processes . In three experiments, we show that the task that is performed consciously can also be applied unconsciously to items outside the current task set. We found that a same–different judgment of two target stimuli was also performed on two subliminally presented prime (...)
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  4.  69
    Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving.Magda Osman - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, both when the learning stage (...)
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  5. Positive transfer and Negative transfer/Anti-Learning of Problem Solving Skills.Magda Osman - unknown
    In problem solving research insights into the relationship between monitoring and control in the transfer of complex skills remain impoverished. To address this, in four experiments participants solved two complex control tasks that were identical in structure but varied in presentation format. Participants learnt either to solve the second task, based on their original learning phase from the first task, or learnt to solve the second task, based on another participant’s learning phase. Experiment 1 showed that, under conditions in which (...)
     
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  6.  58
    From colliding billiard balls to colluding desperate housewives: causal Bayes nets as rational models of everyday causal reasoning.York Hagmayer & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):17-28.
    Many of our decisions pertain to causal systems. Nevertheless, only recently has it been claimed that people use causal models when making judgments, decisions and predictions, and that causal Bayes nets allow us to formally describe these inferences. Experimental research has been limited to simple, artificial problems, which are unrepresentative of the complex dynamic systems we successfully deal with in everyday life. For instance, in social interactions, we can explain the actions of other's on the fly and we can generalize (...)
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  7.  15
    What are the essential cognitive requirements for prospection (thinking about the future)?Magda Osman - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:88995.
    Placing the future centre stage as a way of understanding cognition is gaining attention in psychology. The general modern label for this is “prospection” which refers to the process of representing and thinking about possible future states of the world. Several theorists have claimed that episodic and prospective memory, as well as hypothetical thinking (mental simulation) and conditional reasoning are necessary cognitive faculties that enable prospection. Given the limitations in current empirical efforts connecting these faculties to prospection, the aim of (...)
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  8.  73
    The illusion of control: A Bayesian perspective.Adam J. L. Harris & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):29-38.
    In the absence of an objective contingency, psychological studies have shown that people nevertheless attribute outcomes to their own actions. Thus, by wrongly inferring control in chance situations people appear to hold false beliefs concerning their agency, and are said to succumb to an illusion of control (IoC). In the current article, we challenge traditional conceptualizations of the illusion by examining the thesis that the IoC reflects rational and adaptive decision making. Firstly, we propose that the IoC is a by-product (...)
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  9. Seeing is as good as doing.Magda Osman - unknown
    Given the privileged status claimed for active learning in a variety of domains (visuo-motor learning, causal induction, problem solving, education, skill learning), the present study examines whether action-based learning is a necessary, or a sufficient, means of acquiring the relevant skills needed to perform a task typically described as requiring active learning. To achieve this, the present study compared the effects of action-based and observation-based learning on controlling a complex dynamic task environment. Both action- and observationbased learners either learnt by (...)
     
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  10.  19
    Approaches to Cognitive Modeling in Dynamic Systems Control.Daniel V. Holt & Magda Osman - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  11. Editorial: Complex Problem Solving Beyond the Psychometric Approach.Wolfgang Schoppek, Annette Kluge, Magda Osman & Joachim Funke - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Complex problem solving (CPS) and related topics such as dynamic decision-making (DDM) and complex dynamic control (CDC) represent multifaceted psychological phenomena. In a broad sense, CPS encompasses learning, decision-making, and acting in complex and dynamic situations. Moreover, solutions to problems that people face in such situations are often generated in teams or groups. In turn, this adds another layer of complexity to the situation itself because of the emerging issues that arise from the social dynamics of group interactions. This framing (...)
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  12.  3
    Future-minded: the psychology of agency and control.Magda Osman - 2014 - New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    What drives us to make decisions? Future-Minded explores the psychological processes of agency and control. If you've ever wondered why we think of coincidences as matters of fate rather than the result of the laws of probability, this book provides the answer. From memory and reasoning to our experiences of causality and consciousness, it unpicks the mechanisms we use on a daily basis to help us predict, plan for and attempt to control the future. Future-Minded - Features a wealth of (...)
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  13.  59
    Decision making in uncertain times: what can cognitive and decision sciences say about or learn from economic crises?Björn Meder, Fabrice Le Lec & Magda Osman - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (6):257-260.
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  14.  17
    Prediction and Control in a Dynamic Environment.Magda Osman & Maarten Speekenbrink - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  15.  15
    Future-minded: the role of prospection in Agency, Control, and other goal-directed processes.Magda Osman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  16.  4
    Misdiagnosing the problem of why behavioural change interventions fail.Magda Osman - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e172.
    Routes to achieving any sort of meaningful success in the enterprise of behavioural change requires an understanding of the rate of failure, and why failures occur. This commentary shows that there is more to diagnosis of failures than fixating on micro- rather than the macro-level behaviours.
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  17. Production Number R527B: Does the truth interfere?Magda Osman - unknown
    Does the truth interfere with our ability to respond deceptively? We consider this question by examining the effects of task set (i.e. selecting truthful or untruthful responses), both by comparing two presentations of the same task, and through transfer to a different task. All participants carried out the task under instructions to respond correctly, and also to respond incorrectly (Experiment 1), or instructions to respond truthfully and also to respond deceptively (Experiment 2); order of instructions was counterbalanced. In Experiment 2, (...)
     
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  18.  4
    Using the study of reasoning to address the age of unreason.Magda Osman - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e135.
    If we accept that societally, politically, and even culturally enlightenment face some serious challenges, can we use this rethinking of theories of reasoning to address them? The aim here is to make a case for building on the work presented by De Neys as an opportunity to advance an applied reasoning research programme.
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