This paper considers the similarities between Adam Smith's device of the impartial spectator and the use of perspectival devices in common law reasoning. The paper adopts a reading of Smith's device as one involving the exercise of imaginative sympathy by an ordinarily virtuous, and culturally and historically situated, spectator who does not have a stake in the outcome of the scene being evaluated. The point here is to show that the impartial spectator is 1) a device of common, ordinary virtue (...) – both in the sense of being located in a culture at a specific point in time, and in the sense of possessing only moderate, achievable virtues ; and 2) a device that enables a focus on a situation, which requires imaginative work, emotional engagement and careful, particularised description. Having so modelled Smith's device, the paper shows the similarities between it and the use of perspectival devices in common law reasoning, specifically here via the ‘right-thinking member of society' test in defamation law. (shrink)
This essay argues that the practical reason approach to the study of social conventions fails to adequately account for the fluency of social action in environments that we experience as familiar. The practical reason approach, articulated most recently in Andrei Marmor’s Social Conventions: From Language to Law does help us, though not wholly adequately, to understand how we tend to react to, and experience, unfamiliar situations or unfamiliar behaviors, that is, those situations in which a certain practice becomes problematic or (...) is problematized, or where we are obliged to, or moved to, justify or deliberate. The reason why the practical reason approach is not wholly adequate when it comes to understanding unfamiliar situations or unfamiliar behaviors is that it tends to subsume the unfamiliar under the familiar, that is, it tends to negatively evaluate anything that is deemed to be not in accordance with the rules and reasons already familiar to the observer. This excludes the possibility of the observer having to transform himself or herself, and thus change what is familiar to him or her. (shrink)
This paper discusses a much-neglected aspect of Neil MacCormick's theory of legal reasoning, namely what he calls ‘consequential reasoning’. For MacCormick, consequential reasoning is both an omnipresent feature of legal reasoning in England and Scotland, as well as being a valuable one. MacCormick articulates the value of consequential reasoning by seeing it as contributing to the forward-looking requirement of formal justice, ie, of deciding the instant case on grounds that one is willing to adopt when deciding future similar cases. This (...) paper situates consequential reasoning in the overall picture of legal reasoning MacCormick develops in Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory, going on to show the evolution of his view on consequential reasoning in later work, which culminates in Rhetoric and the Rule of Law. It is argued that MacCormick's later view of consequential reasoning, ie, of a process of testing possible rulings by evaluating the acceptability or unacceptability.. (shrink)
We present a proof of the equivalence between two deductive systems for constructive necessity, namely an axiomatic characterisation inspired by Hakli and Negri's system of derivations from assumptions for modal logic , a Hilbert-style formalism designed to ensure the validity of the deduction theorem, and the judgmental reconstruction given by Pfenning and Davies by means of a natural deduction approach that makes a distinction between valid and true formulae, constructively. Both systems and the proof of their equivalence are formally verified (...) using the state-of-the-art proof assistant Coq. The proof approach taken throughout the paper unveils the use of some alternative proof methods that allow for a smooth transition from the high-level mathematical proofs to their mechanised counterparts. (shrink)
Partimos de unas reflexiones sobre el Racionalismo y el Historicismo como dos enfoques con perfiles epistemológicos claramente diferenciados, que llevan a quien en ellos se sitúe a muy diversos planteamientos respecto a cualquier cuestión de carácter social. Examinamos el alcance y potencial de ambos en su argumentación cuando pretenden dar cuenta del origen de la sociedad política y todo lo que ello representa, instituciones, valores… Esbozada esta cuestión se recala en el análisis jovellanista de la mujer. Jovellanos conoce bien ambos (...) enfoques, sus lecturas de los autores aquí citados están plenamente contrastadas y no son objeto de este trabajo; apuesta por el enfoque historicista inglés para comprender el rol femenino, para situar a las instituciones que le niegan su ingreso en su decurso histórico, y curiosamente convierte el modelo historicista en una vía de análisis y acceso a propuestas de una extraordinaria modernidad. Analizamos desde estos enfoques los planes de estudio en los que estamos inmersos. (shrink)
Partiendo de la obra de Vicent Martínez en la que explicita qué entiende por “racionalidad práctica” en el marco de sus estudios fi-losóficos para la paz —también para la paz entre los géneros—, repensamos aquí nuestras propias contribuciones a la interacción entre la fenomenología y el feminismo, particularmente la vinculación de la crítica fenomenológica del objetivismo con el desenmascaramiento de la razón patriarcal, para demostrar que el reconocimiento no indiferente de la pluralidad no está reñido con la autonomía y la (...) universalidad de la razón, sino exclusivamente con la razón instrumental dominante hasta el siglo XXI. Consideramos esta última desde el diagnóstico husserliano de la crisis de las ciencias, y desde la crítica a la Modernidad emprendida por la Escuela de Frankfurt. Con la mirada puesta en la tercera generación de la misma y en el fenomenólogo francés Maurice Merleau-Ponty, reivindicamos una razón ampliada, que no solo tiene implicaciones epistemológicas, sino existenciales, y que puede ayudar a superar incluso los dualismos surgidos en el feminismo, una tradición de pensamiento que, en diálogo con la fenomenología, gana radicalización filosófica a la vez que la fenomenología arraiga en el movimiento feminista y, con él, en la autoresponsabilidad de la humanidad.Starting from the work of Vicent Martínez in which he explains what he understands by "practical rationality" in the framework of his philosophical studies for peace–also for peace between genders–, I rethink my own contributions to the interaction between phenomenology and feminism, particularly the link of the phenomenological critique of objectivism and the unmasking of patriarchal reason in order to demonstrate that the non-indifferent recognition of plurality is not at odds with the autonomy and universality of reason, but exclusively with the instrumental reason which dominates until the 21st century. I consider this dominating reason from Husserl's diagnosis of the crisis of the sciences as well as from the criticism to Modernity undertaken by the Frankfurt School. I will pay attention on the third generation of this School as well as on the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty in order to reclaim an enlarged reason which not only has epistemological implications, but existential. This reason can even help overcome the dualisms that have arisen within feminism. Feminism is a tradition of thought that, in dialogue with phenomenology, can attain a philosophical radicalization while phenomenology can take root in the feminist movement and with it, in the self-responsibility of humanity. (shrink)
As men take on more family responsibilities over time, with women still shouldering considerably more childcare and housework, an important ethical matter facing organizations is that of providing a supportive environment to foster employee well-being and balance between work and family. Using conservation of resources theory, this multi-source study examines the association between perceived family responsibility discrimination and work–life conflict as mediated by emotional exhaustion. Employee gender and power distance values are tested as moderators of the perceived family responsibility discrimination (...) to emotional exhaustion relationship. Results suggest that male employees who perceive family responsibility discrimination from their supervisor and hold high power distance values experience increased emotional exhaustion and work–life conflict. Female workers who perceive family responsibility discrimination from their supervisor experience increased emotional exhaustion and work–life conflict regardless of whether they have high or low power distance. Findings are consistent with theory-based predictions from conservation of resources theory: resources that are valued and not provided in the work context deplete emotional energies and ultimately trigger work–life conflict. Findings build on the work–life literature by introducing gender and power distance as factors that shape when employees feel the draining effects of family responsibility discrimination. (shrink)
Aunque desde hace ya tiempo la época franquista está recibiendo una creciente atención por parte de la historiografía, el estudio de las políticas sociales franquistas presenta importantes claroscuros, con lagunas de gran relevancia. Auxilio Social se convertía en una institución oficial del régimen franquista con la misión de cumplir, bajo el protectorado del Estado, unas funciones benéficas y político-sociales determinadas. A nivel local, en Almería, el trabajo que aquí se presenta tiene como objetivo aproximarse al estudio de dicha institución como (...) parte de un elemento perfectamente integrado y hasta necesario dentro del sistema totalitario que construye el primer franquismo. (shrink)
This paper offers a brief reply to William Morgan’s critique of my review of Andrei Marmor’s Social Conventions . Morgan’s principal critique is that I am wrong to think that the constitutive rules of games do not determine their aims and values. In particular, with regards to chess, Morgan argues that the rules of chess determine that the aim of playing chess is to win the game. I defend my position that one can play the game of chess without the (...) aim of winning - e.g. one can aim to play beautifully, and not, as Morgan suggests, only to win beautifully. More broadly, I argue for an account of games that is sensitive to the gap between playing and the game’s constitutive rules. Ultimately, the argument points to the descriptive priority for the social sciences of the concept of ‘play’ over the concept of games understood as ‘rule-governed domains’. (shrink)
Nowadays, the quality standards of higher education institutions pay special attention to the performance and evaluation of the students. Then, having a complete academic record of each student, such as number of attempts, average grade and so on, plays a key role. In this context, the existence of missing data, which can happen for different reasons, leads to affect adversely interesting future analysis. Therefore, the use of imputation techniques is presented as a helpful tool to estimate the value of missing (...) data. This work deals with the academic records of engineering students, in which imputation techniques are applied. More specifically, it is assessed and compared to the performance of the multivariate imputation by chained equations methodology, the adaptive assignation algorithm based on multivariate adaptive regression splines and a hybridization based on self-organisation maps with Mahalanobis distances and AAA algorithm. The results show that proposed methods obtain successfully results regardless the number of missing values, in general terms. (shrink)
Gracias a unas intervenciones de recuperación que se presentaban casi imposibles, dentro del amplio plan de restauración, precedido de investigaciones y estudios, de todo el conjunto de las edificaciones que bajo Augusto fueron realizadas en la colina del Palatino, se han abierto al público en Roma las puertas de la casa que Octaviano mandó edificar en el año 36 a.C., antes de convertirse en Augusto (27 a.C.-14d.C.).
Partiendo de la fenomenología del cuerpo de M. Merleau-Ponty discutimos la tendencia postmoderna a convertir el cuerpo en un simple producto sociocultural y el género en un mero artificio y reivindicamos su comprensión como constancia abierta a infinitas variaciones; lo hacemos reconsiderando el cuerpo como sujeto-objeto, quiasma entre naturaleza y cultura o dialéctica entre materia trabajada interior y exteriormente. El cuerpo, entendido como Leib y como totalidad, no se opone cartesianamente al intelecto, sino que de él, en tanto ser-en-el-mundo, brota (...) la percepción y una razón encarnada que se va haciendo histórica e interpretativamente y se amplia hasta incorporar las voces y deseos de libertad de las mujeres. Esta razón ha sido dominada por la razón estratégica imperante, pero late todavía en el afán de universalidad y autonomía de los seres humanos. Desde ese logos sentiente y sensible, planteamos la necesidad de profundizar en las diferencias sin abandonar el compromiso por la igualdad y la libertad de los oprimidos. Tal compromiso puede basarse en las experiencias de las 'mujeres, pero también en una aspiración a la racionalidad como telos universal, una razón dialógica y superadora de los antagonismos y reduccionismos. (shrink)
One of the fundamental events in the life of Saint Augustine was its encounter with Cicero. The reading of the dialogue Hortensius led St. Augustine to study Philosophy. Cicero provided him with a vague concept of Wisdom that made him see that happiness is not in the material but in the spiritual world. However Saint Augustine was disappointed by the probabilism of Cicero in subjects as important as God, the immortality of human soul..., questions on which the Christian doctrine has (...) a valuable answer. Somehow Cicero's dialogue Hortensius brought Saint Augustine to Christian thought. (shrink)
Todo lo que pertenece a la prehistoria de los pueblos suramericanos permanece envuelto en la sombra; ninguna de sus culturas poseía una escritura; no conocemos tampoco con absoluta certeza el nombre de alguna de aquellas poblaciones, ni siquiera el nombre del pueblo de los Incas (ya que con este nombre se designaba sólo a sus jefes)�.
En este trabajo se estudian las características personales que determinan la actividad (ocupación o paro) en la población gallega. Para ello se construye el modelo de actividad, en el cual se estima la probabilidad de que una persona en edad de trabajar forme parte de la población activa. Una vez estimados los parámetros del modelo mediante regresión logística binaria, se calculan las probabilidades de actividad condicionadas a distintas características personales, para evaluar la influencia real de las mismas en la forma (...) en que un individuo se integra en el mercado de trabajo. Del análisis empírico se obtiene que la característica más destacada es el sexo, y que la influencia de las demás variables sobre las distintas probabilidades varía en función del sexo de la persona analizada. (shrink)
This paper argues that the exercise of the imagination requires us 1) to attempt to describe features of a certain practice that appear, at first blush, natural and obvious; 2) to understand that that which appears natural and obvious could be otherwise; and 3) to be open to the introduction of changes to that which appears natural and obvious. Imagination, in this sense, is quite different to creativity. The latter works on the basis of the introduction of variations to settled (...) phenomena. This exercise of creativity is important, but ultimately, it contributes principally to the stability and identity of a community and reinforces its most firmly established features. Imagination, on the other hand, is more difficult, for it strikes at the very heart of that which is settled. Changes to that which is settled may not only be resisted, but may also be violently opposed. And yet, it is precisely the very ability and willingness to be open to such changes that may be of the most ethical and political significance. These differences between creativity and imagination are illustrated in the context of the practice of philosophy. (shrink)
This paper considers whether, and if so how, the modelling of joint action in social philosophy – principally in the work of Margaret Gilbert and Michael Bratman – might assist in understanding and applying the concept of concerted practices in European competition law. More specifically, the paper focuses on a well-known difficulty in the application of that concept, namely, distinguishing between concerted practice and rational or intelligent adaptation in oligopolistic markets. The paper argues that although Bratman's model of joint action (...) is more psychologically plausible and phenomenologically resonant, its less demanding character also makes it less useful than Gilbert's in our understanding of the legal concept of concerted practice and in dealing with the above difficulty. The paper proceeds in two parts: first, a discussion of the concept of concerted practices in European competition law; and second, a discussion of Gilbert and' Bratman's models of joint action, including a comparative assessment of their ability to provide an evidentiary target and an evidentiary platform for conceited practices. (shrink)
This is an study of phrases and topics by which was known the Cuba island during the XIX century. Analysis of the origins of phrases such as "la Albión ofAn-ierica". "La Siempre Fiel Isla de Cuba", "La perla de las Antillas", "La llave del Golfo": of systems as slavery, plantations, miscegenation, the idea of death, and the myth of mulatto. It is concluded that travelers, and well-read, even the own inhabitants, generated upon this extremely complex society, a series of ideas, (...) coined images. and spred expressions from subjective and particular forms of envisaging reality. (shrink)
En este artículo interpretamos textos neurálgicos de Husserl y Merleau-Ponty siguiendo la obra de Iribarne, principalmente Fenomenología y Literatura, articulando la diversidad de sus temas en torno a la explicitación de la intersubjetividad trascendental, sobre la cual la filósofa nunca dejó de pensar. Paralelamente a nuestros propios estudios de las relaciones intersubjetivas, la temporalidad vivida, la identidad y la diferenciación, la dialéctica entre la memoria y el olvido, la esperanza y la finitud o el sueño, continuamos pensando estos fenómenos-límite desde (...) la fenomenología genética y generativa, concebida como una investigación retrospectiva que considera esencial para la constitución tanto la relación entre actividad y pasividad como entre el yo y los otros. El estudio de estos fenómenos, relegados generalmente a la literatura, desvelará finalmente el sentido de la reflexión fenomenológica literaria en clave intersubjetiva y repercutirá en una fenomenología de la alteridad.This article interprets crucial texts of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty by following to Iribarne, mainly Phenomenology and Literature, articulating the diversity of its issues around the explication of transcendental intersubjectivity, on which she never stopped thinking. In parallel to our own studies of the inter-relationships between the lived temporality, identity and differentiation, the dialectic between memory and forgetting, hope and finitude or the dream, I continue to think about these phenomena-limit from genetic and generative phenomenology conceived as a retrospective research that considers essential to constitution both the relationship between activity and passivity as between self and other. The study of these phenomena, usually relegated to literature, will reveal the phenomenological meaning of literary reflection as central to intersubjectivity and it will have implications for a phenomenology of alterity. (shrink)
It happened in 1888 a un heard- of event, por first time in Cuba and perhaps in America, public women found a newspapers intented to defend theirs interests, they titled La Cebolla. No doudt society have changed, in de middle of century, nothing of the kind would imagine. Now, prostitutes, outcast women, was looking the way to defend judical and individual mechanims what it esploit them, for that they used the "fourth power".
Introduction: Resilience is a multidimensional and dynamic construct associated with positive growth and the capacity to transform stressful and negative factors into opportunities of personal development and self-improvement when faced with difficult experiences. The resilience process of each individual integrates multiple analysis levels, which range from genetic-environmental interactions to a complex process of adaptation between the individual and his/her family, friends, co-workers, society, and culture.Objective: To determine whether resilience improves in students of occupational therapy when exposed for the first time (...) to practice placement education.Methodology: Quasi-experimental, prospective, observational, multi-center study with a sample composed of students from the Degree of Occupational Therapy of the public universities of Málaga and Castilla-La Mancha. Two weeks prior to the beginning of the practice education period, the participants completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and the area of their internships. They were also given the Spanish version of the Connor-Davidson's resilience scale. All these instruments were also completed 1 week after the end of the clinical practice.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the variables that make up resilience and the different internship areas. On the other hand, there was a significant improvement of global resilience after the clinical practice period, in both women and men, when the internship area was not considered.Conclusions: The results show that resilient students are more optimistic and work to improve a situation beyond doing simply what is expected of them, knowing how to control their feelings. This is beneficial for students in practice education, since, during these, they face difficult situations that require a resilient pattern, which helps reduce stress and the burnout syndrome. (shrink)
Neuroscientist Maxwell Bennett and philosopher Peter Hacker defend the need to eradicate the mereological fallacy of cognitive neuroscience. This fallacy attributes to the parts of an animal psychological predicates that make sense only when applied to the whole animal. In contrast, philosopher Daniel Dennett argues that it is possible to explain behavior and cognitive abilities by applying the Intentional Stance to the brain, a stance that attributes increasingly simple psychological capacities to increasingly less intelligent homunculi. So, among other things, taking (...) the intentional stance requires i) attributing psychological predicates to the brain and its parts, and ii) gradually replacing psychological predicates with non-psychological predicates.If the criticism of Bennett and Hacker is accepted, these requirements lead to two dilemmas. According to the first, the intentional stance would be inapplicable or fallacious: because it implies incurring in the mereological fallacy, and to deny is equivalent to rejecting the intentional stance. The horns of the second dilemma are dualism and explanatory vacuity: can be interpreted in a dualistic sense because it presupposes the distinction between psychological and non-psychological predicates; however, failing to respect generates an infinite regress. In this article I intend to show that both dilemmas are resolved by focusing on the details of the relationship between the intentional stance and the design stance. (shrink)
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