21 found
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  1.  44
    Unconscious Task Application.Filip Van Opstal, Wim Gevers, Magda Osman & Tom Verguts - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):999-1006.
    The nature of unconscious information processing is a heavily debated issue in cognitive science, and neuroscience. Traditionally, it has been thought that unconscious cognitive processing is restricted to knowledge that is strongly prepared by conscious processes. In three experiments, we show that the task that is performed consciously can also be applied unconsciously to items outside the current task set. We found that a same–different judgment of two target stimuli was also performed on two subliminally presented prime stimuli. This was (...)
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  2.  13
    Arts-Based Interventions in Healthcare Education.Magda Osman, Bella Eacott & Suzy Willson - 2018 - Medical Humanities 44 (1):28-33.
    Healthcare education institutions are increasingly including arts-based interventions in their programmes. We analysed 62 studies of arts-based interventions to understand how these interventions may be beneficial, and why providing evidence continues to be a challenge for the field.Our analysis highlighted two issues. We found that 79% of the included studies reported that their interventions were successful, but without always defining this success or how it was measured. This lack of clarity was apparent in descriptions of both what arts-based interventions aimed (...)
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  3.  66
    Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving.Magda Osman - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, both when the learning stage (...)
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  4. Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Anti-Learning of Problem Solving Skills.Magda Osman - unknown
    In problem solving research insights into the relationship between monitoring and control in the transfer of complex skills remain impoverished. To address this, in four experiments participants solved two complex control tasks that were identical in structure but varied in presentation format. Participants learnt either to solve the second task, based on their original learning phase from the first task, or learnt to solve the second task, based on another participant’s learning phase. Experiment 1 showed that, under conditions in which (...)
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  5.  66
    The Illusion of Control: A Bayesian Perspective.Adam J. L. Harris & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):29-38.
    In the absence of an objective contingency, psychological studies have shown that people nevertheless attribute outcomes to their own actions. Thus, by wrongly inferring control in chance situations people appear to hold false beliefs concerning their agency, and are said to succumb to an illusion of control (IoC). In the current article, we challenge traditional conceptualizations of the illusion by examining the thesis that the IoC reflects rational and adaptive decision making. Firstly, we propose that the IoC is a by-product (...)
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  6.  14
    Approaches to Cognitive Modeling in Dynamic Systems Control.Daniel V. Holt & Magda Osman - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  7.  11
    What Are the Essential Cognitive Requirements for Prospection ?Magda Osman - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  8.  12
    Theory of Animal Mind: Human Nature or Experimental Artefact?Caroline E. Spence, Magda Osman & Alan G. McElligott - 2017 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21 (5):333-343.
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  9.  49
    From Colliding Billiard Balls to Colluding Desperate Housewives: Causal Bayes Nets as Rational Models of Everyday Causal Reasoning.York Hagmayer & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):17-28.
    Many of our decisions pertain to causal systems. Nevertheless, only recently has it been claimed that people use causal models when making judgments, decisions and predictions, and that causal Bayes nets allow us to formally describe these inferences. Experimental research has been limited to simple, artificial problems, which are unrepresentative of the complex dynamic systems we successfully deal with in everyday life. For instance, in social interactions, we can explain the actions of other's on the fly and we can generalize (...)
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  10.  1
    Learning From Behavioural Changes That Fail.Magda Osman, Scott McLachlan, Norman Fenton, Martin Neil, Ragnar Löfstedt & Björn Meder - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (12):969-980.
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  11.  18
    Unconscious Task Application.Filip Opstavanl, Wim Gevers, Magda Osman & Tom Verguts - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):999-1006.
    The nature of unconscious information processing is a heavily debated issue in cognitive science , and neuroscience . Traditionally, it has been thought that unconscious cognitive processing is restricted to knowledge that is strongly prepared by conscious processes . In three experiments, we show that the task that is performed consciously can also be applied unconsciously to items outside the current task set. We found that a same–different judgment of two target stimuli was also performed on two subliminally presented prime (...)
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  12. Seeing is as Good as Doing.Magda Osman - unknown
    Given the privileged status claimed for active learning in a variety of domains (visuo-motor learning, causal induction, problem solving, education, skill learning), the present study examines whether action-based learning is a necessary, or a sufficient, means of acquiring the relevant skills needed to perform a task typically described as requiring active learning. To achieve this, the present study compared the effects of action-based and observation-based learning on controlling a complex dynamic task environment. Both action- and observationbased learners either learnt by (...)
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  13.  51
    Decision Making in Uncertain Times: What Can Cognitive and Decision Sciences Say About or Learn From Economic Crises?Björn Meder, Fabrice Le Lec & Magda Osman - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (6):257-260.
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  14.  11
    Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Antilearning of Problem-Solving Skills.Magda Osman - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (1):97-115.
  15.  13
    Prediction and Control in a Dynamic Environment.Magda Osman & Maarten Speekenbrink - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  16.  14
    Underlying Wishes and Nudged Choices.Yiling Lin, Magda Osman, Adam J. L. Harris & Daniel Read - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 24 (4):459-475.
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  17.  12
    Future-Minded: The Role of Prospection in Agency, Control, and Other Goal-Directed Processes.Magda Osman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  18.  13
    Overstepping the Boundaries of Free Choice: Folk Beliefs on Free Will and Determinism in Real World Contexts.Magda Osman - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 77:102860.
  19.  12
    Persistent Maladies: The Case of Two-Mind Syndrome.Magda Osman - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (4):276-277.
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  20. Production Number R527B: Does the Truth Interfere?Magda Osman - unknown
    Does the truth interfere with our ability to respond deceptively? We consider this question by examining the effects of task set (i.e. selecting truthful or untruthful responses), both by comparing two presentations of the same task, and through transfer to a different task. All participants carried out the task under instructions to respond correctly, and also to respond incorrectly (Experiment 1), or instructions to respond truthfully and also to respond deceptively (Experiment 2); order of instructions was counterbalanced. In Experiment 2, (...)
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  21.  40
    Editorial: Complex Problem Solving Beyond the Psychometric Approach.Wolfgang Schoppek, Annette Kluge, Magda Osman & Joachim Funke - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Complex problem solving (CPS) and related topics such as dynamic decision-making (DDM) and complex dynamic control (CDC) represent multifaceted psychological phenomena. In a broad sense, CPS encompasses learning, decision-making, and acting in complex and dynamic situations. Moreover, solutions to problems that people face in such situations are often generated in teams or groups. In turn, this adds another layer of complexity to the situation itself because of the emerging issues that arise from the social dynamics of group interactions. This framing (...)
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