Results for 'Malament’s theorem'

998 found
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  1.  95
    Against Particle/Field Duality: Asymptotic Particle States and Interpolating Fields in Interacting Qft (Or: Who's Afraid of Haag's Theorem?). [REVIEW]Jonathan Bain - 2000 - Erkenntnis 53 (3):375-406.
    This essay touches on a number of topics in philosophy of quantum field theory from the point of view of the LSZ asymptotic approach to scattering theory. First, particle/field duality is seen to be a property of free field theory and not of interacting QFT. Second, it is demonstrated how LSZ side-steps the implications of Haag's theorem. Finally, a recent argument due to Redhead, Malament and Arageorgis against the concept of localized particle states is addressed. Briefly, the argument observes (...)
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  2.  83
    A Remark About the "Geodesic Principle" in General Relativity.David Malament - unknown
    It is often claimed that the geodesic principle can be recovered as a theorem in general relativity. Indeed, it is claimed that it is a consequence of Einstein's equation (or of the conservation principle that is, itself, a consequence of that equation). These claims are certainly correct, but it may be worth drawing attention to one small qualification. Though the geodesic principle can be recovered as theorem in general relativity, it is not a consequence of Einstein's equation (or (...)
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  3.  48
    A Modest Remark About Reichenbach, Rotation, and General Relativity.David Malament - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (4):615-620.
    An interesting difficulty arises if one tries to reconcile Reichenbach's views about "absolute" rotation in general relativity with his commitment to a "causal theory of space-time structure." This difficulty is made precise in the form of a simple theorem about relativistic space-time geometry.
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  4.  66
    On the Status of the "Geodesic Law" in General Relativity.David Malament - unknown
    Harvey Brown believes it is crucially important that the "geodesic principle" in general relativity is an immediate consequence of Einstein's equation and, for this reason, has a different status within the theory than other basic principles regarding, for example, the behavior of light rays and clocks, and the speed with which energy can propagate. He takes the geodesic principle to be an essential element of general relativity itself, while the latter are better seen as contingent facts about the particular matter (...)
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  5.  73
    The Extent of Computation in Malament–Hogarth Spacetimes.P. D. Welch - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):659-674.
    We analyse the extent of possible computations following Hogarth ([2004]) conducted in Malament–Hogarth (MH) spacetimes, and Etesi and Németi ([2002]) in the special subclass containing rotating Kerr black holes. Hogarth ([1994]) had shown that any arithmetic statement could be resolved in a suitable MH spacetime. Etesi and Németi ([2002]) had shown that some relations on natural numbers that are neither universal nor co-universal, can be decided in Kerr spacetimes, and had asked specifically as to the extent of computational limits there. (...)
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  6.  39
    Simultaneity as an Invariant Equivalence Relation.Marco Mamone-Capria - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (11):1365-1383.
    This paper deals with the concept of simultaneity in classical and relativistic physics as construed in terms of group-invariant equivalence relations. A full examination of Newton, Galilei and Poincaré invariant equivalence relations in ℝ4 is presented, which provides alternative proofs, additions and occasionally corrections of results in the literature, including Malament’s theorem and some of its variants. It is argued that the interpretation of simultaneity as an invariant equivalence relation, although interesting for its own sake, does not cut (...)
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  7.  68
    Definition, Convention, and Simultaneity: Malament's Result and Its Alleged Refutation by Sarkar and Stachel.Robert Rynasiewicz - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S345-S357.
    The question whether distant simultaneity has a factual or a conventional status in special relativity has long been disputed and remains in contention even today. At one point it appeared that Malament had settled the issue by proving that the only non-trivial equivalence relation definable from causal connectability is the standard simultaneity relation. Recently, however, Sarkar and Stachel claim to have identified a suspect assumption in the proof by defining a non-standard simultaneity relation from causal connectability. I contend that their (...)
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  8. Bell’s Theorem: Two Neglected Solutions.Louis Vervoort - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (6):769-791.
    Bell’s theorem admits several interpretations or ‘solutions’, the standard interpretation being ‘indeterminism’, a next one ‘nonlocality’. In this article two further solutions are investigated, termed here ‘superdeterminism’ and ‘supercorrelation’. The former is especially interesting for philosophical reasons, if only because it is always rejected on the basis of extra-physical arguments. The latter, supercorrelation, will be studied here by investigating model systems that can mimic it, namely spin lattices. It is shown that in these systems the Bell inequality can be (...)
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  9. Arrow's Theorem in Judgment Aggregation.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2007 - Social Choice and Welfare 29 (1):19-33.
    In response to recent work on the aggregation of individual judgments on logically connected propositions into collective judgments, it is often asked whether judgment aggregation is a special case of Arrowian preference aggregation. We argue for the converse claim. After proving two impossibility theorems on judgment aggregation (using "systematicity" and "independence" conditions, respectively), we construct an embedding of preference aggregation into judgment aggregation and prove Arrow’s theorem (stated for strict preferences) as a corollary of our second result. Although we (...)
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  10.  23
    Comments on Malament’s “ ”Time Travel’ in the Godel Universe‘.Lawrence Sklar - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:106 - 110.
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  11.  97
    Bell’s Theorem, Quantum Probabilities, and Superdeterminism.Eddy Keming Chen - forthcoming - In Eleanor Knox & Alastair Wilson (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Physics. Routledge.
    In this short survey article, I discuss Bell’s theorem and some strategies that attempt to avoid the conclusion of non-locality. I focus on two that intersect with the philosophy of probability: (1) quantum probabilities and (2) superdeterminism. The issues they raised not only apply to a wide class of no-go theorems about quantum mechanics but are also of general philosophical interest.
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  12. An Intrinsic Theory of Quantum Mechanics: Progress in Field's Nominalistic Program, Part I.Eddy Keming Chen - 2017
    In this paper, I introduce an intrinsic account of the quantum state. This account contains three desirable features that the standard platonistic account lacks: (1) it does not refer to any abstract mathematical objects such as complex numbers, (2) it is independent of the usual arbitrary conventions in the wave function representation, and (3) it explains why the quantum state has its amplitude and phase degrees of freedom. -/- Consequently, this account extends Hartry Field’s program outlined in Science Without Numbers (...)
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  13.  57
    Lanford’s Theorem and the Emergence of Irreversibility.Jos Uffink & Giovanni Valente - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (4):404-438.
    It has been a longstanding problem to show how the irreversible behaviour of macroscopic systems can be reconciled with the time-reversal invariance of these same systems when considered from a microscopic point of view. A result by Lanford shows that, under certain conditions, the famous Boltzmann equation, describing the irreversible behaviour of a dilute gas, can be obtained from the time-reversal invariant Hamiltonian equations of motion for the hard spheres model. Here, we examine how and in what sense Lanford’s (...) succeeds in deriving this remarkable result. Many authors have expressed different views on the question which of the ingredients in Lanford’s theorem is responsible for the emergence of irreversibility. We claim that these interpretations miss the target. In fact, we argue that there is no time-asymmetric ingredient at all. (shrink)
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  14. Frege’s Theorem.Richard Heck - 1999 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 7 (1):56-73.
    A brief, non-technical introduction to technical and philosophical aspects of Frege's philosophy of arithmetic. The exposition focuses on Frege's Theorem, which states that the axioms of arithmetic are provable, in second-order logic, from a single non-logical axiom, "Hume's Principle", which itself is: The number of Fs is the same as the number of Gs if, and only if, the Fs and Gs are in one-one correspondence.
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  15.  36
    Ramsey's Theorem for Pairs and Provably Recursive Functions.Alexander Kreuzer & Ulrich Kohlenbach - 2009 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 50 (4):427-444.
    This paper addresses the strength of Ramsey's theorem for pairs ($RT^2_2$) over a weak base theory from the perspective of 'proof mining'. Let $RT^{2-}_2$ denote Ramsey's theorem for pairs where the coloring is given by an explicit term involving only numeric variables. We add this principle to a weak base theory that includes weak König's Lemma and a substantial amount of $\Sigma^0_1$-induction (enough to prove the totality of all primitive recursive functions but not of all primitive recursive functionals). (...)
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  16.  56
    Arrow’s Theorem and Theory Choice.Davide Rizza - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1-10.
    In a recent paper (Okasha, Mind 120:83–115, 2011), Samir Okasha uses Arrow’s theorem to raise a challenge for the rationality of theory choice. He argues that, as soon as one accepts the plausibility of the assumptions leading to Arrow’s theorem, one is compelled to conclude that there are no adequate theory choice algorithms. Okasha offers a partial way out of this predicament by diagnosing the source of Arrow’s theorem and using his diagnosis to deploy an approach that (...)
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  17.  57
    Bell’s Theorem and the Issue of Determinism and Indeterminism.Michael Esfeld - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (5):471-482.
    The paper considers the claim that quantum theories with a deterministic dynamics of objects in ordinary space-time, such as Bohmian mechanics, contradict the assumption that the measurement settings can be freely chosen in the EPR experiment. That assumption is one of the premises of Bell’s theorem. I first argue that only a premise to the effect that what determines the choice of the measurement settings is independent of what determines the past state of the measured system is needed for (...)
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  18.  43
    Is Simultaneity Conventional Despite Malament's Result?Robert Rynasiewicz - unknown
    Many take Malaments result that the standard Einstein simultaniety relation is uniquely definable from the causal structure of Minkowski space-time to be tantamount to a refutation of the claim that criterion for simultaneity in the special theory of relativity (STR) is a matter of convention. I call into question this inference by examining concrete alternatives and suggest that what has been overlooked is why it should be assumed that in STR simultaneity must be relative only to a frame of reference (...)
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  19. Haag’s Theorem and its Implications for the Foundations of Quantum Field Theory.John Earman & Doreen Fraser - 2006 - Erkenntnis 64 (3):305 - 344.
    Although the philosophical literature on the foundations of quantum field theory recognizes the importance of Haag’s theorem, it does not provide a clear discussion of the meaning of this theorem. The goal of this paper is to make up for this deficit. In particular, it aims to set out the implications of Haag’s theorem for scattering theory, the interaction picture, the use of non-Fock representations in describing interacting fields, and the choice among the plethora of the unitarily (...)
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  20.  78
    Bell's Theorem Versus Local Realism in a Quaternionic Model of Physical Space.Joy Christian - 2019 - IEEE Access 7:133388-133409.
    In the context of EPR-Bohm type experiments and spin detections confined to spacelike hypersurfaces, a local, deterministic and realistic model within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with a constant spatial curvature (S^3 ) is presented that describes simultaneous measurements of the spins of two fermions emerging in a singlet state from the decay of a spinless boson. Exact agreement with the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory is achieved in the model without data rejection, remote contextuality, superdeterminism or backward causation. A singularity-free Clifford-algebraic (...)
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  21.  50
    On the Nature of Measurement Records in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory.Jeffrey A. Barrett - unknown
    A resolution of the quantum measurement problem would require one to explain how it is that we end up with determinate records at the end of our measurements. Metaphysical commitments typically do real work in such an explanation. Indeed, one should not be satisfied with one's metaphysical commitments unless one can provide some account of determinate measurement records. I will explain some of the problems in getting determinate records in relativistic quantum field theory and pay particular attention to the relationship (...)
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  22.  38
    Frege's Theorem.Richard G. Heck - 2011 - Clarendon Press.
    The book begins with an overview that introduces the Theorem and the issues surrounding it, and explores how the essays that follow contribute to our understanding of those issues.
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  23.  18
    Godel's Theorem in Focus.S. G. Shanker (ed.) - 1990 - Routledge.
    A layman's guide to the mechanics of Gödel's proof together with a lucid discussion of the issues which it raises. Includes an essay discussing the significance of Gödel's work in the light of Wittgenstein's criticisms.
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  24.  6
    Ehrenfest’s Theorem Revisited.Henryk Stanisław Arodź - 2019 - Philosophical Problems in Science 66:73-94.
    Historically, Ehrenfest’s theorem is the first one which shows that classical physics can emerge from quantum physics as a kind of approximation. We recall the theorem in its original form, and we highlight its generalizations to the relativistic Dirac particle and to a particle with spin and izospin. We argue that apparent classicality of the macroscopic world can probably be explained within the framework of standard quantum mechanics.
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  25.  21
    Frege's Theorem in Plural Logic.Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    A version of Frege's theorem can be proved in a plural logic with pair abstraction. We talk through this and discuss the philosophical implications of the result.
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  26.  77
    Bayes's Theorem.E. Eells - 2008 - Gogoa 8 (1):138.
    In introducing the papers of the symposiasts, I distinguish between statistical, physical, and evidential probability. The axioms of the probability calculus and so Bayes’s theorem can be expressed in terms of any of these kinds of probability. Sober questions the general utility of the theorem. Howson, Dawid, and Earman agree that it applies to the fields they discuss--statistics, assessment of guilt by juries, and miracles. Dawid and Earman consider that prior probabilities need to be supplied by empirical evidence, (...)
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  27. Bell’s Theorem: What It Takes.Jeremy Butterfield - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1):41-83.
    I compare deterministic and stochastic hidden variable models of the Bell experiment, exphasising philosophical distinctions between the various ways of combining conditionals and probabilities. I make four main claims. (1) Under natural assumptions, locality as it occurs in these models is equivalent to causal independence, as analysed (in the spirit of Lewis) in terms of probabilities and conditionals. (2) Stochastic models are indeed more general than deterministic ones. (3) For factorizable stochastic models, relativity's lack of superluminal causation does not favour (...)
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  28.  17
    Hindman's Theorem: An Ultrafilter Argument in Second Order Arithmetic.Henry Towsner - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (1):353 - 360.
    Hindman's Theorem is a prototypical example of a combinatorial theorem with a proof that uses the topology of the ultrafilters. We show how the methods of this proof, including topological arguments about ultrafilters, can be translated into second order arithmetic.
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  29.  34
    Tarski's Theorem and Liar-Like Paradoxes.Ming Hsiung - 2014 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (1):24-38.
    Tarski's theorem essentially says that the Liar paradox is paradoxical in the minimal reflexive frame. We generalise this result to the Liar-like paradox $\lambda^\alpha$ for all ordinal $\alpha\geq 1$. The main result is that for any positive integer $n = 2^i(2j+1)$, the paradox $\lambda^n$ is paradoxical in a frame iff this frame contains at least a cycle the depth of which is not divisible by $2^{i+1}$; and for any ordinal $\alpha \geq \omega$, the paradox $\lambda^\alpha$ is paradoxical in a (...)
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  30. Craig’s Theorem and the Empirical Underdetermination Thesis Reassessed.Christian List - 1999 - Disputatio 7 (1):28-39.
    This paper reassesses the question of whether Craig’s theorem poses a challenge to Quine's empirical underdetermination thesis. It will be demonstrated that Quine’s account of this issue in his paper “Empirically Equivalent Systems of the World” (1975) is flawed and that Quine makes too strong a concession to the Craigian challenge. It will further be pointed out that Craig’s theorem would threaten the empirical underdetermination thesis only if the set of all relevant observation conditionals could be shown to (...)
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  31.  57
    Montague’s Theorem and Modal Logic.Johannes Stern - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (3):551-570.
    In the present piece we defend predicate approaches to modality, that is approaches that conceive of modal notions as predicates applicable to names of sentences or propositions, against the challenges raised by Montague’s theorem. Montague’s theorem is often taken to show that the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox if we conceive of the modal notion as a predicate. Following Schweizer (J Philos Logic 21:1–31, 1992) and others we show this interpretation of Montague’s theorem to be (...)
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  32.  66
    Arrow's Theorem.Michael Morreau - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: N/A.
    Kenneth Arrow’s “impossibility” theorem—or “general possibility” theorem, as he called it—answers a very basic question in the theory of collective decision-making. Say there are some alternatives to choose among. They could be policies, public projects, candidates in an election, distributions of income and labour requirements among the members of a society, or just about anything else. There are some people whose preferences will inform this choice, and the question is: which procedures are there for deriving, from what is (...)
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  33.  32
    Gleason's Theorem has a Constructive Proof.Fred Richman - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):425-431.
    Gleason's theorem for ³ says that if f is a nonnegative function on the unit sphere with the property that f(x) + f(y) + f(z) is a fixed constant for each triple x, y, z of mutually orthogonal unit vectors, then f is a quadratic form. We examine the issues raised by discussions in this journal regarding the possibility of a constructive proof of Gleason's theorem in light of the recent publication of such a proof.
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  34.  47
    Ramsey's Theorem and Cone Avoidance.Damir Dzhafarov & Carl Jockusch Jr - 2009 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 74 (2):557 - 578.
    It was shown by Cholak, Jockusch, and Slaman that every computable 2-coloring of pairs admits an infinite low₂ homogeneous set H. We answer a question of the same authors by showing that H may be chosen to satisfy in addition $C\,\not \leqslant _T \,H$ , where C is a given noncomputable set. This is shown by analyzing a new and simplified proof of Seetapun's cone avoidance theorem for Ramsey's theorem. We then extend the result to show that every (...)
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  35.  17
    Frege's Theorem and Foundations for Arithmetic.Edward N. Zalta - Spring 2015 - In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The principal goal of this entry is to present Frege's Theorem (i.e., the proof that the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory can be derived in second-order logic supplemented only by Hume's Principle) in the most logically perspicuous manner. We strive to present Frege's Theorem by representing the ideas and claims involved in the proof in clear and well-established modern logical notation. This prepares one to better prepared to understand Frege's own notation and derivations, and read Frege's original work (...)
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  36.  81
    Haag’s Theorem, Apparent Inconsistency, and the Empirical Adequacy of Quantum Field Theory.Michael E. Miller - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw029.
    Haag's theorem has been interpreted as establishing that quantum field theory cannot consistently represent interacting fields. Earman and Fraser have clarified how it is possible to give mathematically consistent calculations in scattering theory despite the theorem. However, their analysis does not fully address the worry raised by the result. In particular, I argue that their approach fails to be a complete explanation of why Haag's theorem does not undermine claims about the empirical adequacy of particular quantum field (...)
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  37. Bell's Theorem: A Guide to the Implications.Jon P. Jarrett - 1989 - In James T. Cushing & Ernan McMullin (eds.), Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 60--79.
  38.  9
    Pincherle's Theorem in Reverse Mathematics and Computability Theory.Dag Normann & Sam Sanders - 2020 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 171 (5):102788.
    We study the logical and computational properties of basic theorems of uncountable mathematics, in particular Pincherle's theorem, published in 1882. This theorem states that a locally bounded function is bounded on certain domains, i.e. one of the first ‘local-to-global’ principles. It is well-known that such principles in analysis are intimately connected to (open-cover) compactness, but we nonetheless exhibit fundamental differences between compactness and Pincherle's theorem. For instance, the main question of Reverse Mathematics, namely which set existence axioms (...)
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  39. Bell's Theorem in an Indeterministic Universe.Donald Bedford & Henry P. Stapp - 1995 - Synthese 102 (1):139 - 164.
    A variation of Bell's theorem that deals with the indeterministic case is formulated and proved within the logical framework of Lewis's theory of counterfactuals. The no-faster-than-light-influence condition is expressed in terms of Lewis would counterfactual conditionals. Objections to this procedure raised by certain philosophers of science are examined and answered. The theorem shows that the incompatibility between the predictions of quantum theory and the idea of no faster-than-light influence cannot be ascribed to any auxiliary or tacit assumption of (...)
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  40. Gold’s Theorem and Cognitive Science.Kent Johnson - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (4):571-592.
    A variety of inaccurate claims about Gold's Theorem have appeared in the cognitive science literature. I begin by characterizing the logic of this theorem and its proof. I then examine several claims about Gold's Theorem, and I show why they are false. Finally, I assess the significance of Gold's Theorem for cognitive science.
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  41.  31
    Ramsey's Theorem and Recursion Theory.Carl G. Jockusch - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):268-280.
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  42.  39
    Craig's Theorem.Hilary Putnam - 1965 - Journal of Philosophy 62 (10):251-260.
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  43.  18
    Sahlqvist's Theorem for Boolean Algebras with Operators with an Application to Cylindric Algebras.Maarten De Rijke & Yde Venema - 1995 - Studia Logica 54 (1):61 - 78.
    For an arbitrary similarity type of Boolean Algebras with Operators we define a class of Sahlqvist identities. Sahlqvist identities have two important properties. First, a Sahlqvist identity is valid in a complex algebra if and only if the underlying relational atom structure satisfies a first-order condition which can be effectively read off from the syntactic form of the identity. Second, and as a consequence of the first property, Sahlqvist identities are canonical, that is, their validity is preserved under taking canonical (...)
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  44.  68
    Godel's Theorem and the Mind.Peter Slezak - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (March):41-52.
  45. Bell's Theorem and the Experiments: Increasing Empirical Support for Local Realism?Emilio Santos - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (3):544-565.
  46.  20
    Bell’s Theorem, Realism, and Locality.Peter Lewis - 2019 - In Alberto Cordero (ed.), Philosophers Look at Quantum Mechanics. Springer Verlag.
    According to a recent paper by Tim Maudlin, Bell’s theorem has nothing to tell us about realism or the descriptive completeness of quantum mechanics. What it shows is that quantum mechanics is non-local, no more and no less. What I intend to do in this paper is to challenge Maudlin’s assertion about the import of Bell’s proof. There is much that I agree with in the paper; in particular, it does us the valuable service of demonstrating that Einstein’s objections (...)
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  47.  28
    Easton’s Theorem in the Presence of Woodin Cardinals.Brent Cody - 2013 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (5-6):569-591.
    Under the assumption that δ is a Woodin cardinal and GCH holds, I show that if F is any class function from the regular cardinals to the cardinals such that (1) ${\kappa < {\rm cf}(F(\kappa))}$ , (2) ${\kappa < \lambda}$ implies ${F(\kappa) \leq F(\lambda)}$ , and (3) δ is closed under F, then there is a cofinality-preserving forcing extension in which 2 γ = F(γ) for each regular cardinal γ < δ, and in which δ remains Woodin. Unlike the analogous (...)
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  48.  22
    Ramsey’s Theorem and König’s Lemma.T. E. Forster & J. K. Truss - 2007 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (1):37-42.
    We consider the relation between versions of Ramsey’s Theorem and König’s Infinity Lemma, in the absence of the axiom of choice.
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  49.  39
    Menger’s Theorem in $${{\Pi^11\Tt{-CA}0}}$$.Paul Shafer - 2012 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (3-4):407-423.
    We prove Menger’s theorem for countable graphs in ${{\Pi^1_1\tt{-CA}_0}}$ . Our proof in fact proves a stronger statement, which we call extended Menger’s theorem, that is equivalent to ${{\Pi^1_1\tt{-CA}_0}}$ over ${{\tt{RCA}_0}}$.
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  50.  14
    Laue's Theorem Revisited: Energy-Momentum Tensors, Symmetries, and the Habitat of Globally Conserved Quantities.Domenico Giulini - 2018 - International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics 15 (10).
    The energy-momentum tensor for a particular matter component summarises its local energy-momentum distribution in terms of densities and current densities. We re-investigate under what conditions these local distributions can be integrated to meaningful global quantities. This leads us directly to a classic theorem by Max von Laue concerning integrals of components of the energy-momentum tensor, whose statement and proof we recall. In the first half of this paper we do this within the realm of Special Relativity and in the (...)
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