42 found
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  1. The Evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and Implications.W. Tecumseh Fitch, Marc D. Hauser & Noam Chomsky - 2005 - Cognition 97 (2):179-210.
  2.  17
    The Evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and Implications.W. Tecumseh Fitch, Marc D. Hauser & Noam Chomsky - 2005 - Cognition 97 (2):179-210.
  3.  82
    Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms.Linda Abarbanell & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):207-224.
    Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that certain moral principles apply universally. We presented Mayan participants with moral dilemmas translated into their native language, Tseltal. Paralleling several studies carried out with educated subjects living in large-scale, developed nations, the (...)
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  4. The Linguistic Analogy: Motivations, Results, and Speculations.Susan Dwyer, Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):486-510.
    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and an (...)
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  5. Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Compute Addition Operations Over Large Numbers.Jonathan I. Flombaum, Justin A. Junge & Marc D. Hauser - 2005 - Cognition 97 (3):315-325.
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  6.  16
    Segmentation of the Speech Stream in a Non-Human Primate: Statistical Learning in Cotton-Top Tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Elissa L. Newport & Richard N. Aslin - 2001 - Cognition 78 (3):B53-B64.
  7. Concept Attribution in Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Ascribing Complex Mental Processes.Colin Allen & Marc D. Hauser - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (2):221-240.
    The demise of behaviorism has made ethologists more willing to ascribe mental states to animals. However, a methodology that can avoid the charge of excessive anthropomorphism is needed. We describe a series of experiments that could help determine whether the behavior of nonhuman animals towards dead conspecifics is concept mediated. These experiments form the basis of a general point. The behavior of some animals is clearly guided by complex mental processes. The techniques developed by comparative psychologists and behavioral ecologists are (...)
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  8.  58
    Why Be Nice? Psychological Constraints on the Evolution of Cooperation.Jeffrey R. Stevens & Marc D. Hauser - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (2):60-65.
  9. Moral Judgments About Altruistic Self-Sacrifice: When Philosophical and Folk Intuitions Clash.Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):73-94.
    Altruistic self-sacrifice is rare, supererogatory, and not to be expected of any rational agent; but, the possibility of giving up one's life for the common good has played an important role in moral theorizing. For example, Judith Jarvis Thomson (2008) has argued in a recent paper that intuitions about altruistic self-sacrifice suggest that something has gone wrong in philosophical debates over the trolley problem. We begin by showing that her arguments face a series of significant philosophical objections; however, our project (...)
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  10. Reviving Rawls's Linguistic Analogy: Operative Principles and the Causal Structure of Moral Actions.Marc D. Hauser, Liane Young & Fiery Cushman - 2007 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2. MIT Press.
    The thesis we develop in this essay is that all humans are endowed with a moral faculty. The moral faculty enables us to produce moral judgments on the basis of the causes and consequences of actions. As an empirical research program, we follow the framework of modern linguistics.1 The spirit of the argument dates back at least to the economist Adam Smith (1759/1976) who argued for something akin to a moral grammar, and more recently, to the political philosopher John Rawls (...)
     
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  11. Evolving the Psychological Mechanisms for Cooperation.Jeffrey R. Stevens & Marc D. Hauser - unknown
    ■ Abstract Cooperation is common across nonhuman animal taxa, from the hunting of large game in lions to the harvesting of building materials in ants. Theorists have proposed a number of models to explain the evolution of cooperative behavior. These ultimate explanations, however, rarely consider the proximate constraints on the implementation of cooperative behavior. Here we review several types of cooperation and propose a suite of cognitive abilities required for each type to evolve. We propose that several types of cooperation, (...)
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  12. Evolutionary and Developmental Foundations of Human Knowledge.Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth Spelke - 2004 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences Iii. MIT Press.
    What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook soufflés, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this chapter, we argue against this seemingly sensible conclusion. When human adults exhibit complex, uniquely human, culture-specific skills, they draw on a (...)
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  13.  48
    How the Source, Inevitability and Means of Bringing About Harm Interact in Folk-Moral Judgments.Bryce Huebner, Marc D. Hauser & Phillip Pettit - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (2):210-233.
    Means-based harms are frequently seen as forbidden, even when they lead to a greater good. But, are there mitigating factors? Results from five experiments show that judgments about means-based harms are modulated by: 1) Pareto considerations (was the harmed person made worse off?), 2) the directness of physical contact, and 3) the source of the threat (e.g. mechanical, human, or natural). Pareto harms are more permissible than non-Pareto harms, Pareto harms requiring direct physical contact are less permissible than those that (...)
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  14.  7
    Sociocultural Influences on Moral Judgments: East–West, Male–Female, and Young–Old.Karina R. Arutyunova, Yuri I. Alexandrov & Marc D. Hauser - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  15.  13
    Spontaneous Number Discrimination of Multi-Format Auditory Stimuli in Cotton-Top Tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Stanislas Dehaene, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz & Andrea L. Patalano - 2002 - Cognition 86 (2):B23-B32.
  16.  31
    Artifactual Kinds and Functional Design Features: What a Primate Understands Without Language.Marc D. Hauser - 1997 - Cognition 64 (3):285-308.
  17.  24
    Object Individuation Using Property/Kind Information in Rhesus Macaques.Laurie R. Santos, Gregory M. Sulkowski, Geertrui M. Spaepen & Marc D. Hauser - 2002 - Cognition 83 (3):241-264.
  18. Action Comprehension in Non-Human Primates: Motor Simulation or Inferential Reasoning?Justin N. Wood & Marc D. Hauser - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (12):461-465.
  19.  54
    Using Mathematical Models of Language Experimentally.Timothy J. O'Donnell, Marc D. Hauser & W. Tecumseh Fitch - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (6):284-289.
  20.  29
    Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions.Justin N. Wood, Marc D. Hauser, David D. Glynn & David Barner - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):207-221.
  21.  29
    RETRACTED: Rule Learning by Cotton-Top Tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Daniel Weiss & Gary Marcus - 2002 - Cognition 86 (1):B15-B22.
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  22.  17
    Domain-Specific Knowledge in Human Children and Non-Human Primates: Artifacts and Foods.Laurie R. Santos, Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press. pp. 205--216.
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  23.  32
    A Primate Dictionary? Decoding the Function and Meaning of Another Species' Vocalizations.Marc D. Hauser - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (3):445-475.
  24. The Evolutionary Ancestry of Our Knowledge of Tools: From Percepts to Concepts.Marc D. Hauser & Laurie R. Santos - 2007 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representaion. Oxford University Press. pp. 267--288.
     
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  25.  2
    12. The Use of Formal Language Theory in Studies of Artificial Language Learning: A Proposal for Distinguishing the Differences Between Human and Nonhuman Animal Learners.James Rogers & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - In Harry van der Hulst (ed.), Recursion and Human Language. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 213-232.
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  26.  1
    Primate Understanding of Functional Design Features.Marc D. Hauser - 1997 - Cognition 64 (3):285-308.
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  27.  21
    If You've Got It, Why Not Flaunt It? Monkeys with Broca's Area but No Syntactical Structure to Their Vocal Utterances.Marc D. Hauser - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):564-564.
  28.  94
    When Your Moral Organ is Right!Marc D. Hauser - 2008 - Think 7 (19):17-21.
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  29.  24
    Homologies for Numerical Memory Span?Marc D. Hauser - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):127-128.
  30.  22
    Sunstein's Heuristics Provide Insufficient Descriptive and Explanatory Adequacy.Marc D. Hauser - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):553-554.
    In considering a domain of knowledge – language, music, mathematics, or morality – it is necessary to derive principles that can describe the mature state and explain how an individual reaches this state. Although Sunstein's heuristics go some way toward a description of our moral sense, it is not clear that they are at the right level of description, and as stated, they provide no guidelines for looking at the acquisition process – the problem of explanatory adequacy.
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  31.  13
    Differences That Make a Difference: Do Locus Equations Result From Physical Principles Characterizing All Mammalian Vocal Tracts?W. Tecumseh Fitch & Marc D. Hauser - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):264-265.
    Sussman and colleagues provide no evidence supporting their claim that the human vocal production system is specialized to produce locus equations with high correlations and linearity. We propose the alternative null hypothesis that these features result from physical and physiological factors common to all mammalian vocal tracts and we recommend caution in assuming that human speech production mechanisms are unique.
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  32.  22
    Neuroecology and Psychological Modularity.Jonathan I. Flombaum, Laurie R. Santos & Marc D. Hauser - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):106-108.
  33.  24
    A Worthy Enterprise Injured by Overinterpretation and Misrepresentation.Marc D. Hauser & Jon Sakata - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):638-638.
    The synthetic position adopted by Müller is weakened by a large number of overinterpretations and misrepresentations, together with a caricatured view of innateness and modularity.
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  34.  13
    Human Language: Are Nonhuman Precursors Lacking?Marc D. Hauser & Nathan D. Wolfea - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):190-191.
    Contra Wilkins & Wakefield, we argue that an evolutionarily inspired approach to language must consider different facets of language (i.e., more than syntax and semantics), and must explore the possibility of nonhuman precursors. Several examples are discussed, illustrating the power of the comparative approach in illuminating our understanding of language evolution.
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  35.  25
    Of Mice and Men, Nature and Nurture, and a Few Red Herrings.Marc D. Hauser - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  36.  13
    Reidentification and Redescription.Marc D. Hauser & W. Tecumseh Fitch - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):74-74.
    Millikan's account of substance concepts fails to do away with features. Her approach simply moves the suite of relevant features into an encapsulated module. The crux of the problem for scientists studying human infants and nonhuman animals is to determine how individuals reidentify objects and events in the world.
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  37. To Innovate or Not to Innovate? That is the Question.Marc D. Hauser - 2003 - In Simon M. Reader & Kevin N. Laland (eds.), Animal Innovation. Oxford University Press.
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  38.  24
    A Taste of Things to Come.Jerald D. Kralik & Marc D. Hauser - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):207-208.
    Rolls uses evolutionary theory and behavioral learning theory in his analysis of emotion. We believe that both theories are greatly underutilized, leaving an incomplete description of the nature of emotion and its neural foundation.
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  39.  44
    A Whale of a Tale: Calling It Culture Doesn't Help.David Premack & Marc D. Hauser - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):350-351.
    We argue that the function of human culture is to clarify what people value. Consequently, nothing in cetacean behavior (or any other animal's behavior) comes remotely close to this aspect of human culture. This does not mean that the traditions observed in cetaceans are uninteresting, but rather, that we need to understand why they are so different from our own.
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  40. Visual Representation in the Wild: How Rhesus Monkeys.Elizabeth S. Spelke & Marc D. Hauser - unknown
    & Visual object representation was studied in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. To facilitate comparison with humans, and to provide a new tool for neurophysiologists, we used a looking time procedure originally developed for studies of human infants. Monkeys’ looking times were measured to displays with one or two distinct objects, separated or together, stationary or moving. Results indicate that rhesus monkeys..
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  41. Cognitive Basis for Language Evolution in Nonhuman Primates.Ruth Tincoff, Marc D. Hauser & Marc Hauser - 2006 - In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 553--538.
     
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  42.  25
    Conceptual and Empirical Problems with Game Theoretic Approaches to Language Evolution.Jeffrey Watumull & Marc D. Hauser - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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