This study reviews and synthesizes the contemporary business literature that focuses on the role of corporate social responsibility to enhance firm value. The main objective of this review is to proffer a precise understanding of what has already been investigated and the findings of those investigations regarding the value-enhancing capabilities of CSR for public firms. In addition, this review identifies gaps in the existing literature, evaluates inconsistent findings, discusses possible data sources for empirical researchers, and provides direction for exploring other (...) promising avenues in future studies. The thrust of the CSR literature largely acknowledges the value-enhancing capabilities of firms’ social and environmental activities. However, the predominance of inconsistent theoretical grounds in major CSR-benefits-related areas suggests that there is ample room for future research to contribute to the extant literature. Anecdotal evidence, the prevalence of theoretical arguments, and the availability of large cross-sectional firm-level data suggest that future research will enrich the literature by investigating the real insights behind several unanswered questions, by establishing implicit understandings regarding recognized findings, and by developing new theories in this emerging field. (shrink)
An introduction to the political philosophy of Kant, exploring how he developed his views in a context shaped by controversies following the French revolution. It provides new information on his followers and critics as they engaged in high stakes political debates on freedom's relation to the state at this key turning point in history.
V tomto článku se zabývám konceptem SI a s ní spojeným problémem kontroly. Podle určité skupiny teoretiků umělé inteligence stojíme na prahu události, která může radikálně změnit povahu technologického pokroku a lidské společnosti obecně. Touto událostí má být takzvaná technologická singularita, která je často spojována se vznikem první větší než lidské inteligence. Lidé jako Nick Bostrom varují před nebezpečím, které pro nás vznik SI znamená a upozorňují, že musíme co nejdříve najít metody kontroly této inteligence. Podle Bostroma a dalších nebezpečí (...) SI vyplývá z její povahy. Já na jedné straně posuzuji, jak SI může vzniknout, a na druhé straně soudím smysluplnost problému kontroly. Vznik SI vyplývá ze vzniku umělé inteligence. Proto soustřeďuji podstatnou část textu argumentům pro její vznik. Ukazují jak se Bostrom a další nechávají unést jedním problematickým argumentem. Dále podrobuji jejich pozici klasické kritice umělé inteligence. Prezentuji, jak stále lpí na problematických domněnkách svých předchůdců. Zejména soustřeďuji svoji kritiku na tvrzení, že SI bude mít jeden konečný cíl, který bude interpretovat. Toto tvrzení označuji jako antitetické, a to představě, že SI bude obecnou inteligencí. V závěru z mojí argumentace vyvozuji, že problém kontroly zaměňuje dva jiné různé problémy „kontroly.“. (shrink)
This article argues against the depiction of Ibn Khaldūn as someone whose preoccupation and credulity regarding mysticism or the occult diminish the rationalism and reformism of his thought, rendering it irrelevant to our concerns today. Instead, it argues that he consistently tries to steer his readers away from such pursuits by exposing them as fake when possible, or—in cases where their reality is attested to by unimpeachable religious sources—by highlighting the dangers they pose to both religion and state.
For much of the past half century, politicians and scientists have largely spoken with a single voice on the issue of race. The experience of Nazism and the Holocaust made racial science politically unacceptable. It also shaped the scientific consensus that race was a social myth, not a biological reality. Today, however, that scientific consensus is beginning to crack.
In the existing network-layered architectural stack of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network, channel selection is performed at the Medium Access Control layer. However, routing is done on the network layer. Due to this limitation, the Secondary/Unlicensed Users need to access the channel information from the MAC layer whenever the channel switching event occurred during the data transmission. This issue delayed the channel selection process during the immediate routing decision for the channel switching event to continue the transmission. In this paper, (...) a protocol is proposed to implement the channel selection decisions at the network layer during the routing process. The decision is based on past and expected future routing decisions of Primary Users. A learning agent operating in the cross-layer mode of the network-layered architectural stack is implemented in the spectrum mobility manager to pass the channel information to the network layer. This information is originated at the MAC layer. The channel selection is performed on the basis of reinforcement learning algorithms such as No-External Regret Learning, Q-Learning, and Learning Automata. This leads to minimizing the channel switching events and user interferences in the Reinforcement Learning- based routing protocol. Simulations are conducted using Cognitive Radio Cognitive Network simulator based on Network Simulator. The simulation results showed that the proposed routing protocol performed better than all the other comparative routing protocols in terms of number of channel switching events, average data rate, packet collision, packet loss, and end-to-end delay. The proposed routing protocol implies the improved Quality of Service of the delay sensitive and real-time networks such as Cellular and Tele Vision networks. (shrink)
Contemporary clinical ethics was founded on principlism, and the four principles: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, remain dominant in medical ethics discourse and practice. These principles are held to be expansive enough to provide the basis for the ethical practice of medicine across cultures. Although principlism remains subject to critique and revision, the four-principle model continues to be taught and applied across the world. As the practice of medicine globalizes, it remains critical to examine the extent to which (...) both the four-principle framework, and individual principles among the four, suffice patients and practitioners in different social and cultural contexts. Using the four-principle model we analyze two accounts of surrogate decision making – one from the developed and one from the developing world – in which the clinician undertakes medical decision-making with apparently little input from the patient and/or family. The purpose of this analysis is to highlight challenges in assessing ethical behaviour according to the principlist model. We next describe cultural expectations and mores that inform both patient and clinician behaviors in these scenarios in order to argue that the principle of respect for persons informed by culture-specific ideas of personhood may offer an improved ethical construct for analyzing and guiding medical practice in a globalized and plural world. (shrink)
To Kant, the French revolution's central events were the transfer of sovereignty to the people in 1789 and the trial and execution of the monarch in 1792-1793. Through a contextual study, this Element argues that while both events manifested the principle of popular sovereignty, the first did so in lawful ways, whereas the latter was a perversion of the principle. Kant was convinced that historical examples can help us understand political philosophy, and this Element seeks to show this in practice.
The mathematical modeling of malaria disease has a crucial role in understanding the insights of the transmission dynamics and corresponding appropriate prevention strategies. In this study, a novel nonlinear mathematical model for malaria disease has been proposed. To prevent the disease, we divided the infected population into two groups, unaware and aware infected individuals. The growth rate of awareness programs impacting the population is assumed to be proportional to the unaware infected individuals. It is further assumed that, due to the (...) effect of awareness campaign, the aware infected individuals avoid contact with mosquitoes. The positivity and the boundedness of solutions have been derived through the completing differential process. Local and global stability analysis of disease-free equilibrium has been investigated via basic reproductive number R0, if R0 < 1, the system is stable otherwise unstable. The existence of the unique endemic equilibrium has been also determined under certain conditions. The solution to the proposed model is derived through an iterative numerical technique, the Runge–Kutta method. The proposed model is simulated for different numeric values of the population of humans and anopheles in each class. The results show that a significant increase in the population of susceptible humans is achieved in addition to the decrease in the population of the infected mosquitoes. (shrink)
SummaryConsanguinity is widespread in Pakistan. The majority of studies on consanguinity in Pakistan have been carried out in urban metropolitan areas, and data on rural populations are scarce. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sargodha district, upper Punjab, Pakistan where the majority of the population reside in rural areas. A random sample of 1800 married females belonging to sixtehsilsof Sargodha district was obtained and differentials in consanguinity rates and inbreeding coefficient were investigated. The consanguinity rate was calculated to be (...) 56.72% and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.0348. First cousin unions had the highest representation, and marriages up to distantly related/Biradariconstituted 67.94% of all marriages. Among the sixtehsils, consanguinity rates ranged from 50.38% in Bhalwal to 62.88% in Sillanwali. A high rate of consanguinity was observed in subjects speaking the Punjabi language, those with self-arranged/arranged-love marriages and those engaged in professional jobs. With respect to the occupation of husbands the highest consanguinity rate was found among landowners and businessmen. However, consanguinity did not appear to be associated with rural/urban origin or literacy level. The data showed a wide variation in consanguinity rate and inbreeding coefficient across socio-demographic strata in the Sargodha district population. A comparison of Sargodha with other populations of Punjab also showed regional heterogeneity in the pattern of consanguinity, warranting further studies. (shrink)
Despite the vast scholarship on Ibn Khaldun, little attention has been devoted to his views on war - views of considerable contemporary significance because he remains one of the few authoritative figures across a broad swath of the Islamic political spectrum. The first part of this article identifies jihad as a crucial element of a broader imperative for Ibn Khaldun: establishing empires of sufficient size, diversity and cosmopolitanism to sustain the kind of civilization he views as necessary for human excellence. (...) The second part of the article demonstrates that for Ibn Khaldun the good military commander, like the good religious guide, is a model for the good or artful statesman in general. In the process, Ibn Khaldun's study of war and empire emerges as one of the most innovative articulations of Realpolitik in Islamic political thought. (shrink)
Ethical decision making in medicine has recently seen calls to move towards less prescriptive- based approaches that consider the particularities of each case. The main alternative call from the literature is for better understanding of phronesis concepts applied to decision making. A well-cited phronesis-based approach is Kaldjian’s five-stage theoretical framework: goals, concrete circumstances, virtues, deliberation and motivation to act. We build on Kaldjian’s theory after using his framework to analyse data collected from a three-year empirical study of phronesis and the (...) medical community. The data are a set of narratives collected in response to asking a medical community what making ethically wise decisions means to them. We found that Kaldjian’s five concepts are present in the accounts to some extent but that one of the elements, motivation, is constructed as playing a different, though still crucial role. Rather than being an end-stage of the process as Kaldjian’s framework suggests, motivation was constructed as initiating the process and maintaining the momentum of taking a phronesis-based approach. The implications for medical ethics decision-making education are significant as motivation itself is a highly complex concept. We therefore theorise that motivation is required for leading in, continuing and completing the actions of the ethical decision taken. Appreciating the central importance of motivation through the whole of Kaldjian’s framework has implications for cultivating the virtues of phronesis and courage to take the right course of action. (shrink)
This article intends to review William Dembski's recent monograph entitled Being as Communion: A Metaphysics of Information, in which he establishes an entire information-centric metaphysics. This viewpoint is compared with al-Ghazālī’s perspective, a Muslim philosophical theologian from the Medieval period. It is concluded that what Dembski defines as information, which for him is the ontological basis of the natural world, seems remarkably close to al-Ghazālī’s notion of God's will and omnipotence. This article is an explorative comparison of their metaphysical frameworks (...) that are discussed in light of modern scientific developments, highlighting their differences and similarities. (shrink)
Although the Mukhtasar Siyasat al-Hurub has attained iconic status in the Islamic military canon, it has never received a full-length analysis. Almost all extant references, moreover, focus on its technical aspects rather than its political subtext. That subtext has a twofold purpose. First, to valorize reason by emphasizing the centrality of deliberation in jihad. Second, to ensure that such valorization nevertheless does not lose sight of (a) the uncertainties of war, which militate against replacing faith in supernatural forces with an (...) equally unwarranted faith in science; or (b) the existence of evil in the world, which precludes any hope of perpetual peace. As such, the Mukhtasar articulates a distinctive Islamic approach that diverges both from a more optimistic Western tradition extending from early Christianity to the Enlightenment, and from an alternative-- but currently resurgent-- Islamic outlook on the proper scope and conduct of jihad. (shrink)
Observation and experiment as categories for analysing scientific practice have a long pedigree in writings on science. There has, however, been little attempt to delineate observation and experiment with respect to analysing scientific practice; in particular, scientific experimentation, in a systematic manner. Someone who has presented a systematic account of observation and experiment as categories for analysing scientific experimentation is Ian Hacking. In this paper, I present a detailed analysis of Hacking’s observation versus experiment account. Using a range of cases (...) from various fields of scientific enquiry, I argue that the observation versus experiment account is not an adequate framework for delineating scientific experimentation in a systematic manner. (shrink)
There have recently been a number of high profile political incidents, and legal cases, that raise questions about hate speech. At the same time, the tensions, and perceived conflicts, between religion and sexuality have become controversial topics. This paper considers the relationship between religious freedom, free speech and equality through an analysis of recent case law in Great Britain, Canada and the United States. The paper starts with a discussion of how conflicts between these values arise in areas such as (...) hate speech and explores the differences between the European and US approach to this issue. In Council of Europe member states there is an increasing use of the criminal law to regulate hate speech. This paper argues that criminalisation of hate speech poses a distinct risk to the values of free speech and proposes alternative non-legal responses such as a greater use of cultural policy. The paper also explores a range of cases where the religion and sexual orientation conflict has arisen in areas such as the workplace. An analysis of these cases suggests that although there is no perfect resolution of this issue, it is possible to develop a set of principles that encourage a balance between the values of religious freedom, free speech and equality even in difficult situations where there is a conflict between religion and sexuality. The paper concludes with some practical recommendations for managing the tensions or conflicts between religious freedom, free speech and equality in liberal democracies. (shrink)
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender movements are now a mondial phenomenon. The LGBT community has dared to show itself to the surface. Not only in the Western world alone, but LGBT excitement also rife in the homeland. The emergence of LGBT community in the midst of people's life raises pro and contra. Some people criticize the existence of the LGBT community, because it is considered a people with abnormal behavior and deviates from religious teachings. Others accept it as part of (...) appreciating their exclusion in Human Rights. This study attempts to answer some key questions: What are the views of Islamic teachings and the Human Rights Charter on LGBT behavior? How can the human rights and religious doctrine match in solving this LGBT problem? What are the LGBT prevention solutions and solutions that can be done? To answer this question, research is done by studying religious texts be it the Qur'an or hadith, and the text of the Human Rights Charter. Both types of texts are examined in various approaches; theological, historical, philosophical, medical, tafsir, hermeneutical, jurisprudence and psychological. Content analisys method was initially performed on the text of the Qur'an and the hadith. Matan hadith explored by takhrij method and study of hadith text. From this study, it is concluded that LGBT behavior in religious doctrine is strictly prohibited. Likewise the Human Rights Charter can not justify LGBT behavior under the pretext of individual freedom. Because individual freedom is automatically limited by other individual freedoms and legislation. Treatment and prevention solutions can be done to LGBT behaviors. Because psychically, LGBT behavior is a psychiatric disease that can be treated and prevented. (shrink)