El presente artículo tiene como objetivo invitar a reflexionar sobre la obra de una filósofa que representa uno de los pensamientos más originales del quehacer filosófico español: María Zambrano. Sus planteamientos en torno a la crítica cultural y género, la crítica al pensamiento moderno, son en sí, una clara crítica a la razón patriarcal. Repensar el quehacer político-práctico de María Zambrano como una figura de la emancipación nos permitirá entender nuestro propio presente.
Este artigo busca dialogar com o conceito de ‘frentismo cultural’, aliança de resistência à última ditadura militar brasileira a unir grande parte dos integrantes do PCB, intelectuais e artistas nos primeiros anos daquele regime. Dialogaremos, também, com uma dada construção social da memória sobre a ditadura, especificamente aquela forjada pela imprensa escrita, em seu duplo papel de fomentadora do Golpe e veículo de resistência à ditadura. O matutino fluminense Correio da Manhã e um dos seus principais editorialistas à época, Otto (...) Maria Carpeaux, são aqui apresentados como representantes daquela frente, capazes tanto de ratificá-la quanto indicar os seus limites. (shrink)
Una dificultad frecuente en los trabajos sobre desarrollo sintáctico infantil es la de explicar usos cuya configuración no responde a una forma canónica aunque cumplan esa función. En el caso de las Cláusulas Relativas la tipología de lenguas propone el concepto de “Estrategia de relativización” para comprender las diferentes formas con las que las lenguas articulan modificadores complejos posnominales. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación que analizó la producción espontánea y la recuperación de Cláusulas Relativas en 32 niños (...) y niñas, hablantes de español de 5 años, de Nivel Socioeconómico Medio y Bajo. Se consideró el desempeño sintáctico según variables poblacionales, pues existe una extensa tradición en la literatura sobre desarrollo sintáctico que atiende a esta incidencia. Se relevaron, describieron y clasificaron las CR siguiendo a Givón y Silva . Los objetivos de la investigación son, por un lado, considerar las ER y comparar su forma y frecuencia y, por otro lado, indagar cuáles son los factores que inciden en las diferencias. Los resultados muestran que las formas son comparables a usos de Estrategias de relativización descriptos previamente en población infantil y adulta para el español. Se releva una variación sintáctica novedosa, aducible al contexto particular de renarración. El análisis de diferencias de desempeño, según variables poblacionales, no reporta diferencias significativas, aunque sí se reportan al considerar tareas y Cláusulas Relativas Recuperadas ). El análisis de incidencia de variables poblacionales según tareas reporta diferencias significativas entre NSE Medio y Bajo para las CRREP. Los resultados permiten inferir que el uso infantil de CR no es una condición unicausal, ni completamente acreditable a la incidencia de factores poblacionales sino que es el resultado de la interacción entre condiciones poblacionales, lingüísticas, pragmáticointeraccionales y cognitivas. (shrink)
Recent years have witnessed an increasing growth in mutual funds that invest according to social criteria. As a consequence, the financial performance of these portfolios has attracted the interest of academics and practitioners. This paper investigates the performance of a sample of socially responsible mutual funds from seven European countries investing globally and/or in the European market. Using unconditional and conditional models, we assess the performance of these funds in comparison to conventional and socially responsible benchmark portfolios. The results show (...) that European socially responsible funds present in general neutral performance in relation to both conventional and socially responsible benchmarks. However, performance estimates seem to be slightly higher when funds are evaluated in relation to socially responsible indices. Our results also show that socially responsible funds are more exposed to conventional than to socially responsible indices. Furthermore, conventional benchmarks are better able to explain fund returns than socially responsible benchmarks. These findings are robust to both unconditional and conditional models of performance. We also observe that conditional models lead to a slight improvement of performance estimates and to the explanatory power of the models, both when conventional and socially responsible benchmarks are considered. This is consistent with most previous empirical findings on conditional performance evaluation. Our results show that investors who wish to hold European funds can add social screens to their investment choices without compromising financial performance. (shrink)
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of socially responsible funds in Sweden by assessing fund managers' abilities and performances across different market states. These issues are analyzed at the aggregate and individual fund levels. The paper also presents several new statistical tests that allow more precise inferences about differences in performance and the variability in fund returns arising from different benchmarks. In general, SR and conventional funds perform similarly to the market. At the aggregate level, SR funds investing in Sweden (...) and Europe perform similarly to conventional funds, while those investing globally tend to underperform. This underperformance seems to be linked with poor selectivity abilities of global SR fund managers. For individual funds, the performance of both types of funds is more similar. Most funds perform similarly in crisis periods compared to non-crisis periods. Overall, our results are consistent with a mature market for SR investing and support the view that the similar performance of SR and conventional funds is associated with the mainstreaming of SR investment in Sweden. These findings encourage SR investing both by socially conscious investors, who wish to align their social values with their investment decisions, as well as by conventional investors, who will not be penalized by investing in these funds. We also call attention to the difficulties investors face when trying to identify funds with high social standards, considering that there is scarce information on the extent to which each fund holds stocks that comply with ethical and social criteria. (shrink)
Introduction: Empathy is a complex human experience that involves the subjective intersection of different individuals. In the context of nursing care in the geriatric setting, the benefits of empathetic relationships are directly related to the quality of the practice of nursing. Objective: Analyze scientific production on the benefits of empathy in the nurse–patient relationship in the geriatric care setting. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases. The (...) articles retrieved were organized, evaluated, and classified based on the level of scientific evidence. Results: Relationships of empathy between nurses and older people were analyzed in quasi-experimental studies using different assessment tools, the majority of which had moderate levels of validity and reliability. Studies with a qualitative approach discussed the meaning of empathy in terms of the quality of care offered, compassion, and vulnerability. Discussion: Levels of empathy increase when activities are developed with the aim of teaching, sensitization, and training for relational care between nursing staff and older people. The analysis of empathetic relationships is important to the evaluation of the quality of care provided to older people. Conclusion: Empathy in the nurse–patient relationship in the geriatric care setting is an important ethical aspect that contributes to the quality of the practice of nursing. The present findings indicate the need for more robust assessment tools with adequate psychometric properties and the descriptive analysis of empathy. (shrink)
Teachers’ conceptions about the origin of life in three Latin American countries with contrasting levels of secularism were analyzed: Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. A European survey questionnaire was used and the interpretation of the results drew on Barbour's four categories concerning the relationships of science and religion. A large majority of Argentinian and Uruguayan teachers were clearly evolutionist, even when believing in God, with no difference between Argentina and Uruguay. The majority of Brazilian teachers assumed a religious position about the (...) origin of life, being creationist or evolutionary creationist. Differences of Brazilian teachers’ conceptions may result from the higher percentage of evangelicals and lower proportion of agnostics/atheists. Brazilian Catholic teachers were more creationist than their Catholic colleagues in Argentina and Uruguay. Distinct patterns were found, but further research is needed to understand possible classroom impacts. (shrink)
Stress has been being pointed as the evil of the current world and can affect as much adults as children. The disorders associated with stress are varied, and people who suffer from it frequently present physical and psychological problems, influencing their behavior and social environment. The care..
The scientific community has debated the importance of “return” activities after ethnobiological studies. This issue has provoked debate because it touches on the ethics of research and the relationships with the people involved in these studies. This case study aimed to investigate community perception of an ethnobotany research project that was carried out in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Furthermore, we reported how the residents of this rural community felt about participating in the activities of “return” that arose from (...) the projects. Our findings demonstrate that “return” activities should be planned from the design phase of the research until its closure as a lifelong process that allows the communities involved to gradually take ownership of the information and actions that are being generated. Similarly, we argue that such activities must be negotiated with the people of the community so that they have decision-making power and autonomy to decide what is most relevant to their lives. (shrink)
Este artigo apresenta um projeto de formação continuada, intitulado “Ações de linguagem: uma proposta de integração teórico-prática para o ensino de Língua Portuguesa no Município de João Pessoa-PB”, para ajudar os professores de Ensino Fundamental. O trabalho focalizou, em diversos gêneros textuais, algumas estratégias de leitura, produção escrita e análise linguística que favorecessem as práticas metodológicas realizadas em sala de aula. Nós nos se portamos aos estudos de Bakhtin (2000 ) e de Schneuwly e Dolz (2004), concentrando nossa atenção sobre (...) a análise gramatical, a partir de sequências didáticas, em uma sistemática que, para se afastar de uma perspectiva tradicional, privilegiou diferentes estruturas morfossintáticas passíveis de (re)classificação, conforme sua função no discurso. A princípio, percebemos que os professores ainda resistem à aplicação de uma metodologia prática e efetiva, ainda que propensos à mudança em sua visão sobre uma nova perspectiva de estudos gramaticais. (shrink)
Ce travail pretend faire reflechir à propos de la question de l'impunite des autorites de L'Etat face aux violations des droits de l'homme. On abordera cet egard: a) le role de I'amnistie b)le complicite des autoritesadministratives c) la lenteur des procedures judicieuse. L'analyse de cette question montre qui L'impunite des responsables des violations des droits de l'homme fait peser une menace sur I'ensemble du systeme de protection universelle des droits de l'homme. On peut on conduire qu 'aucune societe que aspire (...) à la democratie et a la justice ne peut se construire sur I'amoralite des crimes impunis et I'amnesie officielle. (shrink)
This paper addresses the context of emergence, development, and current status of the use of history and philosophy of science in science education in Brazil. After a short overview of the three areas (history of science, philosophy of science, and science education) in Brazil, the paper focuses on the application of this approach to teaching physics, chemistry, and biology at the secondary school level. The first Brazilian researches along this line appeared more consistently in the decade of 1970. From 1980 (...) onwards, the importance of this approach became widely accepted, and the subject became a common theme of dissertations and theses, appearing in conferences and educational journals. Since 1998, the use of history and philosophy of science was included among the government recommendations for secondary school science teaching in Brazil. Nowadays, this is an important line of research in graduate programs on science and mathematics education. However, the actual use of this approach in secondary education is still a desideratum. (shrink)
Na análise do equilíbrio trabalho-família, tem-se salientado o efeito de extravasamento (spillover). Neste estudo, realizado por entrevista semiestruturada a uma amostra de 102 mães portuguesas (incluindo 79 sinalizadas por mau trato e negligência), abordam-se os impactos da situação profissional da..
Background : An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on (...) other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective : We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design : A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions and to only read the other 16 instructions. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures. Results : The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions : A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging deficit. The correlations and source memory data suggest that the SPT and VT are possibly related in respect to their underlying processes, and SPT, instead of being an isolated process, is in connection with both the episodic memory and executive function processes. Under these circumstances, the SPT seems to contribute to an enhancement of the episodic memory trace, presumably from the multimodality it provides, without involving a separated set of cognitive mechanisms. Future research using more pure measures of other cognitive processes that could be related to SPT is necessary. Keywords : aging; subject performed task; memory for actions; episodic memory Responsible Editor: Mathieu Hainselin, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, France. (shrink)
O presente ensaio pretende analisar o Cooperativismo Educacional no estado de São Paulo, em suas formas institucionais, agora voltados para a organização escolar a partir de 1980. O cooperativismo educacional ocupou um lugar de destaque, com um discurso aparentemente renovador, pois tanto pretendia formar o indivíduo integralmente, afirmando superar a ética da competição pela ética da cooperação, de modo a superar a tradição administrativa hierárquica da escola pública e privada e, apresentar, inclusive, supondo desencadear disposições políticas emancipatórias para todos os (...) envolvidos no processo de ensino aprendizagem. Tendo como referencial teórico Dermeval Saviani, na análise da organização da escola e os pressupostos filosóficos e políticos dessa trajetória, e de Antonio Gramsci, ao relacionar as transformações do trabalho e a questão da educação, pretendemos descrever a expansão do cooperativismo educacional e analisar os seus princípios pedagógicos, organizacionais e políticos. This essay aims to analyze the Cooperative Education in São Paulo in its institutional forms, now facing the school organization since 1980. The cooperative education occupied a prominent place, with a refreshing speech apparently because both wanted to form the whole person, claiming to overcome the ethics of competition for the ethics of cooperation, in order to overcome the administrative tradition of hierarchical public and private schools, and provide even emancipatory political arrangements for all involved in teaching and learning. The theoretical framework Dermeval Saviani, the analysis of school organization and the philosophical and political assumptions that trajectory, and Antonio Gramsci, to relate changes in work and the issue of education, we intend to describe the expansion of cooperative education and analyze the pedagogical principles , organizational and political. (shrink)