During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes--the human speech sounds that constitute words--have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional (...) quality. Moreover, we show that the perceived emotional valence of certain phoneme combinations depends on a specific acoustic feature--namely, the dynamic shift within the phonemes' first two frequency components. These data suggest a phoneme-relevant acoustic property influencing the communication of emotion in humans, and provide further evidence against previously held assumptions regarding the structure of human language. This finding has potential applications for a variety of social, educational, clinical, and marketing contexts. (shrink)
La Ley de la Mujer discutida en el libro V de la República, conocida como la primera ola, es un ejemplo notorio de la intención reformista de Sócrates de lograr justicia en la pólis. La legislación de la mujer, en general, históricamente ha sido relegada por los intérpretes de la República. El objeto del artículo es analizar este pasaje, del 449a al 457c, a través de los argumentos propuestos por Sócrates al considerarlos cruciales para concebir la igualdad entre los sexos (...) y favorecer el cambio institucional según su naturaleza, katà phýsin, dejando espacio para que las mujeres gobiernen la pólis. Antes de partir hacia el enfrentamiento externo, Sócrates considera urgente que sus interlocutores, Adimanto, Glaucón y Polemarco, estén de acuerdo entre ellos. Así, los insta a iniciar la discusión cuestionando la naturaleza humana de la mujer y su capacidad para las mismas funciones que desempeñan los hombres en la ciudad. El examen de lo inteligible permitió que el lógos sobre la capacidad intelectual de las mujeres respaldara una legislación adecuada. Este nómos puesto en práctica demuestra ser lo mejor para la ciudad y sus guardianes. En esa medida, Sócrates puede concluir dicha investigación con un consenso sobre qué hacer y la voluntad de confrontar urgentemente las opiniones opuestas en la ciudad. (shrink)
Often implicit in visual display design and development is a gold standard of photorealism. By approximating direct perception, photorealism appeals to users and designers by being both attractive and apparently effortless. The vexing result from numerous performance evaluations, though, is that increasing realism often impairs performance. Smallman and St. John (2005) labeled misplaced faith in realistic information display Naïve Realism and theorized it resulted from a triplet of folk fallacies about perception. Here, we illustrate issues associated with the wider trend (...) towards realism by focusing on a specific current trend for high-fidelity perspective view (3D) geospatial displays. In two experiments, we validated Naïve Realism for different terrain understanding tasks, explored whether certain individuals are particularly prone to Naïve Realism, and determined the ability of task feedback to mitigate Naïve Realism. Performance was measured for laying and judging a concealed route across realistic terrain shown in different display formats. Task feedback was either implicit, in Experiment 1, or explicit in Experiment 2. Prospective and retrospective intuitions about the best display formats for the tasks were recorded and then related to task performance and participant spatial ability. Participants generally intuited they would perform tasks better with more realism than they actually required. For example, counter to intuitions, lowering fidelity of the terrain display revealed the gross scene layout needed to lay a well-concealed route. Individuals of high spatial ability calibrated their intuitions with only implicit task feedback, whereas those of low spatial ability required salient, explicit feedback to calibrate their intuitions about display realism. Results are discussed in the wider context of applying perceptual science to display design, and combating folk fallacies. (shrink)
It is shown that the Riemannian curvature of the 3-dimensional hypersurfaces in space-time, described by the Wilson loop integral, can be represented by a quaternion quantum operator induced by the SU(2) gauge potential, thus providing a justification for quaternion quantum gravity at the Tev energy scale.
Three questions animate Tuomo Tiisala's essay, “Overcoming ‘the Present Limits of the Necessary’: Foucault's Conception of a Critique”: What is the task of critique, as Foucault describes it? What is it about reason that necessitates such a task? And what is it that could motivate the critical attitude as a virtue?
We give an example in which it is possible to understand quantum statistics using classical concepts. This is done by studying the interaction of chargedmatter oscillators with the thermal and zeropoint electromagnetic fields characteristic of quantum electrodynamics and classical stochastic electrodynamics. Planck's formula for the spectral distribution and the elements of energy hw are interpreted without resorting to discontinuities. We also show the aspects in which our model calculation complement other derivations of blackbody radiation spectrum without quantum assumptions.
It is still perhaps not widely appreciated that in 1905 Einstein used his postulate concerning the ‘constancy’ of the light-speed in the ‘resting’ frame, in conjunction with the principle of relativity, to derive numerical light-speed invariance. Now a ‘weak’ version of the relativity principle (or, alternatively, appeal to the Michelson—Morley experiment) leads from Einstein's light postulate to a condition that we call universal light-speed constancy. which is weaker than light-speed invariance. It follows from earlier independent investigations (Robertson ; Steigler ; (...) Tzanakis and Kyritsis ) that this condition is none the less sufficient to derive the Lorentz transformations up to a scale factor, given the well-known kinematic principle of ‘reciprocity’. In this paper, we follow Robertson and explore the kinematics consistent with universal light-speed constancy without imposing reciprocity, and we recover the Lorentz transformations by further appeal only to the weak relativity principle and spatial isotropy. (shrink)
ABSTRACT In section XII of the First Inquiry, Hume refers to the two Hellenistic schools of skepticism to present his own view of skepticism, which, however, depends on the ancient skeptics mainly indirectly. Hume's view of skepticism depends crucially on Descartes and post-Cartesian philosophers such as Pascal, Huet, Foucher and Bayle, who reacted skeptically to major Cartesian doctrines but followed one version or other of Descartes's methodical doubt. Although all these post-Cartesian philosophers are relevant in section XII, I focus on (...) the topics in which Descartes himself-besides his skeptical followers-seems directly relevant. After an introductory section on Julia Annas' and Richard Popkin's views of Hume's relation to, respectively, ancient and modern skepticism, I turn to section XII and examine what Hume calls "consequent skepticism about the senses," "antecedent skepticism," and "Academic skepticism." RESUMO Na seção XII da Primeira Investigação, Hume refere-se a duas escolas céticas antigas ao apresentar sua própria visão do ceticismo que, entretanto, depende do ceticismo antigo somente secundária e indiretamente. A compreensão humiana do ceticismo depende principalmente de Descartes e de filósofos pós-cartesianos como Pascal, Huet, Foucher e Bayle que reagiram ceticamente às principais doutrinas cartesianas, mas seguiram uma versão ou outra da dúvida metódica de Descartes. Embora todos estes filósofos sejam relevantes na seção XII, examinarei os tópicos da seção nos quais Descartes parece ser diretamente visado. Após uma seção introdutória sobre as leituras de Julia Annas e Richard Popkin da relação de Hume com, respectivamente, o ceticismo antigo e o moderno, examino o que Hume chama na seção XII da Investigação de "ceticismo consequente sobre os sentidos", "ceticismo antecedente" e "ceticismo acadêmico". (shrink)
The moral presentation: an essay on Merleau-Ponty's notion of time in the Phenomenology of Perception: The purpose of this essay is to investigate the notion of memory in Merleau-Ponty, suggesting a possible interpretation of the time and memory within Merleau-Ponty’s genetic phenomenological analysis. Ultimately, our hypothesis is that Merleau-Ponty’s understanding of the problem of representation and perception - particularly the problem of retention - places an ethical ground in perception. We will suggest that the phenomenological approach to memory might pave (...) a different undertaking of morals as constructed in the living-present. Our objective is then to point a moral dimension to the process of presentation-representation that happens in consciousness, and establish that our way into the comprehension of values has both a passive and active dimension that is often underdeveloped in studies of how we establish moral and political convictions. Keywords: Time, Memory, Representation, Perception, Ethics A presentação moral: um ensaio sobre a noção de tempo de Merleau-Ponty na Fenomenologia da Percepção Resumo: O propósito desse ensaio é instigar a ideia de memória em Merleau-Ponty, sugerindo uma possível interpretação de tempo e memória dentro da análise genética-fenomenológica de Merleau-Ponty. Em última medida, nossa hipótese é que o entendimento de Merleau-Ponty sobre o problema da representação e da percepção - particularmente o problema da retenção - coloca um fundamento ético para a percepção. Nós iremos sugerir que a abordagem fenomenológica para a memória pode nos dar um diferente modo de análise da moral enquanto construída no presente-vivido. Nosso objetivo é então apontar para uma dimensão moral para o processo de apresentação-representação que acontece na consciência e estabelecê-lo como um caminho para nossa representação consciente, entendendo que nosso modo de compreensão tem tanto uma dimensão intencionalmente ativa quanto passiva que é frequentemente pouco desenvolvida em estudos sobre nossos estabelecimento de convicções morais e políticas. Palavras chaves: Tempo, Memória, Representação, Percepção, Ética La presentación moral: un ensayo sobre la noción de tiempo de Merleau-Ponty en la Fenomenología de la Percepción Resumen: El propósito de este ensayo es instigar la idea de memoria en Merleau-Ponty, sugiriendo una posible interpretación del tiempo y la memoria dentro del análisis genético-fenomenológico de Merleau-Ponty. En última instancia, nuestra hipótesis es que la comprensión de Merleau-Ponty del problema de la representación y la percepción, particularmente el problema de la retención, sienta una base ética para la percepción. Sugeriremos que el enfoque fenomenológico de la memoria puede darnos un modo diferente de análisis moral a medida que se integra en el presente. Nuestro objetivo es, entonces, señalar una dimensión moral al proceso de presentación-representación que tiene lugar en la conciencia y establecerlo como un camino hacia nuestra representación consciente, entendiendo que nuestro modo de comprensión tiene una dimensión intencionalmente activa y pasiva que a menudo se entiende mal. desarrollado en estudios de nuestro establecimiento de creencias morales y políticas. Palavras clave: Tiempo, Memoria, Representación, Percepción, Ética Data de registro: 03/09/2019 Data de aceite: 22/07/2020. (shrink)
Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders, also sometimes referred to as psychosurgery, is rapidly evolving, with new techniques and indications being investigated actively. Many within the field have suggested that some form of guidelines or regulations are needed to help ensure that a promising field develops safely. Multiple countries have enacted specific laws regulating NPD. This article reviews NPD-specific laws drawn from North and South America, Asia and Europe, in order to identify the typical form and contents of these laws and to (...) set the groundwork for the design of an optimal regulation for the field. Key challenges for this design that are revealed by the review are how to define the scope of the law, what types of regulations are required, and how to approach international harmonization given the potential migration of researchers and patients. (shrink)
Montaigne faz um ataque pirrônico ao conceito acadêmico de verossimilhança ou probabilidade na Apologia de Raymond Sebond. O ataque é paradoxal porque Montaigne parece seguir o verossímil na própria Apologia e em diversos outros ensaios. Para resolver este problema exegético proponho uma dupla restrição do escopo do ataque à verossimilhança. Por um lado, mostro que o ataque visa mais a leitura epistêmica da verossimilhança proposta por Filo de Larissa do que ao conceito original de ordem exclusivamente prática de Carnéades. Por (...) outro, situo-o em um contexto político-religioso bem específico. O ataque pirrônico à verossimilhança é a estratégia oferecida por Montaigne à rainha católica de Navarra e irmã do rei da França, Marguerite de Valois, para eventual uso nas polêmicas religiosas em sua corte majoritariamente protestante de Nérac. Esta contextualização soluciona também outros problemas exegéticos da Apologia, como o da defesa paradoxal de Sebond, a inconsistência aparente entre as respostas de Montaigne às duas objeções feitas ao livro de Sebond, e o problema do fideísmo. In the Apology for Raymond Sebond, Montaigne launches a Pyrrhonian attack on Academic probability. However, Montaigne does follow probability in the Apology and other essays. In order to solve this exegetical problem I propose a double restriction of the attack. On the one hand, I show that it aims at Philo of Larissa's epistemic interpretation of the doctrine rather than at Carneades' original practical conception. On the other hand, I place the attack on a very specific historical context. Montaigne's Pyrrhonian attack on probability is a polemical strategy offered to Marguerite de Valois, the sister of the catholic king of France and wife of the protestant leader Henri de Navarre, to be used in the religious controversies in her predominant protestant court at Nérac. This context also solves other exegetical problems of the Apology such as Montaigne's paradoxical defense of Sebond, the apparent contradiction between the replies to the two objections to Sebond's book addressed by Montaigne, and the problem of fideism. (shrink)
This paper is dedicated to Alonzo Church, who died in August 1995 after a long life devoted to logic. To Church we owe lambda calculus, the thesis bearing his name and the solution to the Entscheidungsproblem.His well-known book Introduction to Mathematical LogicI, defined the subject matter of mathematical logic, the approach to be taken and the basic topics addressed. Church was the creator of the Journal of Symbolic Logicthe best-known journal of the area, which he edited for several decades This (...) paper is in three sections. The first is written in journalistic style:the story of the life of AlonzoChurch is told, including some of the many anecdotes I have collected from different sources. The secondpart is devoted to his work, but is far from being exhaustive. The last part is more original; in it I attempto show that Church?s great discovery was lambda calculus and that his remaining contributions weremainly inspired afterthoughts in the sense that most of his contributions as well as some of his pupils derivefrom that initial achievement. Included are Kleene?s Recursion Theory and the completeness proof ofHenkin. I have added an appendix in which is presented the typed lambda calculus and a proof of theundecidability of first-order logic. (shrink)
Pierre-Daniel Huet est un des sceptiques les plus importants de la fin du XVIIe siècle et du début du XVIIIe siècle. Dans cet article, je cherche à montrer en six points que la principale source du scepticisme de Huet est paradoxalement Descartes, chaque point étant développé dans une section du texte : 1) Huet a découvert le doute cartésien avant de connaître le doute sceptique des anciens ; 2) le scepticisme du Traité Philosophique de la Faiblesse de l’Esprit Humain et (...) l’anti-cartésianisme de la Censura Philosophiae Cartesianae faisaient originellement partie d’une même ouvrage ; 3) on trouve un Descartes sceptique dans la Censura ; 4) la biographie intellectuelle du Provençal dans le Traité Philosophique actualise et pyrrhonise la biographie intellectuelle du Descartes du Discours de la Méthode ; 5) quatre arguments sceptiques du Traité, dont le plus important de l’ouvrage, sont cartésiens ; 6) le scepticisme de Huet a été perçu par les premiers lecteurs du manuscrit du Traité comme partialement cartésien. Pierre-Daniel Huet is one of the most important skeptics from the end of the 17th/begining of the 18th centuries. In this article, I show that Descartes is the main source of Huet’s skepticism by means of six remarks, each developed in a section of the article. 1) Huet discovered Cartesian doubt before he discovered ancient skeptical doubt ; 2) the skepticism exhibited in the Traité Philosophique de la Faiblesse de l’Esprit Humain and the anti-cartesianism exhibited in the Censura Philosophiae Cartesianae were originally parts of the same work ; 3) there is a skeptical Descartes in the Censura ; 4) the intellectual biography of the Provençal in the Traité Philosophique updates and pyrrhonizes Descartes’s intellectual biography in the Discours de la Méthode ; 5) four skeptical arguments in the Traité — including the most important one in the book — are Cartesian ; 6) Huet’s skepticism was perceived as partially Cartesian by the first readers of the manuscript. (shrink)
Jose Raimundo Maia Neto - The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 551-552 Book Review The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism Petr Lom. The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism. Albany: The State University of New York Press, 2001. Pp. xiv + 138. Cloth, $49.50. Paper, $16.95. Since the appearance in 1960 (...) of Richard Popkin's The History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Descartes skepticism has been acknowledged as a powerful intellectual force in modern philosophy. Lom's The Limits of Doubt corroborates this view by showing the relevance of this ancient tradition in the political and moral thought of a number of major modern.. (shrink)
Two Methods Of Creative Marketing Research Neuromarketing And In-Depth Interview Creativity is one of the most important concepts nowadays' business environment. The purpose of this article is to determine whether neuromarketing and in-depth interviews complete each other in terms of allowing marketers to to create more creative marketing strategies on how customers really feel.Raising global competition pressure does not allow marketers to ignore it. Marketing is a field that is most sensitive to such influences. New point of view most times (...) gives an advantage in the marketing field. It helps to develop creative strategies.Two methods of creative marketing research: neuromarketing and in-depth interview were analyzed. Creativity is a potential which must be developed as a source of further development. It is a source natural to all people, a source that has a motivational effect. Creativity may be developed. Constant education is required. It is necessary to remove barriers and establish opportunities for creative thinking, reduce habitual stereotypes, release space for searching and find further alternatives. Significance of marketing in nowadays business environment is out of any doubts. Companies world wide spend trillions of dollars each year on Advertising, Marketing, and Research and Develoment. For decades, advertisers, marketers, and product developers are making an effort to apply social psychology to discover the tools to tap into the consumer's brain. Some marketers believe that most of biases occur because of responses changed by the customer's conscious mind. Development of technology gives a wide range of opportunities for the new generation marketing research. In conclusion, it is clear, that neuromarketing and in-depth interviews may complete each other and draw together more accurate picture of what the customers really feel, that allows marketers to create more competitive creative marketing strategies. (shrink)
The aim of this study is to discuss the possible destinies of the subject in a contemporary society that has been almost completely immersed in and seduced by knowledge, especially knowledge generated in the context of digital technology. First, there will be a quick review of the path taken by the knowledge society from the point of view of two central aspects: governance and sociability. Next, this article will evaluate some of the impacts of digital technology on today’s society, which (...) will consider the interaction between the subject and the knowledge society. This will be done through a sociogenetic analysis, based on historical-cultural psychology. A knowledge society should express itself in a variety of ways, especially starting from principles linked to democracy or social exclusion. At the same time, this dubiety leads some researchers to take on ambiguous positions, sometimes mistrusting knowledge and cultural achievements, sometimes displaying excessive optimism. In this context, one of the possible destinies for the subject once provoked might be to resist the temptation of the charms of the knowledge society, not affording it undue value, but also not underestimating it, thereby the term ‘almost’. A society of subjects situated historically faces the challenge, not of managing knowledge as something ‘per se’, but of understanding that it is the subject who precedes all the various instances of worldly life. (shrink)
Pode o mestre ensinar algo através da fala? Uma análise sobre as obras De Magistro de Santo Agostinho e Tomás de Aquino Resumo: O presente artigo tem como objetivo investigar nas obras De Magistro de Santo Agostinho e Tomás de Aquino a possibilidade do ensino através da figura do mestre e/ou de um agente externo ao discípulo ou indivíduo. Agostinho defende a tese da qual só Deus ensina e a figura do mestre torna-se apenas como um auxiliador no processo de (...) aprendizagem para a verdade interior do discípulo, tese essa formulada através da sua Teoria da Iluminação. Tomás de Aquino não contradiz completamente Agostinho, mas defende o papel e a importância do mestre sobre o tipo de conhecimento que o mesmo pode fornecer ao discípulo, tendo papel substancial para o processo de aprendizagem para adquirir conhecimento. Ambos se preocupam em que medida o mestre pode ensinar, o que ensina e como ensina, visando compreender como se dá o processo de conhecimento do ser humano o relacionando-o com a verdade das coisas. Palavras-chave: Santo Agostinho; Tomás de Aquino; De Magistro; Ensino; Aprendizagem. Can the master teach something through speech? An analysis of the works De Magistro of Saint Augustine and Thomas Aquinas: This article aims to investigate in the works De Magistro of Saint Augustine and Thomas Aquinas the possibility of teaching through the figure of the master and / or an external agent to the disciple or individual. Augustine defends the thesis that only God teaches and the figure of the master becomes only as a helper in the learning process for the disciple's inner truth, a thesis formulated through his Theory of Enlightenment. Thomas Aquinas does not completely contradict Augustine, but he defends the role and the importance of the master on the type of knowledge that he can provide to the disciple, having a substantial role in the learning process to acquire knowledge. Both are concerned with the extent to which the master can teach, what he teaches and how he teaches with a view to understanding how the human being's knowledge process takes place, relating it to the truth of things. Keywords: Saint Augustine; Thomas Aquinas; De Magistro; Teaching; Learning. ¿Puede el maestro enseñar algo a través del habla? Un análisis de las obras De Magistro de San Agustín y Tomás de Aquino Resumen: Este artículo tiene como objetivo investigar en las obras De Magistro de Santo Agostinho y Tomás de Aquino la posibilidad de enseñar a través de la figura del maestro y / o de un agente externo al discípulo o individuo. Agustín defiende la tesis de que sólo Dios enseña y la figura del maestro se convierte sólo en un ayudante en el proceso de aprendizaje de la verdad interior del discípulo, tesis formulada a través de su Teoría de la Ilustración. Tomás de Aquino no contradice completamente a Agustín, pero defiende el papel y la importancia del maestro sobre el tipo de conocimientos que puede aportar al discípulo, teniendo un papel sustancial en el proceso de aprendizaje para adquirir conocimientos. Ambos se preocupan por la medida en que el maestro puede enseñar, lo que enseña y cómo enseña, con el objetivo de comprender cómo se produce el proceso de conocimiento del ser humano, relacionándolo con la verdad de las cosas. Palabras-clave: San Agustín; Tomás de Aquino; De Magistro; Enseñando; Aprendizaje. Data de registro: 16/08/2020 Data de aceite: 16/12/2020. (shrink)
Résumé — Cet article se propose de montrer que le scepticisme présent dans les œuvres philosophiques de Huet, notamment dans le Traité philosophique de la foiblesse de l’esprit humain, n’est pas un scepticisme chrétien dans le sens d’un scepticisme déterminé d’une manière ou d’une autre par la doctrine chrétienne. On examine d’abord quelques raisons historiques de la réception de la philosophie du Traité comme un « pyrrhonisme chrétien ». Puis on signale des différences décisives entre le scepticisme du Traité et (...) ses autres formes présentes chez d’autres philosophes de la période, qui peuvent être légitimement qualifiés comme différents modèles de scepticisme chrétien.— The article attempts to show that the skepticism exhibited in Huet’s philosophical works, in particular in the Traité philosophique de la foiblesse de l’esprit humain, is not a Christian skepticism in the sense of a skepticism determined in one way or another by Christian doctrine. The article begins by examining some historical reasons for the reception of the philosophy of the Traité as a « Christian pyrrhonism ». Then some crucial differences are pointed out between the skepticism of the Traité and other models of skepticism exhibited in the works of other philosophers of the period which can be considered as different types of Christian skepticism. (shrink)
3~,4 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 36:2 APRIL 1998 another, in trying to force Locke and Gassendi together, Sarasohn mistakenly claims Locke shares Gassendi's views that moral knowledge is merely probable, and that there is a highest good. historians of philosophy and by the main philosophers of the period. Among the histori- ans, Bonacina detects a progressive drive..
Jose Raimundo Maia Neto - The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 551-552 Book Review The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism Petr Lom. The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism. Albany: The State University of New York Press, 2001. Pp. xiv + 138. Cloth, $49.50. Paper, $16.95. Since the appearance in 1960 (...) of Richard Popkin's The History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Descartes skepticism has been acknowledged as a powerful intellectual force in modern philosophy. Lom's The Limits of Doubt corroborates this view by showing the relevance of this ancient tradition in the political and moral thought of a number of major modern... (shrink)
Richard Popkin’s seminal study on the revival of skepticism from the late Renaissance onwards gave a prominent role to Pyrrhonism, rediscovered through the translation of Sextus Empiricus’s writings into Latin and their usage in Michel de Montaigne’s Essais, among other works. Maia Neto’s new book aims to reassess this interpretation, claiming that Montaigne’s disciple, Pierre Charron, in his La sagesse, displayed a distinctively Academic skeptical wisdom that became central in the philosophical debate of the period. Such wisdom, according to (...)Maia Neto, is conceived as refraining from “opinion” as a way of avoiding error, and thereby arriving at “intellectual integrity,” that is, human perfection insofar... (shrink)
The modern understanding of radiation got its start in 1895 with X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen, followed in 1896 by Henri Becquerel’s discovery of radioactivity. The development of the study of radiation opened a vast field of research concerning various disciplines: chemistry, physics, biology, geology, sociology, ethics, etc. Additionally, new branches of knowledge were created, such as atomic and nuclear physics that enabled an in-depth knowledge of the matter. Moreover, during the historical evolution of this body of knowledge a wide (...) variety of new technologies was emerging. This article seeks to analyze the characteristics of experimental research in radioactivity and microphysics, in particular the relationship experience-theory. It will also be emphasized that for more than two decades, since the discovery of radioactivity, experiments took place without the theory being able to follow experimental dynamics. Some aspects identified as structural features of scientific research in the area of radiation and matter will be addressed through historical examples. The inventiveness of experiments in parallel with the emergence of quantum mechanics, the formation of teams and their relationship with technology developed from the experiments, as well as the evolution of microphysics in the sense of “Big Science” will be the main structural characteristics here focused. The case study of research in radioactivity in Portugal that assumes a certain importance and has structural characteristics similar to those of Europe will be presented. (shrink)
Deep brain stimulation is part of state-of-the-art treatment for medically refractory Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor or primary dystonia. However, there are multiple movement disorders that present after a static brain lesion and that are frequently refractory to medical treatment. Using Holmes tremor as an example, we discuss the effectiveness of currently available treatments and, performing simulations using a Markov Chain approach, propose that DBS with iterative parameter optimization is expected to be more effective than an approach based on sequential trials (...) of pharmacological agents. Since, in DBS studies for HT, the thalamus is a frequently chosen target, using data from previous studies of lesion connectivity mapping in HT, we compared the connectivity of thalamic and non-thalamic targets with a proxy of the HT network, and found a significantly higher connectivity of thalamic DBS targets in HT. The understanding of brain networks provided by analysis of functional connectivity may thus provide an informed framework for proper surgical targeting of individual patients. Based on these findings, we argue that there is an ethical imperative to at least consider surgical options in patients with uncommon movement disorders, while simultaneously providing consistent information regarding the expected effectiveness and risks, even in a scenario of surgical-risk aversion. An approach based on n-of-1 DBS trials may ultimately significantly improve outcomes while informing on optimal therapeutic targets and parameter settings for HT and other disabling and rare movement disorders. (shrink)
La probabilité académicienne, doctrine formulée par Carnéade, a joué un rôle capital dans l'épistémologie moderne. 1) Le pyrrhonisme dans L'Apologie de Raymond Sebond de Montaigne est surtout une réaction au probabilisme néo-académicien que se sont approprtés des apologistes huguenots ; 2) Charron et La Mothe le Vayer ne tiennent pas le probable pour la vérité parce que la probabilité est la limite anthropologique de la connaissance humaine, mais ils reconnaissent la difficulté de maintenir la suspension du jugement face au probable (...) ; 3) ce débat autour du probabilisme académicien est central dans le projet philosophique de Descartes. Academic probability, a doctrine elaborated by Carneades, played a central role in modern epistemology. 1) The pyrrhonism exhibited in Montaigne's Apology for Raymond Sebond is mainly a reaction to the neo-academic probabilism appropriated by Calvinist apologists; 2) Charron and La Mothe Le Vayer argue against taking the probable as if it were true because human cognition can attain only probable presentations but they acknowledge the difficulty of withholding assent; 3) This debate about academic probability is crucial to Descartes's philosophical project. (shrink)
We share with Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) (and with Newell before them) the goal of developing a domain-general framework for modeling cognition, and we take seriously the issue of evaluation criteria. We advocate a more focused approach than the one reflected in Newell's criteria, based on analysis of failures as well as successes of models brought into close contact with experimental data. A&L attribute the shortcomings of our parallel-distributed processing framework to a failure to acknowledge a symbolic level of thought. (...) Our framework does acknowledge a symbolic level, contrary to their claim. What we deny is that the symbolic level is the level at which the principles of cognitive processing should be formulated. Models cast at a symbolic level are sometimes useful as high-level approximations of the underlying mechanisms of thought. The adequacy of this approximation will continue to increase as symbolic modelers continue to incorporate principles of parallel distributed processing. (shrink)
3~,4 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 36:2 APRIL 1998 another, in trying to force Locke and Gassendi together, Sarasohn mistakenly claims Locke shares Gassendi's views that moral knowledge is merely probable, and that there is a highest good. historians of philosophy and by the main philosophers of the period. Among the histori- ans, Bonacina detects a progressive drive...
This paper has two sections. In the first one I examine Pascal's appropriation in La 131 of the Cartesian argument of the deceiver God. Pascal develops a skeptical reading of the argument in order to use it as a premise for his apologetic argument of true religion. In the second section I examine Huet's appropriation of this same Cartesian argument in his Philosophical Treatise on the Weakness of Human Understanding. Based on this work of Huet's and on his margin notes (...) on Pascal's Thoughts, I show that his skeptical reading of the argument is derived from Pascal's, although Huet's and Pascal's goals are distinct: while the latter intends to provide an argument for the Fall of Man, the former intends to show the weakness of reason unassisted by supernatural faith. (shrink)
O sentido ontológico do trabalho e o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores: considerações preliminares Resumo: O presente estudo tem por objetivo demonstrar de que forma o trabalho auxilia no processo de hominização do homem. Trata-se de um estudo de natureza teórica, realizado mediante pesquisa bibliográfica, sendo dividido em três momentos principais. No primeiro, apresenta-se como o trabalho é concebido por Marx e apropriado por Lukács e os representantes da Escola de Vigotski. No segundo, trata-se das tensões entre a importância conferida (...) aos aspectos biológicos e aos aspectos sociais para o processo de desenvolvimento do gênero humano, demonstrando de que maneira a produção de instrumentos gesta o progressivo afastamento da barreira natural, ao passo que propicia o desenvolvimento cada vez mais social do homem. Tal reflexão servirá de base para sinalizar como a teoria de Vigotski destaca em seu edifício categorial a relação entre os instrumentos e as funções psicológicas superiores no processo de humanização do homem. Palavras Chave: Trabalho. Instrumento. Funções psicológicas superiores. The ontological meaning of work and the development of higher mental functions: preliminary considerations: This study we aim to demonstrate how the work supports in the humanization process of the individuals. This is a theoretical study conducted by bibliographic research and divided into three main sessions. In the first moment, we present how the work is conceived by Marx and appropriated by Lukács and the representatives from Vygotsky’s school. In the second, we bring the tensions between the importance attached to the biological aspects and social aspects in the humankind’s development process, demonstrating how the tools’ production manage the progressive separation from the natural barrier, whereas it provides the increasingly social development of individuals. Further consideration will serve as a basis to indicate how Vygotsky’s theory underscore in its categorical building the relationship between the tools and the higher mental functions in the humanizing process of the individuals. Keywords: Work. Tools. Higher.mental functions. El sentido ontológico del trabajo y el desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores: consideraciones preliminares Resumen: El presente estudio tiene por objetivo demostrar de qué forma el trabajo auxilia en el proceso de hominización del hombre. Se trata de un estudio de naturaleza teórica, realizado mediante investigación bibliográfica, siendo dividido en tres momentos principales. En el primero, presentamos cómo el trabajo es concebido por Marx y apropiado por Lukács y los representantes de la escuela de Vigotski. En el segundo, traemos las tensiones entre la importancia conferida a los aspectos biológicos ya los aspectos sociales para el proceso de desarrollo del género humano, demostrando de qué manera la producción de instrumentos gesta el progresivo alejamiento de la barrera natural, mientras que propicia el desarrollo cada vez más social del hombre. Tal reflexión servirá de base para señalar cómo la teoría de Vigotski destaca en su edificio categorial la relación entre los instrumentos y las funciones psicológicas superiores en el proceso de humanización del hombre. Financiamento: CNPq Palabras clave: Trabajo. Instrumento. Funciones psicológicas superiores. Data de registro: 09/01/2019 Data de aceite: 25/10/2019. (shrink)
Edited by two leading scholars of the history of early modern skepticism, this volume collects thirteen essays from a variety of North and South American as well as European authors. Following the groundbreaking work of Richard H. Popkin and others such as Richard A. Watson, José Maia Neto, and James Force, much has been made about skepticism in relation to early modern natural sciences and to religion. Curiously little, however, addresses skepticism and early modern politics. This volume works to (...) fill that lacuna and takes another step along the path on which Laursen embarked in his The Politics of Skepticism and in the cascade of publications following it. The volume adds complexity and scope, too... (shrink)
Drawing on sixteenth-century Protestant discourse on marriage and sexuality, this essay examines the anxieties permeating Spenser’s two poetical celebrations of his courtship and wedding with Elizabeth Boyle. Though the Reformers’ departure from Rome included an embrace of clerical marriage and an advocacy for the virtues of companionate marriage, revulsion at the sinfulness of sex remained. Through the sonnets of the Amoretti and the stanzas of the Epithalamion, an idea of mutual love is disrupted by a Protestant-tinged sense of innate and (...) pervasive depravity. Special attention is given to sonnets #58 and #84, and to the Epithalamion passages on Maia and Alcema. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to understand some meaningful aspects of the Socratic use of Iliad x 224 in Plato’s Protagoras and Symposium. In these dialogues the Homeric reference appears in different contexts, but Plato’s Socrates applies it in the same way and seems to indicate it as a relevant step for the implementation of the dialectic method. Socrates is not only provoking his interlocutor, but rather making a comparison between the dialogue’s scene and the context involving Diomedes and (...) Odysseus’ in Iliad x. Ultimately, the use of this reference shows that a dialogical interplay to achieve a common purpose is a precondition for the Socratic dialectic. This previous cooperation between Homeric characters is emphasized by Plato’s Socrates and is derived from a specific soul’s manifestation. (shrink)
The history of philosophy is rich in diverse and sometimes directly contradictory views on the character of the relation between science and art. There have been times when art was proclaimed as lower than science, as an inadequate form of assimilation of reality by man, while at others it was seen as the sole means of adequate reflection of the world hidden "behind Maia's mysterious veil." And although today we are far from overestimating or underestimating either of the ways (...) in which man perceives reality, the fact is that the problem of the relationship between science and art remains quite acute, as is shown in particular by the broad discussion on this question that has arisen in the pages of Problems of Philosophy [Voprosy filosofii] during the last three years. The present article is an attempt to treat yet another facet of the relationships between science and art, taking as point of departure the capacity of art to model not only certain aspects of reality but human reality itself, including that of scientific theory. From this standpoint art, as a meta-activity as it were, relates to positive cognition such as philosophy not so much "horizontally" as "vertically.". (shrink)
Bayle's conception of reason is notoriously difficult to unravel, as are its consequences for the rationality of religious belief. The secondary literature has generally coalesced around two interpretations of Bayle's conception of reason. The “superskeptical” interpretation holds that reason is the source of its own undoing, not to be trusted; religious belief turns out to be irrational on this conception of reason, but this is hardly cause for alarm. The jusqu'au bout (to the very end) interpretation holds that reason is (...) to be followed wherever it leads, and if one follows closely, reason requires the rejection of religious belief. On both models, religious belief turns out to be irrational. In this piece, I summarize and examine these two interpretations, and using José Maia Neto's exposition of Bayle as an Academic skeptic, I propose a third that I call “common sense” skepticism. On this reading, reason does indeed use logic to form and sort beliefs – including some religious beliefs – but only holds to those beliefs fallibilistically. There may be a category of religious beliefs, however, that can only be recommended by faith; these would be religious beliefs that lack rational evidence, or exhibit rational contradictions. On this view, while some religious beliefs may turn out to be rational, there will likely be a set of core religious beliefs that come out to be irrational. I end by highlighting a suggestion by Bayle that reason itself may recommend revelation as a guide to belief, conferring a kind of intermediate rationality even on apparently irrational religious beliefs. (shrink)
The essays in this volume are by fellow historians of ideas and philosophy, colleagues, and former students of Richard Popkin; its editor is his son, a historian at the University of Kentucky. The volume is in the style of a festschrift, but it has a special personal component. The notes on the contributors indicate how each came to know Popkin. The essays do not concentrate on developments of each author’s own work, but access Popkin’s work, in some instances extending it, (...) and often relating it to aspects of his career. The final contribution is a biographical sketch of his career, done by the editor, from letters that are part of Popkin’s papers housed in the Clark Library at UCLA. This biographical sketch is preceded by a memoir by Avrum Stroll, recounting his collaboration with Popkin on their Philosophy Made Simple, which they co-authored in 1955 and which, in its multiple printings, has served as an introductory textbook for generations of students.The fourteen essays are by B. Copenhaver, A. P. Coudent, S. Hutton, P. K. J. Park, and K. Peden ; J. E. Force, M. Mulsow, and D. B. Ruderman ; J. C. Laursen, J. R. Maia Neto, and G. Paganini ; and Y. Kaplan, D. S. Katz, and M. Goldish. (shrink)